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DEC 9 1949 ^ i 

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Cornell University Library 
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German Pietists of provincial Pennsylvan 

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Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 












(Berman (J)ietists 









I 694- I 708. 








Printed by P. C. Stockhausen, 53-55 N. 7th St., Philadelphia. 




Of this Letter Press Edition 
Five Hundred Copies have been Printed for Sale. 




November, 1895. 


^N submitting this volume to the public, the writer 
I ventures the opinion that it will prove an accep- 
^^ table contribution to our local history. The annals 
of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia have for years past been 
conspicuous in the chronicles of the nation. There is, 
however, one particular in which they have been more or 
less deficient, viz., in the history of the early Germans who 
came to this country with the firm intent of founding a 
home in the new world for themselves and posterity, and 
who took so large a part in the formation of our great 

The promise of liberty of conscience caused Pennsyl- 
vania, toward the close of the seventeeth century, to be- 
come the dream of the various religious sects and enthu- 
siasts then arisen in Germany, and at variance with the 
established orthodox church of their special divisions of 
the Fatherland. They longed for the religious freedom 
offered them in the Province of Penn, and gave shape to 
their desire in an extended emigration from Germany, 
fostered, as it were, by Benjamin Furly, the agent of Penn 
at Rotterdam. Thus arose the peculiar religious condition 
of the Province, and the establishment of the many differ- 
ent sects in the early period of our history. Some of these 
congregations, founded upon the tenets of true religion, 

vi Foreword. 

have maintained their autonomy, and exist even to the 
present day, having increased with the growth of the 
country. Others, again, whose foundation was not so 
stable, or whose system of congregational government 
proved unsuitable to the changed conditions resulting from 
an increasing population, exist now only in tradition and 

Conspicuous among the latter class is the Community of 
German Pietists, or true Rosicrucian Mystics, who came 
in a body to these shores in the year of grace 1694, under 
the leadership of Magister Johannes Kelpius, in the firm 
belief that the millennium was near. 

To this body of religious enthusiasts the present volume 
is devoted. The influence exercised by them, coming, as 
it did, at the critical period when the Quaker hierarchy 
was rent with internal dissension, was of the greatest im- 
portance ; and to the efforts of individual members is due 
the honor of holding the first orthodox church services 
within the Province since it became Penn's domain. 

It was through their efforts that the Church Party took 
heart, and, toward the close of the seventeenth century, 
perfected organizations which resulted in the establishment 
of congregations of the various Protestant denominations 
in Pennsylvania. 

How their influence extended into neighboring colonies, 
and how one of their number was the first person to be 
ordained to the ministry in America for missionary pur- 
poses, is also shown in these pages. The text is amplified 
by several hundred foot-notes and illustrations. Where 
rare or unique books are quoted, a fac-simile of the title- 
page is given wherever possible. Another object has been 
to preserve every scrap of information bearing upon this 
interesting episode of Pennsylvania history. At the same 

Foreword. vii 

time the greatest care has been taken to verify the old 
legends and traditions and trace them to an authentic source. 
The search for documentary information has been carried 
on over both continents, and no time or expense has been 
spared with pen, pencil and camera to make the volume 
exhaustive and complete. 

Acknowledgements are due to Fredk. D. Stone, Litt. D., 
the learned librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, for advice and suggestions ; to the Hon. Judge 
Samuel W. Pennypacker, of Philadelphia, for the use of 
rare books and documents in his library ; to the Sesqui- 
Centennial Memorial Committee and the authorities of the 
Moravian Church at Bethlehem, for courtesies extended to 
the writer in his investigations ; to the Reverend J. H. 
Sieker, pastor of St. Matthew's congregation in New York, 
for access to the old church records ; to the Rev. Roswell 
Randall Hoes, for the use of his abstracts of S. P. G. 
Records ; and also to Albert Edmunds and the many other 
friends, at home and abroad, who in various ways have 
assisted the writer. 

Julius Friedrich Sachse. 

Philadelphia, November, 1895. 


The Anchorite Cell of Kelpius .... Frontispiece. 

Relics of the German Pietists . . . facing page 10 

Effigy of Johannes Tauler .... 48 

Ericus Tob : Biorck (Portrait) .... " 96 

God's Protecting Providence (Fac-simile of title page) " 104 

horologium achaz ... ..." 112 

Seeking the Lapis Philosophorum . . . . " 120 

The Hermit's Glen on the Wissahickon . " 184 

The Old Monastery . " 201 

Johannes Kelpius (Portrait) . ..." 224 

Magister Johannes Fabricius (Altdorfinus) " 232 

Penny Pot House and Landing . . 272 

Christ Church, Philadelphia (Prior to the Revolution) " 288 
Christ Church, Philadelphia (Interior prior to the 

Revolution) " 289 

Breitenhaupt House, Nordheim (Germany) . . " 296 

Gloria Dei (Old Swedes Church), Wicacoa . . " 360 

Moravian Evangelists (Portraits) . . . . " 400 

St. Michael's Church, Germantown . . " 424 

De Quaakers Vergadering . . " 448 

William Penn (vod Kneller portrait) . . " 448 

A Scene in Old Rotterdam ... . " 456 

A Page of Rosicrucian Theosophy (Fac-simile) . " 472 




Sect People of Pennsylvania. Heirlooms. Pietistic Sects. 
Unitas Fratrum. Sources of Information. Rosicrucian 
Theosophy i-io 


The " Sara Maria." The Embarkation .... 11-12 


Kelpius' Diary. The Start from Holland. Falkner's Mis- 
sive. Perils of the Journey. Miraculous Delivery from 
Shipwreck. The Final Start. Instructions for Sailing. 
A Fight at Sea. Capes of Virginia. End of the Voyage . 13-27 


The Blue Anchor Tavern. Entrance into Philadelphia. 
Visit to the Lieutenant Governor. The "Sonnenwend- 
feuer." Arrival at Germantown 28-36 


Theory of Mystic Numbers. Leaders of the Party. The 
Perfect Number. Rosicrucian Symbolism . . . 37-42 


Quakeriana. John Jacob Zimmermann. Appeal to Benja- 
min Furly. The German Pietists. Teutonists. Jacob 
Boehme 43-48 


Spener. Collegia Pietatis. Johannes Tauler. Erfurth. 
August Hermann Francke. Royal Edicts. Expulsion 
from Erfurth. Halle Institutions. Essentia dulcis. Spread 
of Pietism. Expulsion of Francke. Mystical Symbols. 
Elenora von Merlau. Kabbalistic Philosophy. Rosicru- 
cian Epitome 49-64 

x Contents. 


The Religious Situation. Lutheran Services. The Augs- 
burg Confession. Christian Quakers. English Services. 
Keithians. Heinrich Bemhard Koster. Episcopal Ser- 
vices. Rev. Jacob Fabritius. The Tabernacle in the 
Forest. The ' ' Stern warte. ' ' Ravine of the Wissahickon. 
The Cave in the Hillside. Daniel Falkner. Muhlenberg's 
Tribute. Rosicrucian Theosophy 65-77 


Evangelical Union. Doctor Schotte. The Celestial Eve. 
The "Contented of the God-loving Soul." The Har- 
binger in the Skies. Motus Puta Intrinsecus. Educa- 
tional Movements 78-83 


Koster's Ministrations. Keithian Complications. The 
Brethern in America. Irenia. The House of Peace. 
Controversy. "De Resurrectione Imperii vEternitatus. " 
A Unique Title. The Coming of the Lord . . . 84-92 


Arrival of Swedish Missionaries. Service' at Wicacoa. 
Visit to Kelpius. ' ' A Poetical Thanksgiving. ' ' Arrival of 
Rev. Thomas Clayton. Philadelphiac Society. Daniel 
Falkner's Return to Europe. " Curieuse Nachricht" . 93-99 


Moral Jewel Caskets. A German Prayer-book. The Jan- 
sen Tradition. The Second Press in Pennsylvania. Jansen- 
ites. Jansen Press in Amsterdam. Satan's Harbinger 
Encountered. A Provincial Proclamation. Death of 
Reynier Jansen 100-108 


Zimmermann's Deductions. Hermetic Studies. The 
Menstrum Universale. Cabbala and Apocalypse. Divin- 
ing Rod. Casting of Nativities. Horologium Achaz. 
Ancient Traditions. Phlebotomy. Barber-chirurgeon. 
Cometo-Scopia . 109-119 


The Mystic Seal. Zauber-zettel. Wunder-sigel. Old 
Shrunk ' . . 120-124 

Contents. xi 


Abel Noble. "Noah's Dove." "A Little Olive Branch." 
The Mumford Letter. Kelpius' Mysticism Defined. Quie- 
tists. Man or Macrocosm. Stephen Mumford . . . 125-138 


Peter Schaffer. Departure of Koster. Gloria Dei at 
Wicacoa. Return of Falkner. The Frankfort Land 
Company 139-146 


Matthai and Witt. Quakerism. William Penn's Second 
Visit. Services at Germantown. Penn and the Indian 
Chief. A Curious Legend. A Supernatural Visitor. 
The Laurea. Andreas Sandel. English Superstition. 
Tribute to Pastor Rudman. Civil Affairs. Justus Falkner. 
Return of Keith. Trinity Church, Oxford . . . 147-160 


The Rodgerines. A Jansen Imprint. Samuel Bownas. 
A Rhode Island Deputation. The Westerly Records. 
William Davis. "Jesus the Crucifyed Man." The Fame 
of Kelpius 161-166 


Daniel Falkner. As Attorney. The Original Document. 
Board of Property. William Penn. The Old Germantown 
Record Book 167-175 


Falkner's Swamp. Abandonment of the Sternwarte. "A 
Loving Moan." Missive to Hester Palmer. The "Three 
fold Wilderness State." " The Fruitful Wilderness." "The 
Barren Wilderness." "The Elect of God." "AComfor- 
table Song" 176-192 


The Sprogel Brothers. The Books of the Community. 
Christ Church Library. Magister Seelig. Conrad Mat- 
thai. The Separatists. Conrad Beissel. Michael Wohl- 
farth. Arrival of Zinzendorf. The First Pennsylvania 
Synod. Evangelical Alliance. Fresenius. The Monas- 
tery on the Wissahickon. The Camp of the Solitary. 
Ephrata MSS. The Changes of Two Centuries . . 193-204 

xii Contents. 


Thomas Fairman's Gift. Vicaris Tract. Righter Ferry. 
Oldest Map of Germantown. After Two Hundred Years. 
Phoebe Righter. Evan Prowattain. The Hermitage 
Grounds. Glen in the Forest. Hessian Camp. Mora- 
vian Records. Fairmount Park 205-215 



Services in Pennsylvania. Sievert's Nachrichten. Ante- 
cedents of the Magister. Father and Brothers. Studies 
at Altdorf. Graduates. Learned Thesis. Magister Fa- 
bricius. Literary Works. Chapter of Perfection. George 
Kelp. Kelp von Sternberg. Diary. Greeting to Rev. 
Biorck. Missive to Fabricius. Penn and the Indian Chief. 
" Restitution of all Things." Calivius. Anglican Faith. 
Metemptosis. Knorr von Rosenroth. " Voice of Hidden 
Love. " "The Bitter Sweet Night Ode. " " Colloquim of 
the Soul." "A Loving Moan." Personal Description. 
Christian Warmer. Mysterious Casket. Death of the 
Magister. Whittier's Pennsylvania Pilgrim . . . 219-250 


Labors in America. Establishes Church Services. His 
Youth. As Pedagogue. Translates the Old Testament. 
Refuses a Lucrative Appointment. Erudition of Koster. 
Rathhelf's Account of Koster. The Founding of Christ 
Church in Philadelphia. Preaches to English, Welsh and 
Germans. Quaker Opposition to Lutherans. Persecu- 
tions of Swedish Lutherans in Philadelphia. First German 
Book Printed in America. Yearly Meeting at Burlington. 
Demand of the Keithians. Exortation of Koster. Printed 
Account. The Friends' Side. Keithian vs. Orthodox. 
Public Baptism by Koster. Administers the Eucharist. 
Pastorius' "Rebuke." Fac-simile of Title. Outcome of 
the Controversy. Rev. Thomas Bray. Arrival of Rev. 
Thomas Clayton. Dedication of Christ Church. Evan 
Evans. Titles of Books. Mystery of the Triad. Roster's 
Decachordon. Nordheim. Enters the Lutheran Orphan- 
age at Hanover. Death and Burial 251-298 

Contents. xiii 


ftnpressions of the New World. His Character. Religi- 
ous Ancestors. Lectures at Erfurth. Spener and Falkner. 
Excommunication by Koster. Anna Maria Schuckart. 
Prophetess of Erfurth. The Three Ecstatic Maidens. 
Charitable Bequest. Furly to Falkner. Attorney for Furly 
and Frankfort Company. Superceeds Pastorius. Elected 
Bailiff. Johann Jawert. Perfidity of Sprogel. Climax 
of the Conspiracy. Captain Vinings' Report. Falkner 
Swamp. First German Lutheran Church. Removes to 
New Jersey. Ari Van Guinea. Pastor of Lutheran 
Churches. Ancient Subscription List. Caspar Stover. 
Church Dedication. Rev. William Berkenmeyer. Church 
Council. John August Wolff. Retirement of Pastor 
Falkner 2 99-\534 


Sketch of. Bosom Friend of Kelpius. Magister of the 
Community. Resigns in favor of Conrad Matthai. Intro- 
duces Bookbinding into Pennsylvania. An Ephrata Tradi- 
tion. Patriarch Miihlenberg's Tribute to Seelig's Piety. 
Retires to Cabin on Levering Farm. Visited by Moravian 
Missionaries. Death and Burial. His Magic Staff. Will 
and Inventory 355 _ 34° 


Birth and Parentage. Earliest Record of. Studiosis at 
Halle. Biorck on Falkner. Rev. Francke. Composes 
Spiritual Hymns. "Aufihr Christen," fac-simile. Popu- 
larity of Falkner's Hymns. Appointed Attorney by Ben- 
jamin Furly of Rotterdam. Arrives in Pennsylvania. 
Appears in Court in Furly's behalf. Elected Burgess of 
Germantown. Dominie Rudman Proposes Justus Falk- 
ner as Pastor for New York. The Call. Acceptance. 
Ordained at Gloria Dei. Description of the Service. 
Rudman as Suffragan. Invocation. Consecration. Certifi- 
cate of Ordination signed on the Altar. Journey to New 
York. Accepts the Charge. The old "Kercken-Boeck." 
Entry and Invocation. Serves Churches in the Hudson 
Valley and New Jersey. Condition of Churches. Appeals 
for Aid. Troublesome Times. Disputes with Calvinists. 
Publishes the first Orthodox Lutheran Text Book in 
America. Falkner's Orthodoxy. Extent of Missionary 

xiv Contents. 

Field. Rev. Josua Kocherthal. Personal Notices. Old 
Church Register. Fac-simile of Title Page. Church 
Papers. Doop Register. Entries and Votum. First 
Communicants. An Indian Baptism. Marriage of Dom- 
inie Falkner. Arduous Duties. Correspondence. Last 
Records. Death. In Memoriam 34 I_ 385 


Conspicuous about Germantown. Portrait. Magus on 
the Wissahickon. Succeeds Seelig. Counsels Beissel. 
Camp of the Solitary. Espouses Cause of the Eckerlings. 
Reconciliation with Father Friedsam. White Magic. A 
Psychological Experiment. John Bechtel. Bishop Cam- 
merhoff. Visits from Moravian Evangelists and Converts. 
Attends a Pennsylvania Synod. Serious Condition. An 
Impressive Service. Death and Burial. Chronicon 
Ephretense. A Moravian Tribute 386-401 


The last of the Mystics. Christian Warmer, Doctor of 
Physic and Chirurgene. Widow Zimmermann. Estab- 
lishes first Botanical Garden in America. John Bartram. 
Peter Collinson. Dr. Witt as Botanist. Interesting Cor- 
respondence. Mechanical Ingenuity. Clockmaking. 
Musical Instruments. Great Comet of 1743. Hexenmeister 
of Germantown. Superstitions. The "Teufels-bursche." 
Signature to Will. William Yates. Death. Curious Burial 
Custom. Charitable Bequest 402-418 


The Warmer Graveyard. Location. List of Burials. 
Ghostly Legends. Moravian Burial-ground in Germantown. 
Old Legends. A Weird Story. Dr. Witt. Mount Misery. 
Reservation of the Ground. A Desolate Spot. The 
Morris Family. Deed of Gift. St. Michael's Church. 
Consecration. The Old Mulberry Tree. A Glorious 

Monument ... ._„ ,. 

■ 419-430 



Birth and Marriage, Zeal for Quakerism. Records of. 
"You to Many, and Thou to One.'' Publishes Quaker 
Books. Appeal to Burgomasters of Rotterdam. William 
Penn. Visit to Holland and Germany. Furly as Inter- 
preter. " Het Christenrijk ten Oordeel." John Locke. 
Makes Suggestions to Penn. The First Protest Against 
Negro Slavery in America. Pastorius. Promotes first 
German Emigration to Pennsylvania. Publishes Descrip- 
tion of Province in Dutch and German. Landed Interests. 
Reynierjansen. Appoints Falkner as Attorney. Thomas 
Lawrence. Sells the Land to Jacobus van de Walle. 
Correspondence with Locke. Renounces Quakerism. 
Bibliography'. Von Uffenbach's Visit. Bibliotheca Fur- 
liana. Phillipus Limborch. Personal Appearance. Curious 
Map of Pennsylvania. The Sons of Furly. His Tomb 
in the Groote Kirk 433-459 


Sketch of. Expulsion from Wiirtemberg. Difficulty in 
Tracing. Ambrossii Sehmanni. Johannis Matthaeus. 
Erudition of the Magister. Astronomical Calculations. 
Mundus Copernizans. Jacob Boehme. Old Church at 
Beitigheim. Astrology and Magic. Accused of Heresy. 
Bibliography. Descendents in America .... 460-472 


Studies under Dr. Svedberg. Selected as Missionary to 
Pennsylvania. Biorck and Auren. King Charles XI. 
Contribution and Dismissal. Condition of the Province. 
Supplies Christ Church, Philadelphia. Radnor and Oxford. 
Quaker Intollerance. Persecution of Lutherans. Pro- 
ceedings before Council. Trials of the Early Missionary. 
Gratuity from London. His last Letter. Burial at Wica- 
coa. Epitaph. Renewal of Quaker Intollerance. San- 
del vs. Chambers. Final Proceedings before the Provin- 
cial Council . 472-483 


Theosophical MSS., votum 
Pennsylvania (1694) Seal 
Arndt's Wahres Christenthum. 


Paradis-Gartlein, Title 
Unitas Fratrum, Seal . 
Thauleri Predigten . 
Ephrata Relics . . . 
Rosicrucian MSS., Title 
Arms of Commonwealth, 1894 
Theosophical MSS., votum 
German Empire (1694), Arms 
Pietistical Emblem of Christ 
Kelpius' Diary, votum . . 
William Penn, Arms . . . 
Kelpius' Diary, page 1 . . 
Falkner's Send-Schriben, title 
Philadelphischen Societat, title 
Ship " Sara-Maria" . 
Will. Allen, Autograph 
Naval Trophies . . 
Map, Chesapeake and Delaware 
Laus-Deo, Emblem . . 
A and O, heading . . . 
Philadelphia (1701) Seal 
William Penn, Autograph 
Blue Anchor Tavern . . 
Governor Fletcher, Autograph 

" " Seal 

William Markham, Autograph 
Penn's Cottage .... 
Theosophical Symbol . 
Prima Materia, Symbol . 
Essenes, Symbol . . . 
Rosicrucian MSS., folio 7 
Heading, Mystic . . . 
Holland (1693) Arms . . 







Wiirtemberg (1693) Arms . . 44 
Croese Quakeriana, Title . . 45 
United Netherlands, Arms . . 48 
Monogram of Christ, Greek . 49 
Erfurth, Episcopal Seal ... 49 
Phillip Jacob Spener, Portrait . 50 
Phillip Jacob Spener, Auto- 
graph 5 1 

Erfurth (1693) Arms .... 51 
Collegium Pietatis in Session . 53 
Edict of Denmark, Title . . 54 
Edict of Charles XI, Title . . 54 
Historia von Erffurth, Title . 55 
Aug. Hermann Francke, Por- 
trait 56 

Aug. Hermann Francke, Auto- 
graph 58 

Merlau, Mystical Chart ... 60 
" " "... 61 
Glaubens-Gesprach, Title . . 61 
Pietistical Faith, Epitome . . 63 
Unaltered Augsburg Confes- 
sion, Title 66 

Germantown, Seal of, 1691 . 65 
Ancient Telescope .... 71 
Rosicrucian Symbol .... 72 
Keith's Catechism, Title, 1690 75 
Rosicrucian MSS. 24th folio . 76 
Ephrata Community, Symbol 77 
Astrological Emblem ... 77 
The Woman in the Wilder- 
ness 78 

Abgenothigter Bericht, Title, 

1739 79 

Celestial Eve, Emblem ... 80 
Broadside, illustrating Apoca- 
lypse 82 




Mithra, Symbol 83 

Prima Materia, Symbol ... 84 

Esoteric Symbol 86 

Rosicrucian Symbol .... 86 

A Sophar 89 

De Resurrectione imperii, Title 90 

Holy Lamp of Tabernacle . 91 

Hermes, Ancient Emblem . . 91 

Cabbala, Symbol 92 

Ephrata Pilgrim, Symbol . . 93 

Philadelphiac Symbol ... 96 

"Curieuse Nachricht," Title . 98 

Ancient Lamp 99 

Ephrata Hand-press .... too 

Moral Texts 101 

Schatz-Kastlein with Spriiche . 102 
Schrift-massige Anweisung, 

Title. 103 

Comprehensive Method of 

Prayer, Title 104 

Proclamation Broadside . . 107 

Headpiece, The Astrologer . 109 

Old Horoscope 109 

Scriptura S : Copernizans, Title no 
Comet-stern 1682, Title . . .118 

The Jansen (Amsterdam) press 119 

Zauberzettel 120 

Astrological Charm . . . .120 

.... 121 

Artabel 122 

Tritheim Zettel 123 

Magic Signet 124 

On the Sternwarte .... 125 

Seal of Solomon 125 

Macrocosm appearing to Dr. 

Faustus 133 

Astrological Chart .... 138 

Gloria Dei, a. d. 1700 . . . 139 

Mythraic Symbol 139 

Gloria Dei, 1895 143 

Phallic Emblem 146 

Light from Darkness .... 147 


Great Seal of Province, 1699 . 147 
obverse 159 
An Aerial Apparation . . . 152 
Old Germantown Horoscope . 155 
Relic ... 160 
Connecticut Seal of, A. d. 1700 161 
"Jesus the Crucifyed Man," 

Title 165 

Frankfort on the Mayn, Arms 167 
Sweden, -Arms of, a.d. 1700 . 176 
Allegorical Representation of 

all Faiths 182 

Rhode Island, Seal of . , . 192 
Ephrata Community, Seal of . 193 
The Tabernacle in the Forest . 204 
Cave of Kelpius, 1894 . . . 205 
Oldest Map of Germantown . 208 
Contour Map of Community 

Tract 209 

Germantown, Seal . . . .215 
Kelpius' Autograph . ... 219 
Clover Blossoms, Tailpiece . 215 
Mystic Seal of the Community 216 
Kelp von Sternberg, Arms . .219 
Seal, Royal Library, Stuttgart 223 
Fac-simile of Biorck Letter . 228 
Kelpius' Hymn Book, Title . 236 
Kelpius' Hymn Book, German 

Page 238 

Kelpius' Hymn Book, English 

Page 242 

Christian Warner, Autograph 245 
Daniel Geissler, " 246 

Symbol, " Fire and Water " . 248 
German Society, Seal of . . 249 
Chur-Brandenburg, Arms . . 251 

Rotterdam, Arms 258 

Magdeburg, " 258 

Amsterdam, " 259 

Friends Meeting at Burlington 269 
Ancient Pewter Chalice . . . 277 
Pastorius' " Rebuke," Title . 281 




Bishop Compton, Portrait . . 286 
Koster's Harmonie, Title . . 293 
Koster's Harmonie, Mystic 

Chart 295 

Hanover, Arms 296 

Nordheim " 297 

Koster's Harmonie, Fac-simile 298 
Daniel Falkner, Autograph . 299 
Falkner's Send-schreiben, Fac- 
simile 299 

Erfurth, Arms of, a. d. 1895 . 302 
" Old University . . . 303 
" Street View .... 305 
Signatures on an Old Deed . 307 
Pastorius, Autograph . . . 308 
Benjamin Furly, Autograph . 309 
" Address . . 309 
Pastorius vs. Falkner, Fac- 
simile 310 

Jawert's Letter 313 

John Henry Sprogel, Auto- 
graph 315 

Andreas Sandel 320 

West Jersey, Seal 323 

Falkner's Subscription List, 

Fac-simile 327 

Berkenmeyer Diary, Fac-simile 333 
Chur-Braunschweig, Arms . . 335 
Justus Falkner, Autograph . 341 
Chur-Sachsen, Arms .... 341 
Justus Falkner as Student . . 342 
Dissertatio Gradualis, Title . 343 
"Aufihr Christen," Fac-simile 345 
Zionitischer Weyrauchs Hiigel, 

Title 346 

East Jersey, Seal 350 

Rudmann's Entry in Church 

Register 352 

Signatures to Ordination Cer- 
tificate 360 

Falkner's First Entry in Church 
Register 362 


Official Signature of Dominie 

Falkner 363 

Seal of New York, a. d. 1703 . 364 
"Grondlycke Ondericht " Title 368 
Fac-simile of First Printed 

Hymn 37° 

Kercken-Boeck, Title page . 375 
Earliest Baptismal Record, 

Fac-simile 377 

First Communicants, Fac- 
simile 383 

Ancient Dutch House . . . 386 

Chur-Pfaltz 388 

Conrad Matthai, Portrait . . 389 
Arms of Penn, 1723 .... 402 
Christopher Witt, Autograph . 403 
Christopher Witt, Signature to 

Will 415 

The Warner Tombs .... 419 
Entrance to Old Spook Hill . 420 
A Colonial Doorway .... 429 
Ancient Dutch Headpiece . . 433 
Royal Arms of Holland . . . 433 
Benjamin Furly, Signature . . 434 
"A Battle-Door," Title. . .436 
"Het Christenrijk Ten Oor- 

deel," Title 441 

John Locke, Autograph . . . 442 

Sidney's Goblet 442 

Furly's Anti-Slavery Clause, 

Fac-simile j\ /\/\ 

Dutch Description of Pennsyl- 
vania, Title 446 

German Description of Penn- 
sylvania, Title 447 

Wiirtemberg, Arms 1689 . . 460 
Old Church at Beitigheim . . 465 
An Old Spinning Wheel . . 472 
Axel Oxensteirn, Autograph 

and Seal 475 

Gustavus Adolphus, Autograph 481 
Finis 484 

D . O . Jtf ♦ A. 



• O subject of local his- 
tory offers a greater 
field for study to the 
historical student, or is of 
greater interest to the gen- 
eral public than that of the 
so-called "Sect" people of 
provincial Pennsylvania. 

By the term " Sect" people, 
as applied to early emigrants 
to this State, are to be under- 
stood such communities or 
seal of the province 1694. bodies of German emigrants 

as left their native land for conscience sake, or were driven 
out by bigoted persecution, and who, either prior to their 
departure or shortly after their arrival in this country, for 
religious or social reasons formed distinct communities or 
congregations in the New World, keeping themselves dis- 
tinct and separate from their dissenting countrymen as well 
as from their English-speaking neighbors. 

These people on account of the adherence to their native 
tongue, unostentatious mode of life, frugality, and peculiar 
religious ceremonies, — devout and loyal as they were, — 

D. O. M. A. — From title page of Theosophical manuscript ; abbrevia- 
tion of Deo Optimo Maximo Altissimo. 

2 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

became from the start more or less objects of suspicion, and 
later on, after the influx of the more aggressive Irish ele- 
ment, were maligned, and no opportunity was let pass to 
injure or oppress them. This was especially the case after 
the outbreak of the French and Indian wars, as nearly all 
of the so-called " Sect" people of Pennsylvania were, like 
the original Friends or Quakers, what are known as non- 

Their peaceful and domestic habits, their refusal to med- 
dle with politics or the affairs of State, their tenacious 
adherence to their mother tongue, together with their sub- 
sequent success in nearly all their undertakings, both indus- 
trial and agricultural, all tended to excite the envy of their 
more intemperate and turbulent neighbors, and resulted in 
ridiculous charges of heresy being brought against some 
of these distinctive communities, when, as a matter of 
fact, they were composed of none but God-fearing men and 

These calumnies have been repeated so often in print 
that they are now received as truth by the casual reader. 
It is this state of lamentable ignorance or misrepresentation 
by writers upon the subject, together with the persistent 
vilification by a certain class of New England writers, that 
has given to readers at a distance the impression that even 
the present generation of Pennsylvania-Germans of certain 
denominations are but a single remove from the animal 

Although all of the early " Sect" people of Pennsylvania 
were non-combatants, it is not for a moment to be under- 
stood that they were deficient in courage, as in cases where 
they submitted meekly to ruthless oppression it was not 
caused by any lack of manhood, but was merely putting into 
practice the religious teachings they professed. 

Heirlooms. i 

It is a curious fact that the writer, in all of his travels 

throughout this State and in his historical researches, has 

SdMllHbSnihndKiiiibccrt/ Y et to fi fl d the first specimen 

.i'SS .ISlJLi'SaL of firearms or mmdemus wea- 

©aintimw enlknd). 9544ft P ons brought over by the ori- 

S8om28o^WH ginal German emigrant. Yet 

I) 1 1 \t t II ( U It 111 / there is haldl y an y Pennsyl- 
vania-German family which 

brilfcnifr Sulit/ bcciliditt Slru in* trit iibff tit Sm*t 
unb ruabcrni (fllauhrn / au* btili^m Erbcn untffiSantd Cannot point With pardon- 

n ' 1 ""1sSSSsr w * able pride to the old German 

ma nNmiutn eauMtaa me Ma CrtUn*, "Bible," " CatechismUS," 

oabtumSatrdjttifawiSinldranjMiiaSaSriistn ■,-,,, , 

e jj**2^ Gesangbucn' ' or some devo- 

$atablc8 • ©drtltift/ tional book (usually Arndt's 

tln»oni#iiWonlimiS«8ifl«ii/t«initW(l»«!lSeli nM "Wahres Ohristenfrmm" 1 

"-> m __ and "Paradies Gartlem") 

cmr./ aw,* mm *•«« ««b^ st iii i n tne possession of the 

family, and which formed the chief treasure of the original 
emigrant, as it proved his comfort in times of sorrow and 

1 Arndt's " Wahres Christenthum" was originally published in Germany 
in 1605, and was followed by many subsequent editions. This devotional 
book was held in great esteem by the early Germans, especially such as 
adhered to the Orthodox Lutheran faith ; it was usually bound together 
with the ' ' Paradies Gartlein, ' ' making a volume of 1300 pages quarto. The 
titles reproduced are from the copy which was brought to this country by 
the ancestors of the writer. As all the various pietistical "Sects" in 
Pennsylvania took kindly to the writings of Arndt, whom they claimed 
as one of their members, the demand for the book became so great that 
Benjamin Franklin, together with Johann Bohm, in 1751, proposed to pub- 
lish an American edition provided 500 subscribers could be obtained. The 
preface to this American edition was written by the Lutheran minister, 
Rev. J. A. Christoph Hartwig, and had the support of both Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches. This was the largest book printed in Philadelphia 
during the last century. It contained 32 pages of preface and 1356 pages 
of text, with 65 imported copper plates. This edition did not contain the 
"Paradies Gartlein." Fourteen years later, in 1765, Christopher Saur, of 
Germantown, published the latter ; it was a 16 mo. with 32 pages of preface, 
and 531 of devotional text and index. Both of these books are now 
extremely rare. 

4 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

trial. Where relics of worldly handicraft still exist, precious 
heirlooms as they are, they are found to be implements of 
peaceful arts, such as were used in the farm economy or the 
domestic household. 

The Mennonites were the first body of emigrants to come 
to these shores as a distinctive sect; 2 the original party 
consisted of thirteen families, who arrived at Germantown, 
October 6th, 1683. 

The next distinctive community, a party of " I/abadists" 
from Friesland, arrived in the fall of 1684, under the 
leadership of Petrus Sluyter and Jasper Dankers, who 

settled on a tract of land known 

,, ,,„ . ■ ■»«- 1, ©** ©stiff f ism 

as the "Bohemia Manor," a § er « 3o0ann SmOtS/ 

portion of which was in New •sn.itmi.vm^^a *»***«« 

Castle County, and then formed attmutijjeS 

a part of Pennsylvania. 3 Il!irt1*rt^id<511lrttfffl , tl1 

Ten years later, June 24 th, WH^W^m 

1694, Kelpius and his chapter »&«««*« $»|enb«/ 

of Pietists or true Rosicrucians mat 

landed in Philadelphia, walked Src*<mM*fifleun&3rtflKu&<3{W* 

to Germantown, and finally set- tmwmM^vm^tmmm 

tied on the rugged banks of __^^________ 

the Wissahickon. It is to this 

OAistf fifco&srt ywi t w i m iiiiti 


community and their successors 
on the Cocalico the subsequent pages are mainly devoted. 
The year 1719 marks the advent of the Dunkers or Ger- 

2 For a full account of the early Mennonites and their settlement in 
Germantown, see the exhaustive papers upon the subject by Hon. Samuel 
W. Pennypacker, viz. — Mennonite emigration to Pennsylvania, " Penna. 
Magazine," vol. ii, pp. 117, et. seq. The settlement of Germantown, Pa., 
"Penna. Magazine," vol. i, p. i, et. seq.; also "Historical and Bio- 
graphical Sketches," Philadelphia, 1883. 

3 The members were under the impression that they were wholly within 
the bounds of Penn's domain. 

The Pietistic Sects. 

man Baptists ; 4 twenty families arrived in Philadelphia in 
the fall of that year. Germantown also became their strong- 
hold, whence emanated all the other congregations of the 
faith throughout the State. 

The " Neu-geborenen," or the "Stillen im Lande," 5 
settled in the vicinity of Germantown about 1725. 

The Ephrata Community, on the Cocalico, who were the 
virtual successors to the Mystics on the Wissahickon, dates 
from about the same period, and the names of the two leaders, 
Conrad Beissel (Father Friedsam Gottrecht) and the Rev. 
Peter Miller (Prior Jabetz) are well recognized in Pennsyl- 
vania history. 

The Schwenkfelders arrived in Philadelphia from Ber- 
thelsdorf and Gorlitz in the fall of 1734, and located in 
Philadelphia and Bucks Counties, where their descendants 
still religiously celebrate from year to year the anniversary 
(" Gedachtniss Tag") of their arrival. 

The last and the most important 
religious enthusi 

Province as a com 
Unitas Fratrum, or 
also called the Mo 
Their first perma 
was made on the 
Bethlehem now 
though a small col 
Pennsylvania in 
evangelists as early 

Seal of the Unitas 

body of German 
asts to come to this 
munity was the 
Moravian Church, 
r avian Brethren, 
nent settlement 
Lehigh, where 
stands, in 1742, 
ony had arrived in 
1 740, and their first 
as 1734. 6 Nowtheir 

influence extends throughout the whole continent, from the 

4 See "Chronicon Ephretense. " Translation by Rev. J. Max Hark, 
D. D. , chapter i. 

5 See " Hallische Nachrichten," orig. edit. p. 226. New edition p. 348, 
annotations by Rev. J. W. Mann, ibid. p. 417. 

6 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

frozen wilds of Alaska to the tropical glades of the West 
Indies. Wherever a mission station is needed there is to 
be found the Paschal Lamb and cross of the Moravian 
Church. 7 

The most interesting of these communities, by reason of 

the air of mystery which 
has thus far enshrouded their 
history, was the one led by 
Johannes Kelpius, the mem- 
bers of which were imbued 
with the highest religious 
THAl , IhB1 .. PEED!C1 , y ,. and purest moral motives. 

These people came to the colony, then in its earliest 
stages of development, for the purpose of permanently 
settling within its borders, and at the same time enjoy to 

6 The first Moravian evangelist in America, George Bohnisch, landed at 
Philadelphia, September 22d, 1734, having been sent by Zinzendorf with 
Christopher Baus and Christopher Wiegner to accompany the Schwenk- 
felder exiles to America ; Bohnisch engaged in evangelistic activity for 
several years, and returned to Europe in 1737. 

Spangenberg and Bishop David Nitschmann came to Pennsylvania 
in April, 1736, and labored for awhile among the Schwenkfelders and 
others, making Wiegner's house their home. 

George Neisser arrived in Pennsylvania in February, 1737, from Georgia, 
and took up his abode temporarily at Wiegner's. So for awhile there were 
three of them in Pennsylvania, viz., Bohnisch, who returned to Europe, 
1737 ; Spangenberg, who left for the time being in 1739, an d Neisser ; 
Nitschmann, the fourth, left in June, 1736, and returned in 1740. 

Andrew Eschenbach, sent to the Pennsylvania-Germans by Zinzendorf 
at Whitfield's suggestion, arrived at Philadelphia in October, 1740. 

Christian Henry Rauch and Frederick Martin (afterwards missionary 
bishop in the West Indies) were also in Pennsylvania before the end of 1740. 

'A full and exhaustive history of the Moravian Congregation at Bethle- 
hem is now in course of preparation by the Church authorities. This work 
is intended to be a Sesqui-Centennial Memorial of that Church in America. 
It will give a full and concise account of the early trials and struggles of 
the Moravian pioneers in America, whose chief object was to spread the 
gospel among all persons irrespective of creed, color or nationality. 

Sources of Information. y 

the fullest extent the promised liberty of conscience and 
religious freedom. 

Another cherished object was to put into practical opera- 
tion the mystic and occult dogmas taught and studied in 
secret for many previous ages, looking not only to spiritual 
but also to physical regeneration and perfection. These 
dogmas, it was believed, also existed among the aborigines 
in this continent 

There has always been a veil of mystery about this com- 
munity; numberless are the traditions which have been 
handed down from generation to generation ; gruesome the 
tales current in Germantown and believed throughout the 
country. They have been repeated time and again during 
the long winter nights while sitting beside the flickering 
fireside until they have been accepted as facts. Weird were 
the tales recounted by the naturally superstitious population, 
of the occult rites and ceremonies which it is said were 
performed by the adepts, and their followers within the 
tyled portals of the tabernacle in the forest. 

The object of the following pages will be to lift some- 
what this veil of mystery which has so long shrouded the 
history and ceremonial of this community and to set aside 
the erroneous traditions, so as to place these Theosophical 
enthusiasts in their proper light before the enlightened 
community of the present day, now almost on the verge of 
the Twentieth Century. 

Another aim will be to show how, with the decline of 
the first organization, the scene shifted from theWissahickon 
to the Cocalico, at Ephrata, where the Mystic Theosophy 
Phoenix-like once again rose from its ashes. In that re- 
tired valley beside the flowing brook the secret rites and 
mysteries of the true Rosicrucian Philosophy flourished 
unmolested for years, until the state of affairs brought about 

The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

by the American Revolution, together with pernicious Sun- 
day legislation 8 which also discriminated against the keepers 
of the scriptural Sabbath day 9 gradually caused the incoming 
generation to assimilate with the secular congregations. 

The information used in this narrative is mainly de- 
rived from original sources, manuscripts and books used by 
the different com jj, munities, now either in possession of 
the writer or to W which he has had access, together with 
contemporane £§ ous accounts sent to Europe by trust- 
worthy per- 
sons, sup- 

Ephrata Relics. 

plemented with extracts from manuscripts in the archives 
of the Moravian Church and elsewhere. Little or none of 
the matter in these pages has ever been published, and 
then only in a fragmentary form. 

In addition to the above authorities, trustworthy tradi- 
tions have been incorporated, some of which were related 
to the writer in his boyhood days. 

The text has been embellished and amplified with illus- 
trations and fac-simile reproductions of references and 
originals whenever obtainable. A number of these illus- 
trations consist of the secret symbols of the Rosicrucians, 
copied direct from an ancient manuscript, an heirloom in 
the writer's family. It is similar to those used by the 

8 The Sunday law of 1794 ; for a full account of the causes which led to 
its passage see paper by J. F. Sachse in "The Outlook" for April, 1890, 

9 The seventh day, or Saturday. 

Sources of Information. 

A &. --v 
Ulom.. JL 


E T 


D . . M .A . 

O^Omnlpotai^t^uj^(onos t 

]$aia^tyr& accrcitio 


Title-page of Rosicrucian MSS. (Original in possession of writer.) 

io The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

communities on the Wissahickon and on the banks of the 
Cocalico, and so far as is known, is the only perfect copy- 
extant. The title of this literary treasure is here repro- 
duced in reduced fac-simile, the original folio measuring 
12 x 1 8 inches. The manuscript consists of thirty pages 
exquisitely written aud embellished with illuminated 

The history of these people forms a most romantic 
episode in the history of the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the influence they exerted in the early days of 
our development extends down even to the present time. 

Arms of the Commonwealth, 1894. 














^oOmnlpotaiJtULt^!auj f c7{oiws, 



T was just two centuries 
ago, on the thirteenth 
day of February, in 
the year of grace 1694 (O. S.), 
that a number of religious 
enthusiasts from various parts 
of the Fatherland embarked 
in a body on the good ship 
"Sarah Maria," at London, 
for a voyage over the track- 
less ocean to the Province of 
Penn, — a voyage undertaken 

ARMS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE, A. D.l6 94 . ^ Qnly &t ^ i nC l eme nt 

season of the year, and against the advice and counsel of 
relatives and friends at home, but in face of the war then 
being waged between European nations on the high seas, a 
source of danger almost greater than that of the elements. 
Sad had been the parting from the loved ones in the 
Fatherland. The farewells then said were looked upon as 
the final parting in this world ; family ties then severed, in 
most cases, were never to be re-united. These conditions 
were well recognized by the determined band of pilgrims. 

Deo Omnipotenti, etc. From title page of Theosophical Manuscript : 
"Unto Almighty God be praise, honor and glory for ever and ever. 

12 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Even the loss of their leader at the very outset of their 
departure from Holland failed to turn them from their 
avowed purpose of entering upon a pilgrimage to the un- 
known wilds of the West with the sole view of extending 
the Faith in Christ. 

It was not until the evening of the twelfth of June, 
after many vicissitudes and hair- 
breadth escapes from shipwreck 
and capture by foreign foes, that 
the shores of the New World were 
sighted. Two days later the ship 
entered Chesapeake Bay, and after 
a sail of five more days, anchor was 
finally dropped at the Bohemia 

The first act of the party after 

landing, according to the devout 

Magister Johannes Kelpius, was 

to thank the Almighty upon their 

a pietistical emblem of Christ, bended knees for having carried 

a. d. 1692. them "as on eagle's wings such 

an immense distance through all the gates of death." 

They at once reported to the royal commissioners of Mary- 
land, informing them who they were and why they had 
come to reside in America. After this formality they 
started overland to the town of New Castle, then the chief 
port on the Delaware, where they arrived on the twenty- 
second day of June. Early in the next morning they em- 
barked upon a sloop which was in readiness, and wafted by 
favorable winds and tide, the party landed safely in Phila- 
delphia on the same day. 


/^4^WO accounts of this re- 
j^s markable voyage have 
come down to us : one 
is contained in the diary of 
Magister Johannes Kelpius, 10 
the other in a letter or " Send- 
schreiben," written by Daniel 
Falkner, dated Germantown, 
August 7th, 1694, about six 
weeks after their arrival in 
America. This letter, sent to 
friends in Germany and Hol- 

Arms of Penn. j^ wa£ . publislled an( J c j r . 

culated there shortly after it was received. . 

A copy of this interesting communication has found a 
resting place among the treasures' of the Pennsylvania His- 

J. N. J. — Abbreviation for the I<atin In Nomine Jesu, i.e. , " in tie name 
of Jesus." Votum at commencement of Kelpius' Diary. 

10 This journal has been reproduced entire in photographic facsimile by 
the writer. Copies are to be found in the collection of Hon. S. W. Penny- 
packer and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

14 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 


. . I. 


.J}n»o f 44-- /. . 

. tyrant. __ 

V^rynfm Mih£ef\t*n, €t^/e*-H*nftr t tint >r««»' .0< #.-*$£*» 

a Oat. tyi-f'** ** "»«» 

Fac-simile of First Page of Diary of Magister Johannes Kelpius. 


The Start from Holland. 15 

torical Society, from which the title is here reproduced, 11 — 
(translation) " Copy || of a Missive from || and relating to the 
New World || The Narra- / r- > ^ T) T A 

tion of a dangerous || Sea V^y \J J; X l\ 

Voyage, and propitious ^M$ WtVlfcWfynikl\S (tllf 
disembarkation of some || Dec neucrt $gelf/6«ftt$:nl> 

Christian Fellow-travelers |$e ^CJfllung etnec QtflfyttMfrtft 

II who uoon this Pilgrim- Wm<^mfo 0t^MitiMaitmB 
M wuo upon mis -t-ngnm ^ t ^^ m ^ t& m mmld)eiuta ^ 

age set out the || Faith in it Wefe <BaUfa()cf angctottra/ ton ©1^. 

Jesus Christ even there II 6m <"» 9/Sm «Mhim aUtMi* 

, I, « , .. 1 JUl'Kltfll 

to extend. || Tob : xii. 8. 12 Toh Xl/ g 

Printed in the year 1695." ^ ^ wb mflm ^ ^ ^^^ 

In the main facts the ^^ 1 ^SSSt^iSSS tmai ^ i 

man ymlut) prnfen un& ojfcnbarcn. ^ :■•■ 

two accounts agree, the , -_^,1_ 

only difference being in etftucKimSn&nw.. 

some of the detail of minor occurrences. From these ac- 
counts it is learned that the start from Germany was made in 
the summer of the year 1693. They first rallied in Holland. 
After remaining in Holland for some time, the party left 
Rotterdam for London, where they arrived during the 
month of August. While in L,ondon the leaders of the 
party had considerable intercourse with the so-called " Phila- 
delphists," a society which was formed in England by the 
celebrated Jane I^eade and others, originally for the purpose 
of studying and explaining the writings of Jacob Boehme. 
The outcome of this movement was a league of Christians 
who insisted on depth and inwardness of the spirit. A 

11 Translated in full by the late Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, " Penna. Mag. 
Hist, and Biography," vol. xi., pp. 430 et. seq. 

12 This is a typographical error in the original. It should be Tob. xii, 
verse 7. — ' ' It is good to keep close the secret of a king, but it is honorable 
to reveal the works of God. Do that which is good, and no evil shall 
touch you. ' ' 

%tt nm (Stiflipm <raf8 gettmlfc 

1 6 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania 

number of pamphlets were published by this society, and 
afterwards translated into German. 

A correspondence between Johann Kelpius and Henry 

jto John Deichmann, secretary of the 

Philadelphif^m Socktff London society, was kept up for 

38B«n»un»s<ffi(i(Fti««ff!v several years after the arrival of the 

2*-<8tanK/ reotmifiiefufltn m P art Y m Pennsylvania. 

auiMttagfeiniBcinara The party remained in London 

FbiUHh,, «f"oM«h. te until February 13th, 1694 (O. S.), 
.*""^5^i^"* 8 '*- when they sailed down the Thames 
3a/ fritiitt^Vstt sraaemft to Gravesend, where they embarked 
^if^mm««t•aa. D n their ship. This vessel, com- 

manded by Captain Tanner, was 
armed and carried fourteen large 

The name of the vessel, "Sarah 
e*n«ftta3«&r£ttift«i«ii8_ Maria" (according to Kelpius, Sara 

Mariabonce sfiei), was taken by the theosophical enthusiasts 
who composed the party as a propitious omen for the journey. 
To them the prosaic everyday name of the ship indicated 
" Glaube, Liebe, Hoffnung''' (Faith, Hope and L,ove or 
Charity). According to their mystical interpretation they 
argued, — 

1. By Faith (Sarah) we got for our journey the means that 
were not in sight. 

2. By Smyrnean L,ove 13 (Maria — in Hebrew Mar, bitter, 
whence Maria) which is not obtained without toil and trou- 
ble, but remains faithful unto death. [Rev. ii, 10.] 

3. And at last, through "Hope" we will be "Well" 
(safely) landed. " For so we have been taught by God." w 

Many were the vicissitudes experienced by these religious 

13 An allusion to the epistle to the church of Smyrna : Rev. ii, 8-10. 

14 " Penna. Mag.," vol. xi, p. 430. 

The Perils of the Journey. 17 

enthusiasts during this eventful voyage. The first mishap 
came at the very outset when they ran into a furious gale 
in the channel. The pilot, taking his course close to the 
English coast for fear of French privateers, was forced to 
steer between cliffs and sand-banks. As the storm increased 
in fury, fearing for the safety of the vessel, they cast their 
largest anchor. When the gale was abating, the ship drifted 
against the anchor ; it broke, knocking a hole in the ship, 
which, however, caused no leak. Towards night another 
storm arose, and the vessel was driven by wind and waves 
against a hard sand-bank. 15 There was a crash as if every- 
thing in the ship was turning topsy-turvey, and as two more 
thumps followed, the cry was raised, " Commend your souls 
to the Lord ; we shall go down." 

The passengers and crew now gave themselves up as 
lost, and all threw themselves on their knees and prayed 
for about an hour, expecting the vessel to go to pieces every 
moment ; when suddenly Johannes Kelpius, the leader of 
the party, upon a " third inward prompting," told Captain 
Tanner that the Lord had promised deliverance, that more 
dangers were impending but Divine Providence would grant 
a safe arrival. 16 Falkner in his account writes, " Here 
Faith, which conquers the world and its elements, proved 
so strong and heroic in some of the passengers, that they 
forgot the danger, went to the captain and told him to be 
of good cheer : the danger was not meant for destruction, 
but for testing the belief and the love of many. This 
proved to be true, for when the prayers strove most earn- 
estly against the wind and waves, the most powerful waves 
came, as it were, to the support of the prayers, and at the 
behest of the Creator, whom they obeyed, lifted the ship 

15 Probably one of the shoals known as the Goodwin Sands. 

16 Kelpius' MS. Journal. 


1 8 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

and carried it over the bank into a safe depth, contrary to 
all experiences upon sea and to the surprise of the crew." 

After a general thanksgiving service led by Magister 
Kelpius, in which all on board participated, the journey 
was continued through the channel. Eventually the 
Downs 17 were reached (February 21st) without further mis- 
hap ; here a stop was made for over two weeks ; a new 
anchor was obtained in place of the one lost, and the ship 
thoroughly overhauled, while waiting for the arrival of a 
good convoy, which was to have been sent from London. 18 

Alluding to this delay at the Downs, Kelpius mentions 
in his journal — " On the 27th of February we sent letters 
to Dondon and to Tob. Ad. Dauterbach and others in Ger- 
many, from whom we had received most cheering answers. 

" On the 4th of March I received a letter from Samuel 
Waldenfleld, in London, at the Damp in Fennhard 19 Street, 
with a draft of the pious virgin Catherine Beerens van 
Bofmg on Samuel Standerwick in Deal. 20 This gentleman 
received me and my friend Selig 21 the next day very kindly. 
He listened with the greatest pleasure to our account of the 
Pietists in Germany, and invited us to repeat our visit ; we 
were prevented from doing so by our sailing." 

This time while lying at anchor was utilized by the party 
in edifying discourses and biblical study. The expected 
convoy not arriving, sail was set on the eighth day of March, 

17 ' ' The Downs, ' ' a spacious roadstead in the English Channel, affording 
an excellent anchorage. It is between the shore and the Goodwin Sands 
and is much used by the British navy. 

18 This was during the universal war then waged against Louis XIV. of 
France, 1689-1697. In American history it is known as " King William's 

19 Query : Penchurch Street? 

20 Deal, a seaport and market town in Kent, England. It has no harbor. 

21 Johann Selig, one of the members of the party. 

The Final Start. 19 

in company with eighteen other vessels, three of which were 

Under date of the next day (March 9th) the following 
memorandum in English is inserted in Kelpius' L,atin diary 
in a different handwriting : 

" Instructions for the better keeping company with their 
Maj's ship Sandador Prize under my command. 

" If I weigh in the day I will haule home my foretopsail 
sheets and fire a gunn. If in the night, I will putt a light 
in the main top mast shrouds and fire a gun, which light 
you are to answer. If I weigh in a fog I will fire 3 gunns 
distantly one after another. If I anchor in the night or in 
a fogg, I will fire 2 guns a small distance of time one from 
the other and putt abroad a light more than my constant 
lights, which light you are to answer. 

" If I lie by or try in the night, I will fire two guns and 
keep a light abroad more than my constant light in the 
Main shrouds and if through extreamity of weather we are 
forced to lye a Holl or under a Mizen, I will fire three guns 
and put abroad two lights of equal height more than my 
constant light ; and if I make sail in the night after blow- 
ing weather or after lying by or for any other reason I will 
make the same sing [sign ?] as for weighing in the night, 
which light you are to answer. 

" In case of separation if we meet by day the weathermost 
ship shall lower his Fore top sail and then the leward shall 
answer by lowering their main top sail. 

" He that apprehends any danger in the night shall fire 
guns and put abroad three lights of equal hight and bear 
away or tack from it ; but if it should happen to be strange 
ships, then make false fires and endeavor to speak with my ; 
and to better to know each other in the night, he that hails 
shall ask what ship is that and he that is hailet shall an- 
swer Adventure, then he that hailet first shall reply Rupert. 

20 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The " SARA-MARIA," Captain Tanner, Master. 
(From an old Dutch print.) 

Instructions for Sailing. 21 

" If I have a desire to speak with you I will hoist a Jack- 
Flag in my inizen-top mast shrouds and make a weft with 
my ensign. 

" If you have a desire to speak with my ; you shall hoist 
your ensign in your Main-Top-Mast Shrouds. 

"If in the night you chance to spring a leak keep firing 
of Guns and showing of lights." 

After an uneventful sail of four days anchor was dropped 
in the harbor of Plymouth on March 12th, a good place 
for anchorage being secured under the guns of the fort. 
In this harbor the vessel remained for five weeks waiting 
for the convoy from London. 

It was while here in port that letters were received from 
Laeut. Schmaltz 22 and others in Erfurth, and friends in 
Cleves, Konberg 23 and elsewhere in Germany, questioning 

22 Ivieut. Schmaltz was a leading spirit of the Collegia Pietatis in Erfurth. 
He died in 1702. An entry in the town chronicle states " Iyieut. Schmaltz 
could not be induced during his last illness to make any confession as to 
the person of Christ or the justification of a sinner before God ; he also 
refused to receive the sacrament." 

When his friends attempted to bury his body at night by torchlight, 
they were set upon by the authorities, who drove back the mourners, the 
parish beadles ( Stadt-Knechte ) extinguished the torches, and took the 
body and buried it in an unconsecrated corner of the Mercatorum ceme- 
tery. — " Historia Civitatis Erffurtensis, " pp. 1069. 

23 This is evidently a typographical error in the original, no such place 
as Konberg is to be found on any atlas of that period. Konigsberg is no 
doubt intended, the seat of the celebrated Albertine University ( Collegium 
Albertinum) founded in 1544. by the Margrave Albert, and which at that 
period numbered 2000 students on its roster. In later years it became 
celebrated as the place where the philosophy of Kant was first propounded. 

22 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the expediency of the party emigrating to the unknown 
shores of America, and urging the enthusiasts to return to 
home and friends, notwithstanding the edicts and mani- 
festoes which were being issued against all Pietists and 
religious enthusiasts. Kelpius in reply addressed commu- 
nications to Lauterbach, De Watteville, Meerkamp and 
others, declining their advice, and adhering to his determi- 
nation of going to Pennsylvania. 

The expected convoy not arriving, a final start was made 
on the 1 8th of April under the protection of several foreign 
men-of-war, Danish, Spanish and Swedish 24 then in the 
harbor, and which were to sail from Plymouth to Cadiz. 
For this purpose an agreement was entered into with the 
Spanish Admiral, Nicholas De Rudder, for a certain sum 
of money to convoy the vessel two hundred Dutch miles 
into the ocean ; and on the 25th of April the actual voyage 
to the new world commenced, in company with another 
English vessel, the " Providence," carrying 18 guns. 

After parting with the armed escort the two vessels fol- 
lowed a southwestern course, and for the rest of the month 
were favored with good weather and favorable breezes. 

Magister Kelpius, in writing about their life on shipboard, 
states : " Our exercises on board the ship consisted in dis- 
courses of various kinds and interpretations of the Scrip- 
ture, in which those who felt inclined took part. We had 
also prayer meetings and sang hymns of praise and joy, 
several of us accompanying on instruments that we had 
brought from London." 

On the 10th of May the two vessels fell in with three' 
French vessels, one a frigate of 24 guns ; a lively action 
took place, lasting four hours, and resulted in the repulse 

24 In this war, under the league of Augsburg, almost the whole of 
Europe was arrayed against France. 

A Fight at Sea. 23 

of the French frigate and the capture of a prize by the 
consort "Providence." Falkner has left us the following 
interesting details of this incident, viz. : 

" On the 10th of May our faith was again put on trial. 
We were only two ships and saw in the morning, when the 
weather was fair and quiet, three vessels in the distance. 
(Mark, when at sea a foreign ship comes in sight, immedi- 
ately alarm is given and everything put in readiness for an 
encounter.) Many of us became depressed in mind from a 
presentiment that they were hostile French ships. They 
steered directly towards us, but on account of the calm 
could make no headway for 5 or 6 hours. About noon we 
could see by the telescope that they carried white flags with 
lilies, enough to show, that this day things would take a 
French, not a Christian turn. As soon as this was ascer- 
tained, every thing was made ready for battle. The pas- 
sengers were given the choice to fight or not. We, of 
course, abstained of carnal weapons and taking the shield 
of faith sat down between decks behind boxes and cases, 
prayed and invoked the I^ord, every one for himself, as on 
account of the great noise and the report of cannons nothing 
could have been heard. We had hardly got down, when a 
French frigate with 24 cannon and a merchant ship with 6 
cannon made straight for our ship and opened fire so vigor- 
ously, that it was really time to pray for averting great 
calamity. The merciful Father made the enemies' balls drop 
into the water before our ship, only one cannon ball struck 
the ship over our heads without doing harm to anybody, 
though the ship got a hole two ells above the water line. 
In the mean time our cannon and ball were not idle, but 
did great damage to the enemies' ships, which we inferred 
from their retreat. But half an hour afterwards they re- 
sumed the attack. Then a 12 pound ball was sent right 

24 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

through the captain's room, but inflicted no damage ; the 
captain's boy who carried a bottle in his hand came very 
near being hit ; the ball took the bottle so neatly out of his 
hand that he hardly knew the ball had done it. An hour 
later the frigate fell back a little and with the third vessel, 
which carried 12 guns attacked our fellow ship, which, 
however, made a good defense. Here it happened that a 
Frenchman on the merchant vessel while aiming with his 
rifle at our captain, while on the point of shooting, was rent 
to pieces by a cannon ball, before he could pull the trigger. 
Whether the shot came from our companion ship or ours 
nobody knows. The enemy stopped firing, expecting us to 
capitulate or else, designing to turn to our port, but it 
pleased the Lord to make an end of the racket that day 
and to drive the enemy to flight by means no one would 
have thought of. For the Lord put it into the heart of our 
captain to call all males on deck, and to make them join his 
crew in raising a pretended shout of joy. When this was 
done, and the enemy observed on our ship, contrary to ex- 
pectation, so many heads, whom, they thought, had been 
fighting and would continue to fight, it was as if their can- 
nons had at once become dumb and their courage sunk into 
the sea like a millstone. The I,ord struck them with fear, 
so they suddenly turned their ships about and fled away 
from us. 25 The large frigate gave the signal of flight ; but 
the others could not follow so swiftly and we might easily 
have captured both of them. Our captain, however, was 
satisfied when the merchant ships hoisting a white flag sur- 
rendered. Then we also stopped firing. The two other 

25 It was at this point that the "Providence," the companion of the 
" Sarah Maria," came up and joined in the pursuit. Being the faster of 
the two, she chased and engaged the hostile frigate. The battle lasted 
four hours, but only three balls of the enemy struck, doing little damage 
to the ship and none to the men. (Kelpius' MS. Diary. ) 

The Capes of Virginia. 


ships got off; the third fell into our hands. There were on 
board twenty four Frenchmen, among them one of the re- 
formed faith, who had been attending mass under compul- 
sion. Seven were taken aboard our ship, including this 
Huguenot, who liked our company and was pleased that we 
could speak his language and assuage in some measure his 
bruised conscience. 26 The others were taken on board by 
our fellows. The ship had a cargo of sugar and came 
from Martinique under the 17th degree of Latitude. At 

first the prisoners 
raised a great wail 
and lamentation ; 
they had expected 
to land in France 
as freemen and had 
now to return to 
America in captiv- 
ity. But thus they 

Naval Trophies. h a dl meant to Serve 

us. The Lord fulfilled on them what is written Revel, ch. 
13, " He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity." 27 
After this episode nothing further of importance occurred, 
except several false alarms by hostile ships, until June 12th, 
when, at 10 o'clock A. M., an eclipse of the sun was ob- 
served, the craft being in lat. 36 45'. On the evening of 
the same day (June 12th) the party had their first glimpse 
of the western world, the capes of Virginia were sighted, 
and two days later (June 14th) the " Sarah Maria" entered 
Chesapeake Bay. It took the travelers five days to sail 

26 Kelpius makes no mention of this incident. 

27 The distribution of the cargo, consisting of sugar and cider, gave rise 
to dissatisfaction, which the captain finally quelled by allowing to all an 
equal share in the "unjust Mammon." (Kelpius' MS. Diary.) 



The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Ancient Map Showing Road Between Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River. 

The End of the Voyage. 


up the Bay of Virginia, during which time occurred one 
of the strangest and most unaccountable episodes of the 
voyage. This was a disagreement between some of the 
party, in which a woman, who was one of the ship's com- 
pany, was evidently the leading cause, or at least a promi- 
nent character. All that is definitely known about the 
affair is the entry in the Kelpius diary 28 — June 17th, under 
the sign of the sun — " that Falkner was excommunicated 
by Koster, as was also Anna Maria Schuchart." 29 

That this estrangement between the leaders of the party 
was but temporary is shown by the fact that no subsequent 
mention of the episode appears 
in either the Kelpius or Falkner 

Five days after the vessel had 
entered the capes of Virginia 
the anchor was dropped, and 
the landing made at the Bohe- 
mia Landing, as before stated. 
Daniel Falkner, in his account, 
at this point notes : " We hope, 
in this land also, His mercy will 
not be wasted on us, especially 
as we are assured that we have come hither by His will." 

28 Notabilis ilia Falkneri a Coestere excommunicatio, ut & Annae Mariae 
Schuchartinse (?) Prophetissae Erphortianae ! 

29 A further account of this person will be found under the chapter 
devoted to Koster. 



'HE sun was past the me- 
ridian on Saturday, June 
23, 1694, when a sloop, 
whose deck was crowded with 
passengers, made fast to the pub- 
lic wharf of Philadelphia. This 
landing was built out from the 
sandy beach at the northwestern 
shore of the point where Dock 
Creek emptied its waters into 
the Delaware ; this beach was almost immediately in front 
of the Blue Anchor Tavern, 30 and was the same point where 
the Proprietor Wil- 
liam Pennhad landed 
just twelve years be- 

The passengers, as 
they left the vessel and gathered upon the sloping beach, at 
first sight looked like a motley crowd ; they numbered forty 

30 The Blue Anchor. This ancient hostelrie stood at what is now the 
northwest corner of Front and Dock Streets ; it was taken down in 18 10. 
For an extended notice of this landing place see " Penna. Magazine," 
vol. x, p. 61. 

A Philadelphia Landmark. 


30 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

men of various ages, all 'with intelligent features, and clad 
in strange attire. Some were in a coarse Pilgrim garb, 
others in the peculiar dress of the Teutonic university 
student, while others again wore the distinctive costume of 
the German interior provinces. It was the same party of 
religious enthusiasts who had crossed the ocean in the good 
ship a Sarah Maria." 

After a short religious service the party, walking silently 
two by two, took a survey of Philadelphia, then nothing 
more than a straggling village of perhaps five hundred 
houses, 31 as yet undivided into wards or divisions. Great was 
their surprise when they learned that, notwithstanding the 
promises of religious liberty that were granted by the char- 
ter of Penn, not a single house of worship other than those 
of the Quakers existed within the bounds of the Province ; 32 

31 In 1700 there were about seven hundred houses; see "Scharff & 
Westcott," page 145. 

32 Christ Church was not built until 1695. The first Baptist congrega- 
tion on the Pennepack had no house of worship until the year 1707 (His- 
torical sketch by H. G. Jones, p. 11). The Presbyterians erected their 
first church in 1704. The Swedish Blockhouse at Wicacoa, although still 
standing, was then ( 1694) in a very ruinous condition, so much so that 
no services could be held in the building. The old Dutch pastor, Jacobus 
Fabricius, so far back as 1685 petitioned the Provincial Council for per- 
mission to keep an ordinary or tavern [for the support of himself and 
family]. This was refused by Council in the curt sentence that "they 
don't think fitt to grant ye Petitioners request." [The action of Council 
was no doubt influenced by the known intemperate habits and life of that 
pioneer clergyman. "See Doc. Hist. N. Y.," iii, 243 ; " Hallische Nach- 
richten," new ed., pp. 619-20]. 

In August, 1693, Magister Jacobus Fabricius again petitioned William 
Markham, Lieutenant-Governor under Gov. Fletcher, and the Provincial 
Council. This time the petition was one for relief, and set forth that he 
had now became totally blind, and was reduced to the direst poverty, and 
that he had not whereupon to live. 

Council " Ordered that the church wardens of their church have notice 
to appear att Council the fifteenth instant, to make ansr to the said Com- 
plaint." This order was aimed against the Christina (Wilmington) con- 

The Entrance into Philadelphia. 31 

nor could the embryo city as yet boast of town-hall, court- 
house or prison. 33 

Considerable commotion was caused at first among the 
staid inhabitants of the Quaker City by the advent of this 
party of strangely robed foreigners walking in a body 
through the streets. Naturally the question was asked, 
" Who were these peculiar people in outlandish attire and 
of foreign tongue? " 

The information vouchsafed was merely that they were 
German students who had became convinced of the Quaker 
doctrine, and were going to settle upon a tract some distance 
out of the city near the German township — a piece of news 
which allayed the fears of the inhabitants. 

The first act of the leaders of this band of emigrants 
upon their 
entrance into 

the city was J^S (?JC 

to call upon r— "~ *"*" ' 


Fletcher, Captain-General of Pennsylvania, and William 
Markham, his Deputy Governor, for the 
purpose, as an old manuscript states, " Of 
taking the Oath of Allegiance and ex- 
plaining their reason for coming to the 
Colony;" 34 Pennsylvania then being a 
province under the Crown of England, 
and out of the control of William Penn. 35 

Seal of Gov. Fletcher. 

gregation of the lower counties. No notice whatever seems to have 
been taken of this action of Council. The death of the old clergyman 
is recorded in the same year.—" Records of Old Swedes' Church," Wil- 
mington, p. 7. 

The present church at Wicacoa, " Gloria Dei" or " Old Swedes'," was 
not built until the year 1700. 

33 When the General Assembly, consisting of fifty-four members, first 
met in the city of Philadelphia, they hired a room and paid the expense. 
The country members took lodgings out of the city and walked in to 

32 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Unfortunately, we have no positive record where this 
unique cere- 
mony took 
place. The W Q/f(jCLA%f KC **'y' 


are that it was either at the " great house" built by Robert 
Whitpain on the lower side of Front Street between Walnut 
and Spruce, and which is said to have been the official resi- 
dence of Governor Fletcher when in Philadelphia, or at the 
Penn Cottage, which formerly stood on Laetitia Court near 
Second and Market Streets, the residence of Lieutenant- 
Governor Markham. It was in the latter house, 36 then sur- 
rounded by ample grounds, that the Provincial Council 

attend the meetings, frequently bringing their dinners with them. — 
" Hazard's Register," vol. v, 113. 

34 This was then a custom of the country. See " Record of Rev. Ericus 
Bjork ;" " Records of Holy Trinity (old Swedes') Church," Wilmington, 
Del., pp. 11. 

35 In October, 1692, William and Mary, King and Queen of England, 
appointed Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York, to be also Governor 
of Pennsylvania and the lower counties on the Delaware. Thus Penn 
lost the government and jurisdiction over these provinces, without, how- 
ever, being deprived of his right as proprietary. In making this appoint- 
ment he was as little thought of as the charter that had been granted to 
him ; in order, however, to strengthen the royal authority, the new gov- 
ernor was invested with the power of negativing all laws, and none was 
to be in force, unless approved by the King. In April, 1693, Fletcher 
made his solemn entry into Philadelphia, where Governor Lloyd and his 
Council gave up the government to him without being thereunto author- 
ized either by the crown or the proprietary. — Ebeling. 

The government of Pennsylvania remained under the Crown of Eng- 
land from April 26, 1692, to March, 1695. 

36 This building was erected by Governor William Markham prior to 
the arrival of William Penn. The bricks and finer parts of the frame- 
work were brought from England, together with Penn's workmen (" ser- 
vants") to set them up. A few years ago this old landmark was taken 
down and re-erected in Fairmount Park. The illustration here given 
represents it as it appeared about thirty years prior to its removal. 

The Sojourn in Philadelphia. 


__ Jf 

34 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

held its deliberations at that time and for many years after- 
wards, while the Assembly for some years met in "the 
large room" of the Whitpain house. 

In former years there was a curious tradition current among 
the older German residents in connection with the short 
sojourn of this party within the city. After the formality 
of reporting to the representative of the Crown had been 
complied with, arrangements were made for shelter and 
sustenance as best they could be for so large a party, and it 
was well after nightfall before this was completed. 

When night had fairly set in a number of the strangers, 
•tired and weary as they were, wended their way towards 
one of the highlands that loomed up just northwest of the 
old city proper, and which are still known as " Bush-hill" 
and "Fairmount." Arriving at a suitable point, dry 
leaves and brush-wood were hastily gathered, a tinder-box 
was produced, and fire struck with flint and steel. After 
the leaves and fagots were ignited, pine boughs were broken 
off and heaped upon the fire until a bright flame extended 

Then the mystic rites incident to St. John's eve were 
performed, after which the burning brands were scattered 
down the sloping hillsides with considerable ceremony. 
The party then returned to the sleeping city, after having 
lit for the first time in America, so far as is known, the 
" Sanct Johannis" or " Sonnenwend-feuer," a mystic cere- 
monial and religious rite which dates far back into the 
most remote period of time when the early Aryans were 
yet a small colony in northern Europe. 37 

37 The rite of the " Sonnenwend-feuer," held on the eves of June 24th 
and December 25th, to celebrate the recurrence of the summer and winter 
solstices, dates back to the dark days of heathen mythology. The rite on 
the eve of the summer solstice consisted in building a fire on an eminence ; 

The Arrival at Germantown. 


The party did not tarry long in the city ; the early Sab- 
bath morn, even before the sun rose in the east, found them 
on their way to " Germanopel," as Germantown was then 
called. Their path led up Second Street, then a mere 
country lane, due north to Fairhill ; thence northwest to 
the German settlement under Pastorius, where the " town" 
consisted of a few houses on a single street. 

It took the party almost four hours to reach their goal, 
and the sun was well up on the horizon on that double 
holiday — "St. Johannis Tag," June 24th, (St. John the 
Baptist's Day) and Sunday — when the company filed into 
the village of their countrymen and inquired for the house 
of one Jacob Isaac Van Bebber, 38 a native of Crefeld on 
the Rhine, near the borders of Holland. 

Here the weary travelers found a haven of rest. Their 
arrival had been long looked for by their host, and he 
forthwith secured for them shelter and sustenance. 

Much anxiety had been felt by Van Bebber and his 
friends in Germantown on account of the non-arrival of 

when brightly blazing, flowers, pine boughs and bones were thrown into the 
fire, and the esoteric rites and incantations were performed : these were for 
the purpose of allaying any possible pestilence or disease. The embers 
were then rolled down the hillside, indicative of the waning of the sun's 
power. The rites on the eve of the winter solstice consisted mainly in 
lighting resinous pine boughs giving an upward flame, denoting the grow- 
ing power of the sun. The custom of the present day of lighted tapers 
on the Christmas tree is a relic of this ancient rite. The object of this 
ceremonial was believed to be a sure safeguard against many evils. The 
practice still survives in some parts of Germany and may occasionally 
be witnessed in Pennsylvania. 

38 Daniel Falkner, in his " Sendschreiben, " notes : "We have here in 
Germantown a man by the name of Jacob Isaac, a native of Crefeld on the 
Rhine, near Holland. He was formerly a Mennonite, but he desires to 
depart with his whole house to acknowledge and abandon the follies, 
scandals, shortcomings and stains of his former religion." — " Penna. 
Mag.," vol. xi, p. 440. 

36 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

this party. The long and uncertain ways of communica- 
tion at that early day precluded any news reaching them 
as to the causes of the delay before or after their embarka- 
tion. On account of the prevailing war with France, 
great fears were entertained that the party might have 
been captured and fallen into the hands of the enemy, or 
succumbed to the elements. But now all uncertainty was 
removed. The joyful feeling, however, was not confined 
to the residents of Germantown. Doubly thankful were 
these weary pilgrims that they had arrived safely at the 
end of their long and eventful journey on the natal day 39 
of the Saint whose example they strove to follow by words 
and action. 

39 In the whole calendar there are but two natal days, viz., St. John 
the Baptist's Day, June 24th, and Christmas Day, December 25th. All 
other saints' days are memorial days, which mark the day of their supposed 
martyrdom or death. 

Symbol from Theosophical MS. 



'HIS party of emigrants — so 
different from trie general 
mass of settlers who were 
then flocking from Germany to 
the Province of Pennsylvania — 
were not Quakers or Friends, 
although they are so considered 
in some of the old records ; but 
symbol of the essenes. 40 they were a company of Theoso- 
phical Enthusiasts — call them Pietists, Mystics, Chiliasts, 41 
Rosicrucians, Illuminati, Cathari,* 2 Puritans, 43 or what you 

PRIMA MATERIA, a Theosophical symbol from Rosicrucian MS., on 
folio 12, descriptive of " Eternity and the uncreated inscrutable" Primum 
Mobile (Primordial Motion, the first life-impulse). 

A Theosophical authority defines Materia Prima (primordial matter) 
A' Wasa, as a universal and invisible principle, the basic substance of 
which all things are formed. By reducing a thing into its prima materia 
and clothing it with new attributes, it may be transformed into another 
thing by him who possesses spiritual power and knowledge. There are 
several states of matter, from primordial down to gross visible matter ; 
some of the early philosophers therefore distinguished between materia 
proxima, materia remota and materia ultima. — Dr. Franz Hartmann in 
"Cosmology," Boston, 1888. 


38 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

may — who in Europe had formed what was known accord- 
ing to their mystical dogmas as a " Chapter of Perfection," 
and then came to the western world to put into execution 
the long-cherished plan of founding a true Theosophical 
(Rosicrucian) community ; going out into the wilderness or 
desert, after the manner of the Essenes 44 of old, as also did 

40 The serpent was not at first a personification of evil, but of wisdom 
and salvation, and was used as a symbol of immortal life. The symbol 
here reproduced is frequently met with in ancient sculptures, and sym- 
bolizes eternity, or a world without end. 

a Croese's " Quakeriana," p. 551. — (Latin Edition.) 

42 Cathari, — a mystical sect which dates back to the tenth or eleventh 
century ; the name is derived from the Greek, and signifies "the pure." 
It is from this name whence came Ketzer, the German word for heretic. 
The Cathari regarded the exaltation of the soul over the moral nature, so 
as to become wholly absorbed in mystical contemplation, as the highest 
stage in the religious life of man. 

Deep devotion of the heart in prayer and a life of purity connected 
with abstinence from carnal pleasure and from the use of stimulating food, 
were their exercises of piety. 

It is claimed by some writers that the Waldenses were an outcome of the 
original Cathari. 

48 Puritans is here but another term for Cathari. 

44 The Essenes, — a mystical Jewish sect, not mentioned in the Jewish 
or Christian scriptures, and concerning whom the only original sources 
of information are passages in the works of Josephus, who lived about the 
time when the Essenes had reached their highest point of development. 
The notices of them ascribed to Philo are of doubtful authenticity. Even 
Hippolytus appears to have drawn his account of them from Josephus. 
They lived an austere life in the solitudes on the western side of the Dead 
Sea, where they held their property in common, wore a white robe, prayed 
and meditated continually, made frequent ablutions, for the most part 
renounced marriage, and often practised medicine. According to Beller- 
mann (Berlin, 1821) the creed or chief doctrine of the Essenes was con- 
tained in the word " Love" (charity). This was divided into the " Love 
of God," the "Love of Virtue" and the "Love of their Fellow-man." 
Especial stress was laid upon obedience to the law or government {obrig- 
keit), as all law emanated from God. Prayer, abstinence and labor were 
the chief features of their life. St. John the Baptist is said to have been 
an active member of this Jewish sect of Mystical Theosophists. 

The Theory of Mystic Numbers. 39 

Moses, Elijah and other biblical characters, to perfect them- 
selves in holiness, thus preparing themselves for the millen- 
ium which they believed to be approaching ; or in case that 
their calculations should have misled them as to the ending 
of all things terrestial, the community would prove a 
nucleus from which the individual members would be 
qualified to come forth among men again as holy men, to 
convert whole cities and to work signs and miracles. 

This party of religious enthusiasts, who were led by the 
noblest impulses, and whose hearts were filled with the sole 
desire to live a godly life and serve their fellow countrymen, 
as well as the aborigines, was under the leadership of Mag- 
ister Johannes Kelpius, with Heinrich Bernhard Koster as 
deputy magister, and Johann Seelig, Daniel Falkner, Daniel 
Liitke and Ludwig Biedermann as wardens or assistants, 
together with thirty-four brethren, all men of learning, 
making a total of forty, the symbolic number of " Per- 

[ In the theory of mystic numbers, unity is called the 
Monad, and is no number. It is the first ring in the chain 
of existence, and one of the qualifications which the ancient 
philosophers have given the Deity. Its symbol is the 
mathematical point. The figure 2 consists of repeated 
unity, which is no number, and is represented by the 
mathematically straight line, consequently is not perfect. 
The figure 4, however, is known as the equal perfect num- 
ber, 45 and has been held in high esteem by all schools of 
mystic philosophers. This is explained by the fact that 
the simple figure not only represents the square of the re- 
peated unity (2X2=4), and tne product resulting from the 

46 The number 4 derives its sacredness from concrete and material rela- 
tions, from external perceptions, and has its application in the objective 
and phenomenal world.— " The Origin of Sacred Numbers." 

40 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

addition with itself (2+2=4), but also the potential decade 
1 + 2+3+4=10; it also forms the enclosed figure known 
as a true square, whenever 2 and 2 parallel lines are placed 
at right angles to each other. It is from these facts — 
properties which are not found in any other number — that 
the numeral has for ages past been held in reverence, 46 and 
been the visible symbol of the Deity, and is constantly 
recurring in the symbolism of every religious cult. It is 
also identified with justice, because it is the first square 
number the product of equals. Thus the name of the 
Deity is represented by four letters in all languages, the 
English language being the exception. 

Whereas 4 represents the perfect Deity, 47 the mysterious 
numeral 3, figured as the Triad by the equilateral triangle, 
is the emblem of the attributes of God only, as it reunites 
the properties of the first two numbers. 

40, the decade of the perfect number, is known as the 
number of perfection, to which the greatest importance has 
always been attached both in religious and esoteric lore. 
This is partly explained in the symbolical chart here re- 
produced. It forms the seventh folio of the Theosophical 

46 Daniel G. Brinton, M.D.,LL.D., in the "American Anthropolo- 
gist," April, 1894, states that among the aborigines throughout America 
the tribal mythologies, rites, ceremonies, beliefs are constantly and pro- 
foundly governed and moulded by this sacred number. 

47 As a type of Deity, we all know of the famous Hebrew title Tetra- 
grammaton, or incommunicable name, Jehovah, IHVH ; this name was 
disclosed by the Kabbalistic Rabbis as a blind to the populace and to hide 
their secret tenets. 

' ' Almost all the peoples of antiquity possessed a name for Deity consist- 
ing of four letters, and many of them considered 4 to be a divine number. ' ' 
— W. Wynn Westcott, in "Numbers, their Occult Power and Mystic 
Virtue," p. 22. 

The Theory of Mystic Numbers. 



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_0 A 4- ©_ 

but unrewergty^t/bwpgittt* 

Seventh Folio of Rosicrucian MS. 

42 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 


Firstly. — Wherefore the Lord God vouchsafed to the first 
world 3 times 40 years; that is, 120 years of respite 
and time for repentance. — Genesis vi, 3. 48 

Further. — From the Old and New Testament. 

40 days and nights it rained, as the deluge spread over the 

face of the earth. 
40 days after the deluge the waters subsided, and Noah 

opened the Ark. 
40 days and nights Moses sojourned upon Mount Sinai. 
40 years the Children of Israel wandered in the desert. 
40 days and nights were spent by Elias in fasting and 

40 days were granted to the city of Nineveh for penance. 

40 weeks Christ, like unto all men, was formed in his 

mother's womb. 
40 months the I^ord preached on earth and performed 

40 days and nights He fasted in the desert and was tempted. 
40 hours Christ lay in the grave. 
40 days after His resurrection He spent upon earth, and 

showed Himself in His glorified body. 
40 years after Christ's ascension the city of Jerusalem was 

Result. — 3 times 4 times 40 is the secret interpretation. 
Woe unto me, I perish, for I am of too unclean tongue to 

proclaim the mystery. — Isaiah vi, 5. 49 

48 Ich will ihnen noch frist geben hundert und zwanzig Jahr {i.e., " zu 
leben und busse zu thun," Martin Luther). — Basel Bible, ed. 1753. 

49 An allusion to the sanctification of Isaiah for his prophetic station. 

Basel Bible. 

A &. .i 





'UT little is known 
from their own 
writings as to the 
immediate causes which 
led these men to take the 
momentous step, and for- 
sake their home and friends 
to come to America. A 
contemporary account in 
Latin, published at Am- 
sterdam in the year 1696, 60 
or two years after their de- 
parture, gives us a little in- 
arms of Holland, 1693. formation aboutthis Chap- 

ter of Pietists. This record is of the greatest importance, 
as it shows the fact that the party were assisted on their 
journey by the Friends or Quakers then in Holland, — a fact 

A & £2 (Alpha and Omega.) — The beginning and end of all things; 
i. e., the beginning and end of all manifestation of activity and life in 
the Cosmos. 

Phisica, Metaphisica et Hyperphisica, from title page of Theosophical 

50 The first edition of Croese's " Quakeriana" was published in 1695. 
This edition is exceedingly rare: the only copy met with by the writer is 


The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

which was afterwards brought up to the detriment of some of 
their number at the yearly meeting at Burlington in 1695. 51 

A part of this account was evidently written before the 
company left England, while the concluding part dates 
from some time in 1695, shortly after the receipt of the first 
letter or information from the Theosophical community in 

The chronicler, Gerard Croese, 52 a Protestant divine of 
Amsterdam, in his " Historia Quakeriana," Iyiber iii, 53 states 
(translation, London, 1697): "Among these new mystical 
Men there was HERXOGfiv*wvRTEBBEB.C. one John Jacob 

Zimmerman, 54, 
theran Church 
of Wirtemburg, 
M athematicks, 
he had contrac 
erroneous opin 
other excellent 
mind, to which 
the temper 
wherein he was 
and who was of 

pastor of the Lu- 
in the Dutchy 
a Man skilled in 
and, saving that 
ted of these 
ions, had all 
endowments of 
may be added 
ance of his Life, 
inferior to none, 

Arms of Wurtemberg, a.d. 1693. 

fame in the world ; Who, when he saw there was nothing but 
great danger like to hang over himself and his Friends, he 
invites and stirs up through his own hope about sixteen or 
seaventeen Families of these sort of Men, to prefer also an hope 

in the archives of the German Society in Philadelphia ; it bears the im- 
print " Apud || Henricum & Viduam || Theodore Boom, 1695." Of the 
second edition (1696) there is a copy in the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, and another in the library of the writer. 

51 Pemberton MSS., Smith's " History of the Province," Hazard's Reg- 
ister, vol. vi, No. 23. 

52 Gerard Croese, a Protestant divine, born at Amsterdam in 1642. He 
studied at Leyden, whence he went with a son of the celebrated De Ruyter 

John Jacob Zimmermann. 




De vulgo di&is Quakeris, 


natum fchifma , 


In quihus praeiercim agitur dc ip(b-' 
rum prxcipuis antecefloribus &do- 

gmatis(ut & (imilibus plaeitisahorum hoc 

tempore ) faflifquc , itiafibyti' 

Editio S ecumd a 

Indies lacuplctior. 

of better things, tho it were dubious before the present dan- 
ger, and forsaking their Country which they through the most 
percipitous and utmost danger, tho they suffered Death 

for the same, could not help 
and relieve as they supposed, 
QjUAKERIANA* and leaving their Inheritance, 

which they could not carry along 
with them, to depart and betake 
themselves into other parts of 
the world, even to Pensilvania, 
the Quakers Country, and 
there divide all the good and 
evil that befell them between 
themselves, and learn the Lan- 
guages of that People, and 
Endeavour to inspire Faith and 
Piety into the same Inhabitants 
by their words and examples 
which they could not do to 
these Christians here. 
" These agree to it, at least so far as to try and sound the 
way, and if things did not go ill, to fortify and fit them- 
selves for the same. 

"Zimmerman, having yet N. Roster** for his Colleague, 

to Smyrna, and on his return home became pastor of Alblasserdam, near 
Dort, where he died in 1710. He wrote the " History of the Quakers," 
printed in Dutch, 1694, and translated into English in 1696. It was answered 
by a Quaker work entitled " Dilucidationes qusedam valde' Necessarise in 
Gerardi Croesii, Hist.," 8vo. Croese wrote also a singular book, with 
the title of " Homerus Hebrasus, sive Historia Hebrseorum ab Homero," 
1704, 4to. The intent of this work is to prove that the Odyssey contains 
the history of the Jews in the patriarchial ages, and that the Iliad is an 
account of the siege and capture of Jericho. He is chiefly known by his 
history of the Quakers, which went through several editions in Latin, 
English and German. 


Anno M.DC.IVC- 

46 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

who was also a famous Man, and of such severe manners 
that few could equal him, writes to a certain Quaker in 
Holland who was a Man of no mean Learning, and very 
wealthy, very bountiful and liberal towards all the poor, 
pious and good : 

" That as he and his followers and friends designed, 
(They are the very words of the Letter which is now in my 
Custody). To depart from these Babilonish Coasts, to those 
American Plantations, being led thereunto by the guidance 
of the Divine Spirit, and that seeing that all of them 
wanted worldly substance, that they would not let them 
want Friends, but assist them herein, that they might have 
a good Ship well provided for them to carry them into those 
places, wherein they might mind this one thing, to wit to 
shew with unanimous consent, their Faith and Love in the 
Spirit in converting of People, but at the same time to 
sustain their bodies by their daily Labour. 

" So great was the desire, inclination and affection of 
this Man towards them, that he forthwith promised them 
all manner of assistance, and performed it and fitted them 
with a Ship for their purpose, and did out of that large 
Portion of Land he had in Pensilvania, assign unto them a 
matter of two thousand and four hundred Acres, for ever of 
such Land as it was, but such as might be manured, im- 
posing yearly to be paid a very small matter of rent upon 
every Acre, and gave freely of his own and what he got 
from his friends, as much as paid their Charge and Passage, 
amounting to an hundred and thirty pounds sterling; a 
very great gift, and so much the more strange, that that 

53 P- 539, et seq. (English translation, vol. ii., p. 262, seq. ). 

54 Zimmermann, p. 563, ibid, original edition. 
65 This should be Henry Bernhard Koster. 

The German Pietists. 47 

same Quaker should be so liberal, and yet would not have 
his name mentioned, or known in the matter. 86 

" But when these Men came into Holland, they Sailed 
from thence directly for Pensilvania ; 57 Zimmerman sea- 
sonably dies, but surely it was unseasonable for them, but 
yet not so, but that they all did chearfully persue their Voy- 
age, and while I am writing hereof, I receive an account 
that they arrived at the place they aim at, and that they all 
lived in the same house, and had a publick Meeting three 
times every week, and that they took much pains, to teach 
the blind people to become like unto themselves, and to 
conform to their examples." 

Croese, in explanation, further states (English trans., 
vol. ii, p. 256) : " Moreover, there was in Germany, as it 
were, three sorts of Pietists (pardon the expression). One, 
which I have described, consists of those who sought, and 
pressed nothing else, but sincere Religion and true Piety; 
and the greatest part of those are among the Learned and 
better sort of men, through Saxony and all Germany. 

"[Second.] — Another sort of them was that cryed, That 
the Church was much Corrupted, and loved Piety; but such, 
who themselves on the other hand, stagger not a little in 
the Faith and True Religion, and these same are commonly 
less moderate and more violent in Celebrating their Assem- 
blies together 

"[Third.] — The third sort of them was that which may 
be called Behmists or Teutonists ; 58 these called back, as it 

56 Everything goes to point to Benjamin Furley as this charitable friend, 
who was also the agent of Wm. Penn at Rotterdam. 

57 This an error ; the party went from Rotterdam to England, thence 
to America. Vide, p. 15, supra. 

58 They were also known as Gichtelians or Gichtelianer, who were 
conspicuous for their silent, virtuous and benevolent life. 

4 8 

The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

were, Jacob Behman™ the Shoemaker of Garlingen in Si- 
lesia, from the Dead, who was called Tutonick, and did both 
Broach those Opinions, which had been really delivered by 
him, as also those Errors that had been falsely laid upon him, 
and ascribed to him, yea, and horrid and hellish Blasphemy, 
and cried them up as worthy of all Esteem and Glory." 

59 Jacob Boehme, or Behmen, was one of the most renowned mystics of 
modern times. Born in 1575 at Altseidenberg, a village near Gorlitz, of 
poor parents, lie remained to his tenth year without instruction and em- 
ployed in tending cattle. He was then apprenticed to a shoemaker, and 
in 1594 he became a master shoemaker in Gorlitz, married and continued 
a shoemaker all his days. Several visions and raptures led him to take up 
the pen. His first work appeared in 1616, and was called " Aurora." It 
contains his revelations on God, man and nature. Perhaps his most im- 
portant work is his ' ' Description of the Three Principles of Divine Being. ' ' 
His works contain many profound and lofty ideas. He died, after several 
prosecutions and acquittals, in 1624. 

Several complete sets of Boehme's works (Amsterdam edition, Gichtel, 
1682, 10 vols. ) were brought over to America by Kelpius and his followers. 

Arms of the United Netherlands, from an old Copperplate. 



'■V-"" '—-./ . . .<M^ ■ .. ■ ■. . ..... 

Effigv of Johannes Tauler in the former Church of the Dominicans 
at strasburg, from a sketch made in 184o. 



T was in the second 
half of the seven- 
teenth century, dur- 
ing a marked period of 
spiritual unrest which per- 
vaded Germany, that an 
agitation was caused in 
German theological circles 
by the well-known divine 
Philip Jacob Spener, 60 who 
advocated a system of per- 

Ancient Episcopal Seal of Erfurth. SOnal and practical piety, 

having for its central principle "That Christianity was 
first of all life, and that the strongest proof of the truth of 
its doctrine was to be found in the religious experience of 
the believing." 

Organizations were formed which became known as 
" Collegia Pietatis," and the individual members as " Pie- 

Greek monogram of Christ and symbol of salvation. 

60 Philip Jacob Spener, born in Alsace, January 13, 1635 ; died in Ber- 
lin, February 5, 1705. As early as 1680 he formulated the dogma that 
only persons inspired by the Holy Ghost could understand the Scriptures, 
which produced many enthusiasts. For a time he lived in Dresden, 
afterwards in Berlin, where he held some ecclesiastical dignities. 


The Pietists in Germany. 



The German Pietists. 

5 1 

tists," 61 and as Spener obviously based his dogmas upon 
the writings of Johannes Tauler, 02 these " Collegia" through- 
out Germany soon became homes for the mystics of all 
sorts — religious and speculative — with which continental 
Europe swarmed at the time. 

Autograph of Philip Jacob Spener, from Dreer Collection. 

Among the names prominent in this movement are 
Johann Heinrich Horbius, brother-in-law to Spener, Hoch- 
mann von Hochenau, 63 August Hermann Francke, 64 Gott- 
fried Arnold, 65 Dr. Johann Jacob Fabricius M of Helmstadt, 
Dr. J. W. Petersen, Johanna von Merlau and many others 
of equal prominence. 

One of the most important centers of this movement was 

the ancient city of 
gia. At an early 
tion it became a ral 
dents, Mystics and 
parts of Germany, 
ed the organization 
eventually came to 
The date of the 
individual Chapter 


Erfurth, in Thurin- 
period of this agita- 
lying-point for stu- 
Pietists, from all 
Here also was fonn- 
a part of which 
America in a body, 
organization of this 
in Erfurth was in 

1690 or 1 69 1, when Arms of erfurth, 1693. we find it under the 
leadership or patronage of Rev. August Hermann Francke, 87 
then " Diaconus Augustini" (assistant pastor at the Augus- 

52 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

tine Church). Under date of January 27, 1691, a commis- 
sion was appointed by the reigning authority to inquire 
about the Pietists who held secret meetings by day and 

61 A somewhat similar movement in the Roman Church at the same 
period was started by one Miguel de Molinos. The members of this sect 
were known as Quietists. A more extended notice of this order is given 
in a subsequent chapter. 

62 Johannes Tauler (the name is variously spelled in the old MSS. viz. , 
Tauler, Tauller, Tauweler, Thauler, and even Thaler, vide, catalogue 
libr. MSS., Leipsic, p. 721). This celebrated leader among mystic theo- 
sophists was born in 1290 at Strasburg. About the year 1308 he entered 
the convent of the Dominicans, and became a monk of that order. He 
acquired great skill in philosophy and scholastic divinity, but applied 
himself principally to mystical theology, and as it was believed that he 
was favored with revelations from heaven, he was styled the Illuminated 

His great talents for preaching soon made him the most popular preacher 
of his age. In his great love of truth and the earnestness with which he 
devoted himself to the instruction of the people, and in his opposition to 
the abuses of the Roman Church, Tauler was a worthy predecessor of 

His followers were known as Gottesfreunde, or the Friends of God, 
a designation derived directly from the words of Christ as recorded in the 
Gospel of St. John xv, 15. Tauler's followers formed themselves into 
Chapters and Societies, and after the publication of the ban of the Church 
continued to meet in secret. 

The following extract from a sermon preached by Tauler on the twenty- 
second Sunday after Trinity ( Basel folio MSS. , A. D. 1 290) gives his reasons 
for the institution of the new mystical society der Gottesfreunde. It also 
serves as an representative specimen of Tauler's composition and 
mediaeval German, — 

„Der furfte dirre 
„welte der hat iezent an alien enden geseget das unkrut 
,,under den rosen, das die rosen dicke von den dornen 
„verdrucket oder" sere geltochen werdent. Kinder, es mus 
„ein fluht oder ein ungelicheit, ein sfinderheit sin, es si 
„in den kloftern oder do ufsen, und das ensint nut sec- 
„ten das sich- gottes frunt ungelich usgebent der welte 
„frunden" ,. 

The German Pietists. 


A Collegium Piktatis in Session. 
(From an old German engraving.) 

54 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

night, and were harbored by the Diaconus Francke in one 
of the abandoned cloisters within his parish. 68 

The result of this inquisition was an edict for the sup- 
pression of the Chapter, together with a censure and fine 
imposed upon the Diaconus Francke. Whereupon Francke, 
as well as his Senior, Dr. Breitenhaupt, 69 preached several 
sermons against the action of the authorities. 70 This action 

3n Bmnrawtrf / gjorlwflm if. 

UnfecS (tegndblgffm Monarchen 


Brnlfflfitf uiH>B6jglM>ortKffIi8rt 


3>tf &rtmli$c 3nfaraminrunfftf unc flotlfoCr 3rr<£(fr«i 

SDcrer 3$iefi(?cn/ 

2mDm£>&d)fi'f>rtiflt(i)oit.anbn oAtniidjni Dwftw 
Anno 1700. emwiiitt/ 

QSon @eer. ffimm D. Neumanno, 

®Otm dutv C«hC( Anno i;oB fiufgcltgrtf 

ftSfl) mcffi imD mrfjr anWDacohn 9! r umiogrn uut cutn 

uwainfliktin Adaiffle 

3tn Stint £orf)t»iJroig« Macntficexci, 



Henxico Bum, Piflwtju St Nfcohl imSConfifh*. to 6lntAtUS> 

86nc fflbmaii^tn JStflirfrir 







Bfflcn CoDvemicnlis , imb Sffuns ©u5n)rcmmTi5<t 

"-"01/ nflr ou> to* Bairn/ ^icWgcr mto €M}ul>S?<oimic id 


FiAlidntm eudtm tm 6. OitrS.T 

Anno 1694. 

renewed the trouble and culminated in Diaconus Francke 
being excommunicated by the Church at Erfurth. This 

6S Ernst Christoph Hochmann von Hochenau, a leading mystic, who 
while imprisoned in the Castle Detmold, in November, 1702, formulated 
a Pietistical creed or profession of faith (Glaubensbekentniss). This was 
republished by Christopher Saur in Germantown, 1743. A fragment of 
an Ephrata reprint has also been found. 

64 Croese in his account states, p. 545 : "The chief whereof (the Pie- 
tists) were Augustus H. Francus, the Disciple and Companion for a long 
time of Spener and John L'Schadeus, Francus' fellow-student, both of 
them Masters of Art, and Learned and Eloquent." 

65 Gottfried Arnold, a Lutheran clergyman and well-known writer on 
mystic theology. 

66 The tutor of Johannes Kelpius. 

Royal Edicts. 55 

decretum was issued September 18, 1691, and went into 

force forthwith. 71 Twenty-four hours only were granted 

him to leave the city ; during which time he is said to have 

ovxtatis erffurtensis composed the beautiful Ger- 

HISTORIA CRITICA man h y mn " Gott Lob ein 

ET DIPLOMATICA, SchrittzurEwigkeit." Upon 

»«sBuS am the formulation of this edict 

\t&Av\» *^^«*ff« fix ^ r ' Breitenhaupt, the "Sen- 

MPnCDM^llllItiP; ior Augustini," preached a 

»0MW«f«etaMUrfimSi»4raiSDra)(i4Jttifl!saif. sermon in justification of 

Mte «ff*S4£f 1 M^ ,Ww Francke, for which he also 

©mi|1 audi mile uni> grof ten Ifmlc ansaiujfi Rplonua, S3a. 


Tmlti SBt tmtju Jobam ojiuan, siirtKu. i 7J * 

^■'* ,w, ^Si*'?J!5SS 1 taSS^5as" l »» ,t «3c> was dismissed and ordered 

fa&ana6$)<mMt, t0 leave tne Clt y; a bod y 

B * *"" "'"^wS^ "**" ""*" of respectable burghers who 
iaM| ^ggjAMiggjjMi^ e ui)rM^«««n B attempiea to intercede ior 

Francke were summarily im- 

[August Hermann Francke. — This celebrated clergy- 
man was born in Iyiibeck, March 23, 1663 ; died June 8, 
1727. He is chiefly known for the charitable institution 
which he founded at Halle for the education of poor 
children and orphans, and which soon became one of 
the most celebrated charitable institutions of Germany. 
It is usually known as " das Hallische Waisenhaus." The 
usefulness of this institution was soon enlarged by the 

67 See " Civitatis Erffurtensis," p. 1056, copy in library of writer. 
63 " Civitatis Erffurtensis," p. 1055. 

69 This was the celebrated Joachim Justus Breitenhaupt, born at Nord- 
heim, February, 1658 ; died Halle, March 16, 1732. He is chiefly known 
by his "Thesis credendarum et agendorum fundementalis, " 1700, and 
" De perfectione partium," 1704. 

70 Ibid, p. 1056. 

71 " Civitatis Effurtensis," p. 1059; " Die Stiftengen Aug. Her. Francke," 
Halle, 1863, p. 66. 


The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Portrait and Autograph from Collection of Ferd. J. Dreer, Esq., Phila. 

The Halle Institution. 


introduction of a department having for its object the 
spreading of the Gospel in foreign parts. It was at the 
instance of this clergyman and under the auspices of the 
Halle Orphanage that the Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
berg was sent to America, where he became the patriarch 
of the Lutheran Church. It is further an interesting fact 
that the first church built in America by Pastor Miihlen- 
burg, at the "Trappe," in Montgomery County, Penna., 
was named in honor of August Hermann Francke the 
" Augustus Church," the congregation of which have just 
celebrated their sesqui-centennial (September 26, 1893). 72 
The church is still in a good condition and is the only 
provincial church in America which yet retains all of its 
quaint original features. 

Another interesting item in connection with the institu- 
tion presided over by Dr. Francke is the manner in which 
he obtained the sustenance for its support. One of the 
members of the Collegium Pietatis in Brfurth, Burgstaller 
by name, who was an alchemist and chemist, on his death- 
bed bequeathed to Francke the receipt for compounding cer- 
tain medicines, 73 which were sold by the different clergymen 
in sympathy with the institution. 74 These remedies eventu- 
ally yielded an annual income of more than $ 20,000," and 

72 See " Sesqui-Centenhial Memorial of Trappe Church," by Rev. E. T. 
Kretschmann, Ph. D. , Phila. , 1894. 

73 Burgstaller' s chief nostrum was the celebrated Goldlinctur, or extract 
of gold. It was also known as the Essentia dulcis. 

74 Prior to the Revolution these remedies were sent to America in large 
quantities, and were disposed of to the Germans and others by the resident 
Lutheran clergymen. In Philadelphia the main supply was stored in one of 
the side porches of St. Michael's Church, corner Fifth and Appletree Alley. 
By many persons these remedies were supposed to have magical or super- 
natural properties, against which neither Satan nor disease could prevail. 

75 The maximum income from that source was reached in 1761, and 
amounted to 36,106 thalers. 

58 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

made the institution financially independent. It combined 
an orphan asylum, a psedagogium, a Latin school, a German 
school and a printing press for issuing cheap copies of the 

(0, jUv :/&/%*■ <&6r^£ 

J ^y^ w' «*/* >w. J^rnS^S, H&-* 

Draft of Letter bv Francke to Spener, from Autograph Collection 
of Ferd. J. Dreer, Esq., Philadelphia. 

As the Pietistical movement spread and gained foothold 
in the various governments in Germany, and extended into 
the neighboring kingdoms, special edicts were issued against 
it, in which not only public and private 76 assemblages of the 
Pietists were forbidden, but also their literature. 77 

™ Edict promulgated at Leipsic, March 25, a.d. 1690. 
" Edict, Stockholm, October 6, 1694. 

Royal Edicts. 59 

In all of these edicts 78 the sale of all Pietistical or suspici- 
ous books was prohibited under heavy penalties, while 
reading and discussing, or even countenancing, such works 
was interdicted by both Church and secular authorities. 

After his expulsion from Erfurth, Francke went to Gotha 
where his mother then lived. Shortly afterwards he received 
a call as pastor at Glaucha, 79 a suburb of Halle. 

In the year 1694 he was offered and accepted the professor- 
ship of oriental languages 80 in the new University at 
Halle, 81 and four years later (1698) founded the celebrated 
orphanage in the suburbs of Halle, which exists to the 
present day. 

Notwithstanding the expulsion of Francke from Erfurth, 
the meetings were continued without intermission, but less 
openly. Consequently, on July 20, 1693, the authorities 
issued another edict or " Decretum Senatus," which was pub- 
licly read from every pulpit, forbidding under penalty the as- 
semblage of any " Collegia Pietatis" within the jurisdiction. 

78 Edict, March 2, 1692 ; February 28, 1694. Manifesto, February 4, 
1697. Edict, January 7, 1698. Edict, Halle, January 25, 1700. A copy 
of all the edicts above quoted are in possession of the writer. 

79 Glaucha, a village or settlement without the walls of Halle. At that 
early period Glaucha and Halle were virtually two distinct towns. There 
was no communication between the two places after sundown, at which 
time the portals of Halle were closed. — Stiftungen Francke' s, p. 299. 

80 Francke afterwards filled the chair of theology. 

81 The celebrated Frederick University of Halle — so called after its 
founder Frederick I, King of Prussia — was opened in the year 1694. The 
Great Elector of Brandenburg had founded an academy at Halle in 1688, 
this was known as the " Ritterakademie," and in 1694 was changed into 
a university, when the celebrated Thomasius came hither from Leipsic, 
followed by a number of students. A series of distinguished professors 
and the liberal provisions of government soon raised this university to the 
rank of one of the first in Europe. The university was twice suppressed 
by Napoleon (1806-13). In 1815, by a Prussian Edict, the university was 
united with that of Wittenberg, since which time it bears the official title 
of the United Frederick University of Halle- Wittenberg, 


The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Among the minor clergymen of note who were attracted 
to the Pietistical movement was the before-mentioned John 
Jacob Zimmermann, of Bietigheim, in Wurtemberg, a man 
well versed in geometry, geomancy and astrology, as well as 

theology. He was also a promi- 
nent character in the various 
philosophical and theosophical 
fraternities in his native coun- 
try. Upon being deprived of his 
charge by the church authori- 
ties on account of his connection 
with the Mystics, it appears that 
he drifted to various places, and 
while in Hamburgh he became 
acquainted with Horbius, the 
brother-in-law of Spener. He 
finally went to Erfurth, and there 
perfected the plan of organizing 
a " Chapter of Perfection," and 
going in a body to the western world. 

Another of the chief pro- 
moters of this scheme of emi- 
gration, who never reached 
these shores, was the cele- 
brated Dr. Johann Wilhelm 
Petersen, who, together with 
his wife, Eleonore von Mer- 
lau, was a member of the 
Frankfort Land Company, 
under whose auspices Pas- 
torius had come to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1683. The inter- 
course between Dr. Petersen and the leaders of this Chapter 

Mystical Chart from Merlau's 
" Glaubens Gesprache mit 


Mystical Symbol from Merlau's 
" Glaubens Gesprache mit Gott." 

Eleonore von Merlau. 



of Pietists was close and intimate. The former, although 
a leading figure in the extreme mystical movements of the 
day, was no mere adventurer. A professor of Poesie in 
Rostock, pastor in Hanover, and superintendent in I/ubeck 
and Iyiineburg he moved in the best society. He was married 
to the celebrated Eleonore von Merlau, who was subject to 
ecstatic visions. 

The couple conscientiously studied the Apocalypse to 
ascertain when the millennium of Christ would take place. 
They were aided in this research by the beautiful Rosa- 

munda von Asseburg, an ecsta- 
tical phenomenon of the time, 
whose piety even L,eibnitz and 
Spener never questioned for a 
moment. The result of these 
speculations were published in 
1 69 1 simultaneously at Frank- 
fort and L,eipsic, under the title 
of "Glaubens Gesprache mit 

The outcome of Zimmer- 
mann's efforts, as stated by 
Croese, was an application 
made to some prominent Qua- 
kers in Holland for aid and 
sustenance during the proposed 
voyage. Zimmermann, how- 
ever, did not live to witness the 
successful culmination of his hopes, as he died on the eve 
of the embarkation at Rotterdam, in 1693. His widow 
with her four children, however, continued on the journey, 
and came to Pennsylvania with the party that her husband 
had been instrumental in organizing. 82 

§n Hrep unf erjcgifr 


ta it t Srafft/ 



ft* 'ft *tt€«Im ecligfrft/ 


3n bkftt Utytn ©ImiMofen 3rit 

lut 2luffmumtt ung un d iSmwtf un g Deo 

QXtutmt auftcft gt 



(Stfo finwcwi unD ju g ftctlau. 

■Statulf. UQt> JLrtptfg/ 

62 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The men who composed this Chapter of Mystics were 
not only Pietists in the accepted sense of the word, but 
they were also a true Theosophical (Rosicrucian) Commu- 
nity, a branch of that ancient mystical brotherhood who 
studied and practised the Kabbala, 83 which, when truly 
searched for, contemplated and understood, it is believed, 
" Opens her arms, and from its great height in the unknown 
essence of the Supreme Deity, the Endless, Boundless One, 
to its depth in the lowest materialism of evil, gives an 
opportunity for the reception and acquisition of the grandest 
and noblest ideas, to the highest and most subtle order of 
religious spiritual thought. 84 

82 The widow, Mary Margaret Zimmermann, and her three sons and one 
daughter, viz., Phillip Christian, Mary Margaret, Mathew and Jacob 
Christopher. Vide, will proved in Philadelphia, October I, 1725, Will 
Book "D," p. 433, etc. 

83 Various are the opinions of scholars respecting the origin of the 
Kabbalistic Philosophy. The Rabbis derive the kabbalistic mysteries 
from the most ancient times of their nation, nay even from Adam himself. 
But although a secret doctrine existed among the Hebrews in the earliest 
ages, this had reference merely to religious worship. The origin of the 
Philosophical Kabbala is to be sought for in Egypt, and dates from the 
time of Simeon Schetachides, who conveyed it from Egypt to Palestine. 
[Mansel (Gnostic Heresies) says: Persian influence at the captivity, a 
much likelier source. The dualism and angelology of Mazdeism sud- 
denly appear in the Old Testament after the captivity.] Thus : 2 Sam. 
xxiv, 1, Jehovah moves David to number Israel. This is the pre-exilian 
account. But 1 Chron. xxi, 1, says it was Satan. This is the post-exilian 
account, after contact with the Zoroastrian doctrine of Ahriman. It is 
well known that the Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit is a Persian name for 
a demon. Even such a sober scholar as Bishop Lightfoot admits a con- 
nection between Mazdeism and Essenism ; while L. H. Mills, one of the 
translators of the sacred books of the East, is still more pronounced in 
maintaining a direct historical connection between the late books of the 
Old Testament and the Zoroastrian cult. While the Kabbala probably 
arose from the same wave of post-exilian thought as generated Essenism 
it is extremely difficult to trace it back as a system beyond the Middle 
Ages, when its principal writings were composed. 

84 Kabbala. 

The Epitome. 


• * * 



;. Coruitfijz^ 



Epitome of the Pietistical Faith, page 3 of Rosicrucian MS. 

64 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The great object of these speculations was to reach the 
nearest approach that man can make to the unseen, that 
inner communion which works silently in the soul, but 
which cannot be expressed in absolute language nor by 
any words, which is beyond all formulations into word- 
symbolism, yet is on the confines of the unknown spiritual 
world. This state, it was held, could only be obtained 
away from the allurements of the world by entering into 
silence, meditation and inter-communion with one's self. 

" With the absolute negation of all world-matter, thought 
and world-matter existence ; or, in other words, the nearest 
approach to the Invisible can only be reached by the 
acknowledgment of the Non Ego." 

Translation of epitome, — 

" I understand — I purpose — I accomplish — I find pleasure 
in — I boast of — I delight in — I seek — nought. 

"I also seek nought 86 in Heaven or on Earth, except 
only the living Word. 

"Jesus Christ the crucified. — i Corinth., ii. 86 

" This is the most exalted, holiest and most judicious 
Articul^ of Heaven, and to us evidently disclosed by God 
revealed in the Light of Nature." 

85 An explanation of the occult term nothing is that it is to be taken as 
the antithesis of something. In occult literature the term nothing is 
sometimes applied to signify something which is inconceivable, and there- 
fore no thing to us. In the German, the word is used to denote the Non 
Ego, or the absolute insignificance of the human being in comparison 
with the Deity. 

86 "Jesus Christ and Him crucified." 

87 Used in the sense of a point of faith. 



'HE first matter to at- 
tract the attention 
of the leaders of the 
Theosophical community 
upon their arrival in the 
German settlement was the 
pitiful condition of the 
Germans, who were here 
entirely without any regu- 
larly ordained spiritual ad- 
visers, the nearest approach 
to church worship being the 
occasional house services of the Mennonite brethren, and 
the silent meetings like those of the Society of Friends, 88 
that were held at the house of Tennis Kundert. 89 



88 Watson, vol. ii, p. 23. 

89 A part of the walls of this old house was standing as late as 1823, 
a portion of what was then known as Lesher's Inn. At present it is 
known as No. 5109 Germantown Avenue. Mr. T. H. Shoemaker in- 
forms me of a singular fact regarding the old wall used by Lesher in 
rebuilding, that it would not retain a coat of "dash" or "roughcast," 
which fell off whenever put on, thus exposing the original stones and 



The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 


The early settlers of the German Township, although 
all were consistent Protestants and persons of exemplary 
piety, made no attempt whatever after their arrival in 

America to establish regular 
orthodox services according to 
either the Lutheran ritual or 
the Reformed, — the faiths in 
which they were all brought 
up in the Fatherland. 90 

No sooner had the enthusi- 
astic Koster learned of this 
ff ^««g«fi m ^ate of affairs than he imme- 

diately commenced to hold 
religious services in the Ger- 
man language, after the man- 
ner of the Lutheran Church, 
at the house of Van Bebber, 91 
wherein he sought to impress 
his hearers with the impor- 
tance of remaining steadfast to 
the dogmas of the Church as founded upon the original 
Augsburg Confession. 92 


$Biebi< aWtem CKci$gtflgjti 
Sfaafpurfli 9m» iy?o. ffarofo.v. 

ofcirjclicii/ntonnD into awcfcsarcfyuKi tcpgb 

Icgi/ttiD am torn Original telKn £fiiirf ilr(!en 

6«y<n vnO tdianbttiturt luacfd^fctt. 




3w PPppi nli M jtit flnhirTenHni Srjttfogoi 


Unwal Jtaamtomg><KwtttXmi*B'B<tai. 

. Cum privtlefciorixMucoS: Eandrbur^^e. 

©rtrutfl tqj Sriecric^ Jfflnmai/SSurWIIjnr 

Title of Roster's Personal Copy of 
the Unaltered Augsburg Con- 

90 Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, in Cincinnati Pioneer, vol. ii, p. 275. 

91 Jacob Isaacs Van Bebber, a baker of Crefeld, was one of the original 
six Crefeld purchasers who bought 1000 acres of land each from William 
Penn on June 11, 1683, and whose object was colonization and not specu- 
lation. Jacob Isaacs Van Bebber came to America as a Mennonite in 1687, 
and became one of the most influential persons in the community. He 
was a man of standing, ability, enterprise, and means. A few years after 
the arrival of Kelpius in America, Van Bebber moved to Philadelphia, 
where he is described, in 1698, as " a merchant in High Street. ' ' He died 
in the city prior to 171 1. For additional facts concerning the Van Bebber 
family, see Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, in Pennsylvania Magazine, 
vol. iv, pp. 1-41. 

92 The Augsburg Confession, presented by the Protestants at the Diet 
of Augsburg, 1530, to the Emperor and the Diet, and, being signed by the 

Religious Services. 67 

These services were public, and from the outset were 
well attended by the Germans. As they became known 
throughout the vicinity a number of English hearers pre- 
sented themselves. On account of their numbers it was 
at first thought that they were Quakers, who strove to fill 
the house so as to exclude the regular German worshippers. 
Such, however, proved not to be the case : they were, in 
fact, Keithians 93 or Christian Quakers, as the followers of 
George Keith were then called. Thus it frequently hap- 
pened that the English outnumbered the Germans. 

Impressed with the importance of the situation, Koster 
informed his German hearers that, as so many of the at- 
tendants at the services could not understand German, 
while nearly all knew English, he would thereafter conduct 
services in both languages. 94 This course at first caused 

Protestant States, was adopted as their creed. Luther made the original 
draught, at the command of John, Elector of' Saxony, at Torgau, in 
seventeen articles ; but, as its style appeared to be too violent, it was 
altered by Melanchthon, at the command of the Elector, and in compliance 
with the wishes of the body of Protestant princes and theologians. Thus 
changed, it was presented and read in the Diet, June 25, 1530, and hence- 
forth became the creed of the Orthodox Lutheran Church. 

Afterwards Melanchthon arbitrarily altered some of the articles, and a 
new edition with his changes appeared in 1540. The latter gave rise to 
the denomination known as " German Reformed." 

Koster's copy of the original Confession, the title of which is repro- 
duced in fac-simile, also contains the original seventeen articles as pre- 
sented by Martin Luther. This book is now in possession of the writer. 

93 George Keith personally disavowed the appellation " Keithian," and 
objected to its use by his enemies. In a letter written to Rev. Gerard 
Croese, he states : " As to my part, it is very odious to me that such among 
the people called Quakers, professing the same Christian faith with me, 
should be called Keithians. For if the name of Calvinist be odious to 
him, why should not the name of Keithian he equally odious to me and 
to my brethren professing the same faith of Christ with me, which name 
this author useth in divers places of his history?" See "The General 
History of the Quakers." (London, 1696 ; Appendix, p. 1.) 

94 Geschichte jetzt lebender Gelchrten (Zelle, 1743), p. 489. 


68 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

much dissatisfaction among the Germans. The English 
services were, however, soon transferred to Philadelphia, 
where Koster used all his eloquence and learning to lead 
such of the Quakers as were discontented back to the 

The Keithians flocked around his standard, and in the 
fall of 1694, for the first time since the establishment of 
the Province under Penn, church services, that approxi- 
mated orthodoxy, were held at regular intervals in Phila- 
delphia. 96 

One of the first fruits of these services was to show to 
what a low spiritual state the Province had fallen. As a 
matter of fact there were few or no English Bibles to be 
had. As soon as this became known to Koster he wrote to 
London, and at his own expense had a large number sent 
over from England 97 to Philadelphia for distribution among 
his hearers. It is a fact worthy of record that, notwith- 
standing the theosophical and mystical tendencies of Hein- 
rich Bernhard Koster, the pious and erratic enthusiast, the 
religious services instituted by him at Germantown and 
Philadelphia in 1694 were undoubtedly strictly according 
to the Lutheran ritual, and were also the first of the kind to 
be held in America in the German and English languages. 

Furthermore, it was the influence engendered by these 
religious meetings, led by the bold and aggressive German, 
that paved the way for the establishment of the Episcopal 
Church services as by law ordained in the Province. 

95 An account of his later religious services will be found in a subsequent 

96 Falkner, in his Sendschreiben aus der neuen welt, states, " In the 
house of this man Jacob Isaacs (Van Bebber) there are every week three 
meetings, at which Koster generally speaks publicly to the great edifica- 
tion of those present. It is also his custom to hold a meeting once a week 
in Philadelphia in which he speaks English." 

97 Rathelf, Biography, vol. vi, p. 494. 

Rev. Jacob Fabritius. 69 

The earliest church services held on the western banks 
of the Delaware or South River, under both the Swedish 
and the Dutch regime, were also services of the Orthodox 
Lutheran Church as founded on the Augsburg Confession, 
but they were held in either the Swedish or the Low 
Dutch language. 98 

It is true that the Rev. Jacob Fabritius," the last Swedish 
or Dutch clergyman who served the congregations on the 
Delaware prior to the arrival of Kelpius and his party, was 
a German by birth, and had been regularly ordained as a 
Lutheran pastor at Grosglogau, in Silesia, before coming 
to America ; but there are no records or traditions whatever 
to show that Fabritius ever held a single service in the 
German language while in Pennsylvania, or even that he 
opened communications with the German immigrants who 
arrived with Pastorius, or subsequently came to the Ger- 
manopolis in Penn's Province. 

While Koster was looking after the religious needs of 
the Germans and their English neighbors, Kelpius con- 
summated arrangements looking toward the permanent 

98 Acrelius, New Sweden (translation), p. 177. 

99 Rev. Jacob Fabritius, before mentioned, see note page 30, was origi- 
nally sent to America (New Amsterdam) by the Consistory of Amsterdam 
to serve the Dutch Lutheran churches along the Hudson River. He 
arrived in New York in 1669, but his conduct there, as is shown by the 
public documents of the day, was far from bringing honor upon himself 
or his church. After many quarrels with his congregations and the local 
magistrates, he finally drifted to the Delaware in 1671, and in the year 
following he and one Lock divided the Swedish congregations into two 
parishes. In 1677 we find Fabritius holding services in the old block- 
house at Wicacoa. It also appears that Fabritius lived up the Delaware, 
somewhere on the river bank near Shackamaxon. He died some time in 
1693, about a year before the arrival of the theosophical fraternity. An 
attempt has been made by a late writer to show that the blind pastor of 
Wicacoa was the son of the celebrated court preacher of the same name 
as Gustavus Adolphus. 

70 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

settlement of his party and the religious and moral educa- 
tion of the neglected youth within the German Township, 
as one of the best means to promote vital religion, to raise 
the lukewarm from indifference and excite a spirit of vigor 
and resolution in those who had been satisfied to lament in 
silence the progress of impiety. 100 

The individual members of the party who had found 
refuge among their countrymen in the settlements of Som- 
merhausen and Crisheim near the Wingohocking, 101 by 
whom they were most cordially received, and where they 
shone as peculiar lights, remained in the vicinity of Ger- 
mantown only until such time as Thomas Fairman the 
surveyor could locate and survey for them a tract of land 
some distance 102 from Germantown, containing 175 acres, 
which was given to them after their arrival by a well- 
disposed resident of Philadelphia. Evidently this parcel 
of land had no connection with, nor was it any part of, 
the 2400 acres given to them previous to their departure 
from Holland. 

This tract was on what is now, after the lapse of two 
centuries, still known as the "Ridge." It was then sup- 
posed to be the highest point of land vacant in the vicinity 
of Germantown, and was part of the range of hills which 
formed the rugged dell through which purled a crystal 
stream, the Wissahickon, 103 over rock and ledge until the 
waters mingled with the placid Schuylkill. 

Here the necessary ground was cleared and a log house 
built upon the highest point of the tract. This structure 

100 Ephrata MSS. 

101 Fahnestock MSS. 

102 Several old accounts state "three miles." 

los Then called Whitpaine's Creek. Wissahickon (Wisamekhan), the 
Indian name, according to Heckewelder, denotes " Catfish Creek." 

The Tabernacle in the Forest. 

7 1 

was forty feet square and true to the cardinal points of the 
compass. It was for the use of the forty brethern whose 
number, as before stated, was arrived at according to the 
esoteric symbolism of the Rosicrucian fraternity. 104 

It was especially designed for 
their various requirements, and 
is said to have contained a large 
room or "saal" for their relig- 
ious and musical services, in 
addition to a school-room and 
the separate " kammern" or cell- 
like rooms for the recluse Theo- 
sophists. 105 

Surmounting the roof was a 
lantern or observatory (stern- 
warte) for the observation of the 
heavens. Here some of the 
scientific members were contin- 
ually on the watch at night 
with a telescope and other in- 
struments, being on the lookout ancient telescope now at amer- 
for celestial phenomena,— so that ICAN p " ILOS °'""' CA '- S ° CIETY - 
in case the Bridegroom came in the middle of the night 
their lamps would be found to be filled and trimmed. 

104 Vide, p. 40, ante. 

105 An old legend descriptive of this tabernacle in the forest was incor- 
porated by George Lippard, a novelist of half a century ago, in one of 
his publications. The writer has heard it stated upon good authority that 
Lippard's informant had in his youth frequently seen and been about the 
ruins of the old structure. It may be well to state here that this building 
is not to be confounded with the massive stone one farther up the stream, 
which was built in 1738, and is still known as "the monastery on the 

The description given to Lippard says that the building was upon the 

72 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

This crude observatory, having for its object matters both 
mystical and astronomical, was without doubt the first astro- 
nomical observatory set up within the Province. 

Surmounting this structure was 
raised a peculiar cross or emblem, 106 
in such a position that the first 
rays of the sun as it rose in the 
east would flood the mystic symbol 
with a roseate hue. 107 

The rugged ravine through which 
the Wissahickon found its way into 
the Schuylkill was especially well 
suited to the uses of the mystic 
Fraternity and their esoteric studies. Wild, weird, and 
rugged as it was, shaded by the ghostly hemlock and 
stately pine, it afforded cool retreats for repose, contem- 
plation, and study during the long summer days. Crystal 
springs trickled from the rocks ; the healing aroma of the 
balsam-pine and sweet scents from the flowers were wafted 
in the air, while strains from the throats of scores of 
feathered songsters added an almost celestial charm to the 

Rosicrucian Symbol. 

brow of a hill, a large square edifice built of trunks of giant oaks and 
pines, and that it rose above the surrounding -woods. The roof, in 1770, 
was crushed in, as though stricken by a hurricane, many of the tim- 
bers lying in a shapeless mass. The walls, however, were still intact. 
Towards the west there were four large square spaces, framed in heavy 
pieces of timber, while the other sides of the structure were almost blank. 
In the large lower room, which was circular in form, there were the 
remnants of an altar and a large iron cross fixed against the wall. 

106 The symbol of the true Rosicrucian Fraternity is a cross within a 
circle. Its antiquity reaches far behind the Christian era. The symbol, 
however, is a mere variation of the " Sonnen rad," or solar wheel. The 
circle denotes the solar year or eternity, while the four arms of the cross 
typify the four seasons. There are other esoteric meanings connected 
with this symbol, which are only explained to the initiates. 

The Cave in the Hillside. 73 

To complete the enchantment, as it were, a small natural 
cave existed among the rocks of the hillside, near which 
flowed a spring. This cave was claimed by Magister Kel- 
pius as his own, and to it, after it was enlarged and made 
habitable, he was wont to retire for contemplation and 
prayer until the end of his days. 

From an old Ephrata manuscript it is learned that from 
the outset the plan for seclusion in the forest was strenu- 
ously opposed by the residents of the German Township. 
It seems that various members had made so good an im- 
pression upon the people amongst whom they were tem- 
porarily quartered that when the time came for them to 
resume their communal life, considerable opposition arose 
against it. Arguments were advanced by the citizens that 
" they were not entrusted with talents to be hid in a napkin, 
and that the obligations they were under for their valuable 
inheritance should constrain them to render themselves 
useful in the promotiou of vital truth for the benefit of 

In vindication of their course the brethren persisted in 
the " conviction of being impelled by a power to live apart 
from the vices and temptations of the world, and to be 
prepared for some immediate and strange revelations which 
could not be communicated amid scenes of worldly life, 
strife and dissipation, but would be imparted in the silence 
and solitude of the wilderness to those who came out from 

107 << jj u t w hen the dawning or morning redness shall shine from the east 
to the west, or from the rising to the setting, then assuredly time will be 
no more, but the sun of the heart of God rises or springs forth, and KA- 
RA. R. P. will be pressed in the wine-press without the city, and therewith 
to R.P. 

N.B. — These are hidden mystical words, and are understood only in the 
language of Nature." — Behmen's Aurora, chap, xxvi, vol. v, pp. 126-27. 


74 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The old manuscript further states that against these 
arguments all persuasion proved futile, and no sooner were 
the people forced to relinquish the hope of retaining the 
services and eloquence of the Theosophical students than 
many branded them as fanatics and self-righteous hypo- 

However, that in the end they triumphed and obtained 
the goodwill of the greater portion of the community, is 
shown by the letter of Daniel Falkner, written to Germany 
under date of August 7, 1694, wherein he also gives the 
intentions of the Fraternity, 108 viz., — 

" We are now beginning to build a house there, and the 
people lend us all possible help. We place this to the 
public good, and expect not a fool's breadth on our own 
account. For we are resolved, besides giving public in- 
struction to the little children of this country, to take 
many of them to ourselves and have them day and night 
with us, so as to lay in them the foundation of a stable, 
permanent character. With them beginning must be made, 
otherwise there will be only mending and patching of the 
old people." 

To these religious enthusiasts in the forest on the banks 
of the Wissahickon is due the credit of making the earliest 
attempt to erect and maintain a charitable institution for 
religious and moral instruction within the bounds of Penn- 
sylvania. 109 

108 Falkner, Sendschreiben, translation, Pennsylvania Magazine, vol. 
xi, p. 441. 

109 It appears from the journals of the Provincial Council that as early 
as December, 1683, Enoch Flower undertook to teach school in the 
"town of Philadelphia." His charges, a record of which is still pre- 
served, indicate the simplicity of the period. To learn to read English, 
four shillings a quarter ; to write, six shillings, etc. ; boarding a scholar, 
to wit, lodging, washing, and schooling, £\o for the whole year. It will 

Muhlenberg's Tribute. 75 

A tribute to the educational efforts of this Fraternity will 
be found in the correspondence of the Rev. Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg with the Orphanage at Halle, 110 where, in com- 
menting upon the remarkable 
incidents that came under his A p^ shmt 

notice during his long pastorate CATECHISM 
in America, he recites the case of _, F ° R 

a devout widow who had been a . n Children ^ Y °"*' 

That may be Serviceable- to fucn Oiherc, 

member of the Lutheran Church • ton a^JclnSoiVbt'*''"" 
at Germantown, and to whom he Chriihan Religion. 
administered spiritual consolation T..«*icinn*tai. 

- - . ._, _ A fhort Paraphrafc or Opening, by way 

during her last illness. He there <* Mo4io™> °» ^« *»»«•«*«» -m 

° Lord JefusChnfl aughtbuDitciplc^com- 

states that in her tender youth this ■°°°'y«'K t^u*.**, 

devout sister went to school and — '—— — — — ■ 

was instructed by Johannes Seelig, *j " dvtal " w<—"*»t— 

and that it was through his teach- ^^:Jt^ZJ%^7^°X'«\ 

, wlmbt-iit pffi-'ip' ofikOrnk «T 

mer that ner mind received such <*i, ~* <~ <.»-/«»»<» tm**** 

° Milk,***""! t™l M "'- 

gentle impressions as emanate r^Sund so* t>. wi«». s^j^j^inu, 
only from true piety. 

. . .. , Title of Keith's Cathecism. 

In addition to their other labors 
a piece of ground was cleared and a large garden cultivated 
for their own support. Considerable attention was also given 
to growing and acclimating medicinal herbs (krauter), which 
was probably the first systematic effort made to raise European 
medicinal plants for curative purposes in America. 

be seen from the above that Flower's venture was by no means a chari- 
table institution. The public school system, under the auspices of the 
Friends, of which George Keith was the first preceptor, was started 
about 1689 ; but it was not founded on a firm basis until chartered in 1701. 
George Keith had printed by William Bradford for use in his school a 
short catechism. The title-page of this unique book is reproduced in 
reduced fac-simile. A complete reproduction of the only known copy 
was made by the writer for the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

110 Nachrichten von den Vereinigten Deutschen Evengelisch-Luther- 
ischen Gemeinen in Nord America. Halle, 1787, p. 1265. 

76 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 



ft (fat itttcf) ia.Jtdaxfi 


"Vjjiitflf. , 

CSGifkratas if! 



3Hi crCchMnt /tomm 

fa&iQjabab nee 



(ckMAais, low 
tpftttix Mut. 


, ,-, ^ m 


Twenty-fourth Folio of Rosicrucian MS. 



Here in the solitude, far away from the bustle and gossip 
of the village, these Theosophical students when not em- 
ployed gn errands of mercy were free to devote their spare 

time to their esoteric studies, 
undisturbed by the tempta- 
tions of the world or official 
interference, — seeking Theo- 
sophical light, as set forth 
in their secret and zealously 
guarded symbolical manu- 

A former writer upon this 
community 111 well says, "Thus 
amid the rugged rocks and 
wild scenery of the Wissa- 
hickon, surrounded by the tall 
forest trees in beautiful groves, 
God's first temples, these Her- 
mits of the Ridge were wont to commune with their God." 
Such as remained true to their original compact, to- 
gether with the accessions to their 
number that arrived from various 
parts of Europe from time to time, 
lived here in the virgin forest of the 
New World in almost unbroken har- 
mony for a period of at least ten 
years, a strictly Theosophical frater- 
nity, whose tenets were 
founded upon the dogmas 
of the Cabbala and esoteric 

Symbol of the Ephrata Community. 

111 Hon. Horatio Gates Jones. 


affi AMMM7 


/^5FTER the Commu- 
_jrf nity was permanently 
installed in its new 
home in the Western World, 
Johannes Kelpius sought, as 
one of the chief objects of 
the Chapter, to bring about 
a union or combination of 
all the various sects that ex- 
isted among the Germans in 
Pennsylvania and unite them 
into one universal Christian 
Church. For this purpose public devotional services, ad- 
vocating Christian love and unity, were held every morning 
and evening in the large room or saal of the Tabernacle, 
to which all were invited. 112 

These services, it is stated, were opened with a prayer 
and a hymn ; then a portion of Scripture was read and 
critically examined, when any one present could advance 
his opinion and engage in a dispassionate discussion of any 
abstruse or unsettled point. Visitors, no matter of what 
nationality or whence they came, were received with much 
cordiality by the brethren, and made to feel welcome. 

Einfaltig A-B-C Biichel, etc. — From title page of Theosophical MS. 
112 Ephrata MSS. 

" Doctor Schotte.' 1 '' 79 

Prom a small book published over a century and a half 
ago by Christopher Sauer, it is to be inferred, upon authority 
of a certain " Doctor Schotte," that some kind of a mon- 
astic rule was observed by this band of Pietists, in addition 
to their esoteric discipline, both before and after their 
arrival in the New World. According to this somewhat 
doubtful authority, Kelpius was known as Philologus, 
eta Seelig as Pudens, Falkner as Gajus, 

atuntitutfi Rev A H Francke as Stephanus, 

^K £ f t & f Peterson as Elias, etc. 113 A careful 
" ' « r search, however, has thus far failed 

»■ tf ^tm to establish the identity of this " Dr. 

®«fmi\vf Schotte," or any corroboration of 

tfj lit U) D 1 1 1 Sauer's statements. 

5jcnm8ama*fa9cnt>tnDar8e!egt.3iiiu&&a& Frequent religious meetings, ex- 
tents |t»t? Sirieffe tins Cerai 1 . .- , ........ 

Uif«*. elusive of those con-ducted by Kos- 

ter, as before mentioned, were also 

t>emit«A*ng&Jii«t»w>i*ei>dm«|t» , ., _ , , 

rati)iiiE)»«»r,er*e»e/un»jinist. neid at U-ermantown, and at stated 

"t^rat" inter v al « at various places in the 

<™&» vicinity. No request for religious 

8iieaiaaMBSNaaNBa» instruction was ever refused, the 

<5erm«ntoni brethren holding themselves pre- 

pared to answer any calls trom afar 

or near at a moment's notice. 114 

It was through these services that the peculiar Theo- 
sophical dogmas of the Brotherhood became publicly 
known, as frequently during the fervent exhortations, 
Kelpius, Seelig, and other brethren, when shocked at some 
new evidence of spiritual indifference among their hearers, 

113 A reduced fac-simile of the title page of this curious book is here 
given. It is from the only known copy, in the library of Hon. Samuel 
W. Pennypacker. 

114 Ephrata MSS. 


The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

were apt to call upon the multitude to repent, as the hour 
of the approaching millennium was drawing near, — fortify- 
ing their arguments with well-known quotations from the 
Apocalypse. It was this feature that led to the Fraternity 
being called "The Woman in the Wilderness." A con- 
temporary of Kelpius states that this somewhat curious 
name was given them because they 
persisted in giving esoteric inter- 
pretations to the Scriptures, and in- 
dulged in unrestrained mysticism. 
But the real reason was that the 
Brotherhood believed and taught in 
their exhortations, as well as in their 
explanations of the Apocalypse, that 
the Woman in the Wilderness men- 
tioned in Revelation xii, 14-17, was 
prefigurative of the great deliverance 
that was then soon to be displayed 
for the Church of Christ. 

The appellation, however, was 
never acknowledged by the Frater- 
nity, as, in accordance with their 
mystical teachings and precepts, 
they desired to live in comparative 
seclusion, without name and, above all, sectarianism, in 
love and religious harmony with all men, at the same time 
looking after the spiritual welfare of the general com- 
munity, while perfecting themselves in their Theosophical 
and esoteric speculations as to the expected millennium. 

A curious entry, corroborative of the above, appears in an 
old Ephrata manuscript, and states, that " while giving up 

115 In Rosicrucian Theosophy this emblem typifies the " Celestial Eve," 
representing Theo-Sophia, divine wisdom, or nature in her spiritual aspect. 

Emblem of the 

Eve," from Ancient MS.' 



The Contented of the God-loving Soul. 81 

their souls to their Creator, and devoting their whole lives 
to a preparation of heart for the glorious inheritance pre- 
pared for the faithful, they mutually instructed each other, 
and cemented a bond of brotherly love and holy affection. 
They professed love and charity toward all denominations, 
but desired to live without name or sect. l The Contented 
of the God-loving Sou? 116 was the only name which they 
acknowledged. ' ' 

With the ignorant and rationalistic populace, however, 
they were almost exclusively known as " The Woman in 
the Wilderness," — Dass Weib in der Wuste. 

The old manuscript goes on to state that the Brotherhood, 
in using that peculiar part of the Holy writ, showed deep 
thinking and much ingenuity. As she (the deliverer) was 
to come up from the wilderness leaning on the Beloved, so 
[they] the beloved in the wilderness, laying aside all other 
engagements and trimming their lamps and adorning them- 
selves with holiness that they might be prepared to meet 
the same with joy, did well to observe the signs and the 
times and every new phenomenon, whether moral or pre- 
ternatural, of meteors, stars, and the color of the skies : if 
peradventure " the Harbinger may appear." They further 
argued that there was a threefold wilderness state of pro- 
gression in spiritual holiness, viz., the barren, the fruitful, 
and the wilderness state of the elect of God. It was this 
last state after which they were seeking as the highest 
degree of holiness. To obtain it they believed it very 
essential to dwell in the solitude or in the wilderness. 
Hence they were termed by others "The Society of the 
Woman in the Wilderness." 

Another cherished object with the Fraternity was the 

116 This fact is not mentioned elsewhere. 



The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 




cv e+ 



Motus Puta Intrinsecus 


conversion of the Indians. In their intercourse with the 
aborigines they attempted to ascertain to a certainty 
whether they were actually the descendants of the ten lost 
tribes of Israel, which at that time was almost universally 
believed. To settle this much disputed question, special 
efforts were made to find out whether the different tribes of 
Indians kept the seventh day (Sabbath or Saturday) holy, 
and, if so, how they kept it. They also instituted investi- 
gations as to whether there were any philosophers or " wise 

men" among the 
any system of phil 
how they practised 
were, and if they 
of the heavens ; also 
Indians observed 
of the extraordinary 
tial or celestial ; 
them ever showed 
inspiration or in 
(motus puta intrin 
whether among the 

Mithraic Symbol. 117 

tribes who practised 
osophy, and, if so, 
it, what the rites 
observed the course 
whether or not the 
and understood any 
phenomena, terres- 
whether any among 
any extraordinary 
ward movements 
secus) ; and, lastly, 
different tribes any extraordinary 
movements were noticeable indicative of the approaching 

A systematic educational movement was also started by 
Kelpius among the Germans. Thus it will be seen that 
the mystic Brotherhood by no means passed their time in 
idle speculation and indolence. The scriptural injunction 
to labor six days of the week was strictly complied with, 
as was also the one to keep the Sabbath holy. 

To their lasting honor be it said that all services of a 
spiritual, educational, and medical nature were given free, 
without price or hope of fee or reward. 

117 From ancient Rosicrucian MS. 




ITTLE has thus 
far been pub- 
lished in relation 
to the internal affairs 
or domestic life of the 
Fraternity after they 
were established in 
their new home on the 
banks of the Wissa- 

There is ground for 
belief that in more than 
one instance internal 
dissension manifested 
itself in the Community, in which Kelpius was called upon 
to act as general peacemaker. The brethren would have 
been saints indeed, if, under the stress of their peculiar life, 
jealousies and bickerings had not arisen. But on the whole, 
the unity seems to have been fairly well maintained, and 
the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness struck root 
deeply in the soil. 

SYMBOL Prima Materia, 118 

118 This ancient symbol represents the principle of Nature, the prima 
materia or primordal matter, — the foundation of all things. 

Koster" s Ministrations. 85 

Enough, however, is shown in the letter written to Ger- 
many by Daniel Falkner, August, 1694, 119 to prove that all 
did not remain true to their profession, "to remain free 
according to the better advice of St. Paul." 

The first to break his voluntary resolution of celibacy 
was Ludwig Christian Biedermann, who almost immediately 
upon his arrival in Germantown married Maria Margaretha, 
the daughter of the widow of Rev. Johann Jacob Zimmer- 
mann. They had been fellow-passengers across the ocean. 
Their example was followed by several other members 
during the first year or two. These defections, however, 
were not serious, nor by any means the greatest trouble 
that confronted the leaders of this experimental movement 
in practical theosophy. 

The first question to arise after the consecration of the 
Tabernacle in the Forest was the erratic and dictatorial 
course pursued by Koster and his few adherents in the 
Community. Koster, in addition to being a devout, austere 
enthusiast, was a fearless and impulsive man ; and, as before 
stated, lost no time in extending his ministrations from 
Germantown to Philadelphia, where he preached and ex- 
horted both in German and English. While in Phila- 
delphia he became more or less involved in the Keithian 
controversy, which was then agitating the Quakers through- 
out the Province. 

Koster, aggressive and belligerent as he was, without 
delay took sides with the partisans of George Keith, and 
whenever preaching to the Keithians lost no opportunity 
to widen the breach that existed between them and the 
Orthodox Friends. As an old German manuscript states, 
" He gradually led them from the ways of the Quakers, 
farther and farther into the lanes that ended in the true path." 

119 See mention of letter, p. 15. 


The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

As the Orthodox Friends, immediately upon the de- 
parture of Keith and prior to the arrival of Koster, had 

commenced a strong effort to heal 
the schism that then existed in 
their community and bring back 
the seceders, Koster's action did 
not tend to improve the religious 
situation in Philadelphia. His im- 
passioned and outspoken utterances 
gave fresh courage to the oppos- 
ing party, and emboldened them to 
esoteric Symbol.™ renew their discussions, which soon 
undid the efforts that had been made by the Friends in the 
interest of unity and peace. All the bitterness of the old 
strife was thereby revived, and dissensions were once more 
rife in the different meetings throughout the Province. 

The stand taken by the German enthusiast in reference 
to the troubles of the Society of Friends, which also par- 
took somewhat of a political 
nature, was not only opposed by 
the latter, but also by his more 
conservative associates and bro- 
ther Mystics, who had naught 
but the best feelings toward the 
Quakers, and were always in full 
accord and sympathy with them. 
Matters went along in this way 
for over a year, the breach grad- 
ually widening between Koster 
and his old associates as the time passed, and the former 
became more closely allied with William Davis and several 


Rosicrucian Symbol. 121 

120 According to the esoteric teachings, this symbol typifies the universal 
matrix, or great invisible storehouse of Nature, wherein the character of 
all things are contained and preserved. 

The Brethren in America. 87 

kindred spirits who had been among the first to foment the 
Quaker schism. The sequel of the disagreement between 
Kelpius and Koster was the withdrawal of the latter and 
a few others from the original Community, who, together 
with a few of the Keithians, attempted, under the leader- 
ship of Koster, to form a new community of religious 
evangelists. They called themselves "The Brethren in 
America," and their community was to be known as "The 
True Church of Philadelphia, or Brotherly L,ove." 

For the purposes of the society a piece of ground was 
obtained in Plymouth, a short distance north of German- 
town. Just how this ground was obtained is not known 
to a certainty, nor has the location been traced. The old 
manuscript, before quoted states that it was purchased by 
Koster ; 122 another account tells us that it was given to the 
new community. Be this as it may, a tabernacle or com- 
munity-house was built on the plot. 123 When finished, the 
building was consecrated with mystic ritual and called 
" Irenia,"— that is, "The House of Peace." Thus for a 
time two separate and distinct religious communities ex- 
isted in the vicinity of Germantown. 

This action of Koster, who, notwithstanding his erratic 
course, still adhered strictly to the Orthodox Lutheran 
doctrine in his religious services, had but little effect or 
influence upon the original Fraternity. Nowhere in the 
writings of Kelpius, Seelig, or Falkner is this defection of 
Koster thought worthy of mention. 

121 This symbol, representing an armillary sphere sustained by the three 
forces, viz., Truth, Justice, and Peace, according to the esoteric doctrine 
portrays the universe. 

122 According to Rathelf, p. 487, the Plymouth lot was bought jointly by 
Koster and two others. 

123 Ein Bericht an alle Bekenner und Schriftsteller. Von H. B. Koster. 
New York, 1696 ; p. 1. 

88 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Under the spiritual guidance of Kelpius, and the judi- 
cious financial management of Daniel Falkner, the matter 
proved but a passing episode in the history of the Frater- 
nity, as it soon recovered from whatever setback it had 

In the subsequent controversy 12i between Koster and the 
leading Quakers, in which Francis Daniel Pastorius 125 took 
so active a part, none of the other members of the original 
community became involved. 

The most important incident, from a literary point of 
view, after the formation of the " True Church of Phila- 
delphia" by Koster was the writing, in the fall or winter of 
the year 1697, of a Datin thesis, " De Resurrectione Imperii 
JEternitatusf 1 a quarto of forty pages. When the work 
was finished, as there was no printer in Pennsylvania at 
that time, he attempted to get it printed by William Brad- 
ford in New York. The printer declined the commission, 
as he could get no one to correct the printed sheets intel- 
ligently. 126 

This mystical dissertation is the first theological or theo- 
sophical book written or composed in Pennsylvania to be 
printed in the Latin language, if not within the English 

124 This famous controversy will be treated at length later on. 

125 Francis Daniel Pastorius was born at Somerhausen, September 26, 
1651. He attended the University of Strasburg in 1672, went to the 
high school at Basle, and afterwards studied law at Jena. He was 
thoroughly familiar with the Greek, Latin, German, French, Dutch, 
English, and Italian tongues, and at the age of twenty-two publicly dis- 
puted in different languages upon law and philosophy. After practising 
law for a short time in Frankfort, he sailed for America from London, 
June 10, 1683, and arrived in Philadelphia August 20th. His great learn- 
ing and social position at home made him the most conspicuous person 
in Germantown. He married, November 26, 1688, Ennecke Klostermann. 
He died leaving two sons. 

126 Zellische Gelehrten Geschichte. 

" De Resurrectione." 89 

colonies on the Atlantic coast. The full text of this 
extremely rare and almost forgotten work reads (transla- 
tion) : " A Directory and Universal View || of the Ashkenaz- 
Elamite Journals || that is || of the at last triumphant 
struggles of arising and restoring righteousness || to wit 
|| of the Resurrection || of the Empire of the Eternities || 
among the Churches exiled yet pressing forward from 
Jesus to Jesus the Restorer || from the Millennium of the 
Apostolic Jerusalem unto the Trumpet of Illyricum and to 
the sixth Vial : || Romans xv. 19 ; Rev. ix. 13, 14 ; xvi. 12. || 
Succinct Axioms || on the arising of the future eternity of 
the seven Hebrew vials or the || sixth week [or Hebdomad] 
of the eternities, against the Beast and Babylon the great, to 
the union of the empire of the || fullness of the nations with 
the Universal Church of the Israel that is to be saved; || 
composed || in the City of Philadelphia of America, on the 
border of great Cymry-Wales || upon the ashes of the Indian 
husbandman of ancient || Celt-Iberian or Celtic-Hebrew 
Spain, toward the close of the year 1697 ; in those days 
when, in the limits of the City and the whole region of 
Philadelphia, the first standard and public outcry against 
every arrogance and enthusiasm || Spanish and Quaker was 
set up || by the Philadelphian Union of the Un- 
armed Baptism of the primative churches || 01 
Asia (reviving after the completed ages of Anti- 
christ, in this candlestick 127 [candelabrum] or upon 
|| return of the sixth spirit- 
ual day) with the temperate 
rule of the British Church -sophar," or sacred trumpet. 

and Monarchy || being the first Christian [church] thence 
from Constantius Chlorus under the presidency of the sixth 

127 Candelabrum, besides its obvious allusion to the Apocalypse, was 
here used by Koster to designate an evangelist, or one who diffuses light 
( Lampentrager) . 

90 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 



Triumphantium tandem agonumjuftitue exorientteatque reducis, 


De resurrectione 


Inter Ecclefias exuJcs & perfeverantes a Jefu ad Jefam redacem. 

a aiillennio Jerufalem Apoftolicaj u'sque ad Tubam Illyrici &phia- 

lam. fextam Rom. if. v. 19. Apoe. 9. v. 13. 14. cap. 16. v. u. 


In exovtum JEternitatis futttrte yphialarum Hebrxarum, Hebdoma~ 

dusfcxts /£tcrnitatuni)Contra P.eftiam & Babylonem tHdgtiam, aduniontm Impcriiple* 

nitudints gentium cumfalvtindi Ifraetis univerjl£ccUJtat 


Inurbe Philadelphia America?, Magnse Cimbro -Cambria; fer- 
mino , fuper cineribus Indianorum colonorum HiipanicB veteris 
'Celt-ibericiE vel Celt-ebraa:, circa Colophonem Anni 1697. 'H' s diebus, quibus in 
pomoeriis urbis totique regione Philadelphia: contra omnem faftum & Enthufia- 
fmumHifpanicum & Quakerianum erigebatur primum vexillum & publicum 
praconium philadelphica? unionis baptifmi inermis primasvarum Eccle/iarum 
Afia:(revivifcentium poft Antichriiti abates completas, hoc candelabri five diei 
lexti fpiritujdjs reditu ) cum regimine moderato Ecclefia: 6c Monarchic Britanni- 
cajjChriftiaJiKprimaEincleuConitantiqChlorofubprJEfidio figilli fexti complect 
& redivivi in Chriftianiflimo Heroc & Monarcha Riege Guliehno III. cumque te- 
ftimonio vindi&arum Sionis Bohcmicae & Waldenfis fcb revivifcente nunc Tu- 
ba fcxta cum phialafexta,refiauratriceju(litia:&fapientia: Ofientalis & civitatis 
acgloriaeHebrEeorum;demonftrance & publice nuncpromulgadfe perin- 
tioicum Hcbrao-Waldenfem five'Tertium 


Prophetic Hebrttorum ref ertttt,Stttdiofo. 

Lemgo via:, typis Henr. WlHilMeyeri, 1702. 

" De Resurrectione." 


The Holy Lamp of the 

seal completed || and revived in the 
most Christian Hero and Monarch 
King William III. and with the || 
witness of the liberation of the Bohe- 
mian and Waldensian Zion under the 
now reviving || sixth Trumpet, together 
with the sixth Vial, the restorer of 
righteousness and Eastern wisdom and 
of the state || and glory of the He- 
brews. Demonstrated and now pub- 
licly promulgated through the Hebrew- 
Waldensian or third entrance, || by 
Henry Bernhard Koster || studious 01 
the unlocked Prophecy of the Hebrews. 
|| Lemgo [in Lippe Detmold], printed 
by Wilhelm Meyer, 1702." A fac-simile of the title is 
also reproduced from the original. Great was the disap- 
pointment of Koster, upon the com- 
pletion of the thesis, when he found 
that the work could not be printed 
in America. Upon his return to 
Europe he, however, lost no time in 
having the manuscript put into print. 
A number of these copies were sent 
to his friends and late associates in 
America. The only known copy of 
this work is now in the library of 
the writer. This book not only shows 
the trend of Koster's thoughts and 
speculations as to the expected mil- 
lennium, but also furnishes a proof 
of his great learning and the scope 
of his researches in both sacred and Anc,ent Hkrmktic Emblem " 
profane history. His language and ideas, however, are 

92 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

frequently presented in an erratic if not somewhat disjointed 
manner. The following extract will serve as an illustra- 
tion. His theme here is the coming of the Lord. — (i 
Thess., iv 16, 17.) 128 

" Awake ! The hour calls to us, — They call unto us with 
a loud voice, — Awake ! thou City of Jerusalem, — Midnight 
is the Cry, — The watcher is high upon the house-tops, — 
Awake ye wise Virgins, vel. (or) Awake ! the voice calls 
unto us, — The watcher stands high on the house-tops, — 
Awake ! thou city of Jerusalem, — Midnight is the hour, — 
They cry unto us a with a loud voice, 

— Wise Virgins, yffflPuk where are you ?" 

The rival com \ g ffl f _ -7 munity that Koster 
attempted to estab \\m? 'llfl// ^^h at Plymouth 
never became a sue VT /mC cess > ^ ^ e doctrine 

taught by him at jf \ \ / /j Ik his public services 
was not conducive wMKW^ ^ Mfflmk to either monastic 
or communal life. \ y In fact, Koster was 

more of an Evan V gelist and Theoso- 

phist than a Mystic philosopher. The plain orthodox 
doctrine preached by him was entirely different from the 
peculiar mysticism and code of morality promulgated by 
Kelpius and his followers. 

That the former was also versed in occult philosophy, 
the doctrines of the Cabbala, and believed in an approach- 
ing millennium, however, is not denied. 

The subsequent career of Koster and his works form the 
basis of a special chapter. 

1 Page 30 of original. 


O 1 

k N Tuesday, the 29th day of 
June, 1697, a party of 
three respectable-looking 
personages came ashore at the 
public landing in Philadelphia. 
They were the missionaries sent 
to America by Charles XI, King 
of Sweden, in response to the re- 
peated appeals from the Swedish 
Lutherans on the Delaware, at the 
instance of the Rev. Dr. Jesper 
Svedberg, 130 who was at that time 
Provost (Domprobst) of the Cathedral at Upsala. 

An Ephrata Symbol. 129 

129 From the Blutige Schauplatz, oder Martyraer Spiegel der Tauffs 
Gesinten. Ephrata, 1745. 

130 Dr. Jesper Svedberg (father of Emanuel Svedberg, afterwards 
called Swedenborg) became an army chaplain in 1682 ; court preacher in 
1689 ; pastor at Vingaker in 1690 ; professor of theology at Upsala in 
1692 ; Provost of the Cathedral in the same place in 1695 ; Bishop of 
Skara in 1702 ; died in 1735. 

94 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Their first official act after landing was to wait on 
Lieutenant-Governor William Markham, as did Kelpius 
and Ms party three years previous. When he saw their 
credentials, fortified as they were by a passport, dated at 
Kensington, November 22, 1696, with the British king's 
(William III.) own hand and seal, giving liberty of pas- 
sage from England over to the Delaware, Governor Mark- 
ham received them with great kindness and welcomed 
them cordially to Penn's domain, promising them all pos- 
sible favor and assistance. 131 This trio consisted of Magis- 
ter Andreas Rudman, master of philosophy, a native of 
Gevalia, in the Province of Gestrickland ; Tobias Eric 
Biorck, of the Province of Westmanland ; and Jonas Auren, 
of the Province of Wermeland. 

On the next day, Wednesday, June 30, 1697, the three 
clergymen went to Wicaco, 132 then some distance from the 
embryo city, and held their first service among the Swedes 
on the Delaware, and, as, Rudman states, "according to 
the true doctrines contained in the Augsburg Confession of 
faith, free from all human superstition and tradition." 133 
Upon this occasion the three clergymen officiated, clad in 
robe and suplice. This service, in the Swedish tongue, 
which the records fail to tell us whether held within an 
humble dwelling house, or in a barn, or the ruins of the old 
block-house, or perhaps under the shade of the majestic 
trees that then lined the banks of the Delaware, was the 
first in America in which the Lutheran ritual was rendered 
in its fulness according to the custom of the Mother Country. 

181 From diary of Rev. T. E. Biorck. See records of Trinity Church. 

1S2 Wicacoa is an Indian word, derived from wicking, dwelling, and 
chao, a fir-tree. Probably there was in former times a thicket of fir-trees 
where the Indians had their abode. Acrelius' New Sweden. 

133 Rudman's Memoirs of Wicaco. 

Arrival of Swedish Pastors, 95 

The following day the three ministers went to German- 
town and visited the Fraternity on the Wissahickon, where 
they were received with great consideration by Kelpius 
and his associates. The friendship begun at this time was 
continued with mutual benefit to both parties without in- 
terruption until the death of Kelpius removed the leading 
spirit of the Community. 

The Brethren learned from their visitors, among other 
things, that the crusade in Germany against the Pietists 
had not ceased, but, on the contrary, had extended into 
Sweden and other Protestant countries ; also that a poem 
had lately been printed and circulated praising such princes 
and rulers as had issued mandates against them. This was 
called " A Poetical Thanksgiving" by " a lover of truth." 1M 
One stanza, that is especially aimed at our Community, 
reads (translation), — 

" Carl, who the fanatic spirit cannot endure, 
Holds God's honor in esteem, commands all Chiliasts 
To Ben-Sylvania, to their Brethren to go, — 
There, according to their teachings, the thousand years to rest, 
And without constraint in constraint to stand. 
A common pebble knows no diamond ; 
Egyptian darkness knows no Jacob's sun ; 
No prince, no true Christian, loves fanatic kinsfolk, 
Therefore slinks the dreamer away before the blaze of light." 

How close the intercourse became between the three 
Swedish pastors and Kelpius is shown by the correspon- 
dence of the latter, addressed to Rev. Tob. Biorck, pastorem 
ad Christenam. 135 

Toward the close of the year 1697 it became evident that 

134 Original in possession of writer. 

135 A draught of a twelve-page Latin letter is in Kelpius's diary. See 
fac-simile reproductions at Pennsylvania Historical Society, pp. 48-60. 

96 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the influences exercised and the truths taught both by the 
Community and the ministrations of Koster had made 
themselves felt among the settlers and were bringing about 
good results, notwithstanding such active opposition as that 
of Pastorius and others of equal prominence, which, how- 
ever, was aimed chiefly against the enthusiastic Koster and 
his " Brethren in America." 

In view of this greatly improved condition of the relig- 
ious situation, which, early in 1698, was strengthened still 
more by the arrival of Rev. Thomas Clayton, the first min- 

Mystic Symbol from a Philadelphic Manuscript. 

ister of the Church of England who came to the Province, 
it was concluded by the leaders of the original Fraternity, 
partly at the suggestion of the Swedish pastors, to send an 
emissary from among their number to Europe to make 
public the true state and spiritual condition of the Germans 
who had emigrated to Pennsylvania ; set forth the labors 
of the Pietistical Brethren among their countrymen in 
America, and solicit aid and additional recruits, so that the 



QyicUA *Xrf.&iQmJ(j 

Daniel Falkner in Europe. 97 

mystical number of forty could be kept intact, and at the 
same time could extend their usefulness in educating and 
ministering to their neglected countrymen in Pennsylvania. 

Another important scheme then under consideration was 
the emigration of the members of "the Philadelphic 
Society" in a body from England and the Continent to 
settle in Pennsylvania, and there found a colony where 
their peculiar teachings should be their only law. Con- 
siderable correspondence had taken place upon the subject, 
and it was thought by Kelpius and others that the time 
had arrived for a consummation of the scheme. It was 
therefore desirable that a thoroughly competent person 
should be sent on the mission at that time. For this im- 
portant service Daniel Falkner was selected. He was a man 
of strong character and practical piety, as well as the execu- 
tive head of the Community affairs, and, in addition to his 
religious duties, took considerable interest in secular things. 

Daniel Falkner, persuant to the above arrangement, re- 
turned to Europe toward the close of the year 1698. After 
a short sojourn in Holland, he went to Germany to visit 
his old associates. Upon his arrival in Saxony, he found 
that time had wrought many changes in the condition of 
his former companions, — some had been banished, others 
lived in obscurity, while the former leader of the local 
Pietistical movement, Hermann August Francke, now posed 
as professor of Oriental languages at the newly established 
University of Halle, 136 pastor of the suburb Glaucha, and 
superintendent of an orphanage of his own projection. 

136 The bi-centennial of the Halle (Frederick-Wittenberg) University 
was celebrated with great eclat, August 2, 3, 5, 1894, the Emperor of 
Germany being represented upon the occasion by Prince Albrecht of 
Prussia. The present writer attended as a delegate from the Old Augustus 
(Trappe) Church. For a full description of this Jubilee, see " The Lu 
theran," Philadelphia, September 6, 1894. 


98 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Curieufe Mtf$t 



fort>m* America 


2luf Seaeforen pfergreunbe/ 

Jet Dc^fleleflte 103. gca* 

gen / bet) fciner 2(forei0 au6 £eutfc&* 

tan& nad) obigem £anfce Anno 1700. 

atljeilet/unbmm Anno i7oain&en&rutf 

gejjebcn worben. 

Spaniel ^alfnetn/ProfcfTorc, 

©urgcrn imt> ptorim all&a. 


SrancF fu« unt> fietpjttt / 

3m iol)t (iOtijIi i?o». 

" Curieuse NachrichV 



Falkner during his sojourn in the Old World made 
a visit to Holland and England in the interests of the 
Philadelphic Society, without, however, inducing that 
body to emigrate to Penn's Province. While in Ger- 

ments to issue a book in the 

iod, containing answers to 

to the religious and social 

This book, before quoted, is 

richt || Von || Pensylvania 

Welche || Auf Begehren 

gelegte 103. Fra- 1| gen, bey 

I land nach obigem L,ande 

nun Anno 1702 in 

den. || Von || Daniel 

k gem und Pilgrim 

furt und Leip- 

bey Andreas 

many, he also made arrange 
colloquial style of the per 
a number of queries relative 
Conditions in Pennsylvania, 
entitled " Curieufe Nach 
|| in || Norden America 
guter Freunde, || Uber vor 
Seiner Abreiss aus Teutsch- 
Anno 1700. || ertheilet, und 
den Druck || gegeben wor 
Falknern, Professore, || Bur 
zig, Zu finden 

handlern, || Im 

Otto, Buch 

Jahr Christi, l|||^BWMBM|M|BB|l r 7° 2 -" n was 
published ^™"™"t1 ||lfs|§§§§ ' i* ; fflP under the aus- 
pices of the Frankfort l "*mffiUP^**" Land Com- 
pany, and issued simul ( ancient lard lamp used taneously in 
Frankfort and Leipzig. BY THE MvSTICS - It will be no- 

ticed that the compiler here signs himself "Citizen and 
Pilgrim in Pennsylvania." Falkner's visit to Europe also 
partook somewhat of a political nature, which was destined 
to work radical changes in the civil affairs of the German 



Ephrata Hand Press. 

' ELPIUS, the pious enthusiast, 
was exceedingly anxious to 
improve the moral as well as 
the spiritual condition of his country- 
men in America. He therefore had 
printed, or obtained from Germany, 
sets of small cards or slips of paper 
upon each of which there was a dif- 
ferent moral couplet or verse (spruch) 
from the Bible. The set of cards was then put in a box or 
card-case, called a jewel-casket {schatzkastlein), and was 
carried by the members of the Brotherhood for distribution 
among the worshipers at the Tabernacle and the heads of 
families, with the request that whenever a curse, oath, or 
blasphemous expression was uttered in their presence the 
offending person should be handed one of the slips of paper, 
which he was to read carefully and then place it upon his 
tongue. The same rule was to apply to the person who 
carried the schatzkastlein : whenever he did or said any- 
thing wrong, or was even tempted to do so, or was led to 
anger, recourse was to be had immediately to a jewel from 
the schatzkastlein; and so strong was the popular belief, 

The " Schatzkastlein." 101 

($ine Qftnterin weintte $u Oen Stiffen 3<S5U i 
^ jfigfuafprad): j[brfm& otel Qimte oergebfn, 
6ei»fi fie bat oiel getiebet ; t*>eld)em,aber ttenig wr» 
gebcn »ir&, ber (teber romtg. jut. 7 38=47. 
Wemen uni» ilieben. r 
3€@U© Wter all oem ©ebnen, 
3C@U© fcbauet Mine thrdnen : - 
QBeine ftco, Dod> Itebe mit, 
®o erbirt £r cetne ^itt. 

that nothing could shake their faith in the efficacy of a 
card, taken out at random, to be pertinent to the individual 
case in which it was invoked. 137 

The members of the Fraternity in making use of the 
slips invariably placed them in their mouth. From this 
peculiar custom arose the ridiculous charge that the Piet- 
ists ate their religion. 138 


die (Bottfeelia feben woflen in Cbrtfro J<H(a 
muffen tJerfolgung Uyten. » Xtm. j ■ 2. 
baa ertft &oof*. 
•Son auffen ©potr unD <3J)muct> Der ttuttn, 
"Son innen gurd)r uno ^.raurt^feiren . 
2>ti pflegr Dae egrftt fLoo§ ju feon, 
$a* b^r oen jcoimnen reirfc jjenrnn. 

137 Kastlein mit zetteln, darauf waren viele schone Spriiche aus der 
Bibel und andere Reimen gedruckt die sich auf vielerey Zustande der 
Menschen schicken. Wann dan in der Companie jemand war der etwas 
eiteles zu reden anfing, so kam einer mit dem Schatz-Kastgen und ein 
jeder zog ein Briefgen heraus, dass wurde gelesen und hat sich gemeinlich 
getroffen dass ein spruch auf dem Zettel stund wie es um des Menschen 
Hertz beschaffen war, und so wurden die leichtsinnige reden unterbrochen, 
und davon kam auch die luge vom Zettel fressen. Christopher Sauer in 
Almanack, 1751. 

io3 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

A " Schatzkastlein" complete with "Spruche," see Note 138. 

In order to promote the spiritual welfare of the Germans 
in Pennsylvania, Kelpius had printed at an early day a 
small book or pamphlet for distribution among the German 
settlers, urging them to public and private devotion. The 
title of this work was " Bine kurtze und begreiflige An- 
leitung zum stillen Gebet." This book, as well as the 
moral text-slips, was in all probability a specimen of the 
Jansen (father or son) imprints, which are now so rare and 
valuable. 139 Watson, in his MS. Annals of Philadelphia, 
mentions Kelpius as the author and Dr. Christopher Witt 
as the translator. 140 Later investigations go to show that 

138 This custom continued in use among the Germans in Pennsylvania 
for many years. Subsequent editions of these sets of moral cards were 
printed on both the Sauer and Ephrata presses. The Sauer edition, printed 
in 1744, was known as " Der Frommen I<otterie. " The only complete set 
of this edition, 381 in number, is in the collection of Hon. S. W. Penny- 
packer, of Philadelphia. See illustration above. 

139 This devotional work was translated into English and printed at an 
early day. 

""See "The First Century of German Printing in America," by the 
late Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, p. 62. 


The Jansen Tradition. 103 

this unique work was based upon a somewhat similar book 
published in Germany, 141 as early as 1695, by Hermann 

CV a C% (B -■ Au gust Francke, 142 under 

****»• «9*fni. OTQtl&ti the title "Schrifftmassige 

S.S.Theol. P Ord Paft.Vlric. J^Selri An weisung, recht und 
©(^iftma^jge " Gottwohlgefallig zu Be- 

ten," and that a number 
of these books were 
W| brought from Halle by 
Xt4pUnb<8®ttW0b\Qtfa\l\ the Falkner brothers up- 
-*■»«■--» -* i» on their return to Amer- 

ica. 143 No copy of the 
original Kelpius pam- 
phlet, which was in the 
^^^m) ^ •^ ^ 4 P" German language, is 

known to the writer. 

9icb(l ^injUpcfuqWn ' However, as a copy of 

Worsen * II. 2lbenb*©ebCtlrl the Henry Miller reprint 

UniJCtncm of the English transla- 

^iclifc&en RESPONSE tio * ^ ^en lately 

^j e found, 144 there is a possi- 

<$eWt'i?&etf UJlb ^erfti^frUff .^ -fc bilit y that a specimen of 

•Et&firung Ut &tbtti betteffctlk the earlier editions may 

3F<frf« $ttflagi. also be found at some 

""JMfFT^ " future day. 

3fa StoUflunfl w 3Bfipf<nW|W/ 1; Th ? re is an inter estin g 

tradition connecting the 
Mystic Brotherhood with the Jansen press. It is said that 
during Daniel Falkner's absence in Europe, Kelpius and 

141 Sachsse, ursprung und wesen der Pietisten, p. 268. 

142 See p. 55 seq. 

143 This work was printed many times on the press of the Halle institu- 
tion. The copy in the writer's library was printed in 1732. 

104 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 







Tranflated from„th,e German.' 

And publilhed for a .farther tromo? 
turn, Knowledge and Benefit of In- 
ward Prayer. 

By a JLover of Internal Devotions 
The liie,cond Edition wkh Addition. * *" 


Primed by Chrifiophev Sown, 


he «reateft dt 

i om xxv. 

;.,'.' ,-,;>, ;■ latedby- 




Rey nier Jansen. 105 

others were instrumental in inducing Reynier Jansen, a 
Hollander, to take charge of the printing press which had 
been ordered from London by the Friends' Yearly Meet- 
ing 145 after the removal of William Bradford's press to New 
York ; and this new press was received in Philadelphia 
10 mo. 30th, 1698. It is also said that some of the printing 
was done in Germantown. This latter claim is partly 
borne out by the statement in a New England Sabbatarian 
record, that they went to Germantown to get their printing 
done. 146 

Further, it is a matter of record that on the 29th of 
November Jansen bought twenty acres of Liberty lands in 
Germantown, and upon the 7th of February, 1698-99, the 
right of citizenship was conferred upon him by the Ger- 
mantown court. 147 

Reynier Jansen was a member of the celebrated family 
of that name in Holland, the most prominent member of 
which was Cornelius Jansen the younger (1 585-1 638), 
Bishop of Ypres, who was the founder of the peculiar sect 
known as "the Disciples of St. Augustine," or Jansenists. 
Another branch of the family was noted as printers and 
publishers at Amsterdam, ' and was intimately connected 
with many of the leading religious enthusiasts and mystics 

144 This new English edition was printed by Heinrich Miller, Phila- 
delphia, 1761. (l2mo., 36 pages.) The only known copy is among the 
John Pemberton papers in the Friends' Library of Philadelphia". Chris- 
topher Sauer, the Germantown printer, also reprinted the book two years 
later : the title says " Second Edition." 

145 "Agreed that a press be bought for printing and necessary letters 
and stamps, either from Boston or England, and be paid for out of the 
Yearly Meeting stock, the care of which is left to Philadelphia Monthly 
Meeting. Burlington, 31st day of the 7mo., 1697." — (Extract MSS. 
Minutes Yearly Meeting. ) 

146 MS. records of Newport, R. I. , Seventh- Day Baptist Church. 
U7 "penna. Mag.," vol. iv, p. 37. 


106 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

of whom the seventeenth century was so prolific. It was 
upon the Jansen press at Amsterdam that many of the 
peculiar theological and proscribed works of that day were 
printed. 148 The Philadelphia printer was evidently of this 
latter branch, and was not so entirely ignorant of the black 
art as has been generally supposed. 149 He was a close friend 
of Benjamin Furley and other Separatists who then made 
their abode in Holland ; consequently, it was but natural 
that after his arrival in America he should gravitate toward 
his fellow Separatists at Germantown, and, on account of 
his previous knowledge of the printer's art, assume the 
charge and responsibility of the new press that had been 
procured by the Society of Friends. Jansen upon his 
arrival in the Province had but an imperfect knowledge of 
the English language, and this, together with the fact that 
he had for some years previous changed his occupation from 
printer to lace-maker, accounts for many of the imperfec- 
tions and crudities of his earliest work. According to the 
Ephrata manuscripts and traditions, it was in reality such 
of the Mystic Brethren as had some knowledge of the art, 
and were conversant with the English tongue, who actually 
did the type-setting and proof-reading, if not the press- 
work, of the early Jansen imprints. These traditions are 
strengthened by the evidence that Johann Seelig was a 
practical bookbinder, 160 who bound the Jansen books, and 

148 Adelung, iv, p. 392. 

149 It was Caleb Pusey, and not Reynier Jansen, who, in the preface 
to "Satan's Harbinger Encountered," apologizes for misprints thus: 
' ' The chief occasion of there being so many errours was the Printer being 
a man of another nation and language, as also not bred to that employ- 
ment, consequently something unexpert both in language and calling, 
and the corrector's \sic\ not being so frequently at hand as the case re- 
quired, all which I desire thou wouldst favourably consider." 

150 Levering family, pp. 18, 19. 

A Provincial Proclamation. 107 






WHeieaa it bath fleafed ALfe&HT i CC D, from thc'Trrafures of Hit 
Infinite Goikj i*-b *»■ ■ * .n*' ►* n-owt it- a i --minem .Kgrce , ai*d pour dowi. tin 
peculiar Bailings upon th 3 Cvliw ^ - 4w .p> » h c firft Ertthng rbefuof * as w«.ll by the 
bLrtuwing j happy fucrefs on the Ehdea ours c;f in Inhabits! u ati.1 cropping wnat 
To )u y wo 1 Wildemels with a larj AnVoenee of all the -ctfiancs and GWor set Lite; as by 
fuppouingir in an undrfburbed Peace and rranquiUi|y during ,*thc &mmotions'chithave Jeep.) at- 
fl.£b-d other parts o c thv Cunftian World and contirtumg to us , the Enjoyment of thofe manifold to. r- 
cies which, rightly ufed, tendfonuk aBf^iple mi!y happy Aliwbtch divine Bctmocs", aith. y 
'loudly call tor th(.raoft humble and hear: y Writ icwft^rncnisi fo chey ought more deeply to rmpnfc a 
j ift Tenfe of the great Obligations upon Us . fmo retaliate our L*cs wfihcareand tirtumfjkcl:on , 10 
a true Obedience and Gout ■•rmity to C' Ipi holy ijws t thai we may nor inftadoi nuki ig grateful 
lUrjmi bv Impiety ot Netlu^nce.-qai *uk the ii^ Anger of the ALMIGHTY* to withdraw Hit 
iivinc Proeftioo . and it rli& on us th. tevm.. C^afti[cmenfs of hr» j jft D.fp'eafure. NurWiihftanding 
all which , I vannor bui t*. fcifible, war. icwWny , .to g-tii. g ail ;hofe Obligators , that as ptrfbns 
proteflingiheHo.yChriftian Religion rVf ijidii'pefcfably lye an-fcr .bavegiven rbcrhfdvo* Uojciti 
Iheir Lives ana Con verfat tons , and -namtctrly trarrrpjed on tneir pofirivt k .nwn Dupes in many vki. 
ous Pracbces and lmrr> ralnits to the gruir Oft ncv if A: MICH I V COD , in ibc Breach of his Di- 
vine Law* as well as 01 our &*il I.iftim'igut add 4p Uic xandal of fuber Men , and great pifiTccttt 
of tnis Government : Watch Pracb.:* it uoc iiak'ly brcveitted, may terminate in an utter Depravauqa 
of Manners, throug 1 the Encouragerru-ni taken rn<mi thofe faial and pernicious Examples, by perftna 
wioic better td.ui.auon and Inclinations nwht otberwife Java reftrained them wirhrn the Bounds of 
Sobriety and Virtue s, but from tbuf: rauy I 'lances. , left before thur Eyes , danger of being 
burned on , not only to their own ft.ujnc . but of becoming Ate. flary focbe, Inccnfing , and drawthg 
< to*n y p o n us-toe V^iayance of Humes. 

In a deep Confiderahon of which , and to the end that *') peBible DUconrageinents may be given to 
theOrowrhot thefe Enormities ; I have through a fenfe of ths Duty lowetu COD. ann the creof 
taw- t'jj^L' c»nn r;l toiiv Gu-g. 3 ltd wtth the Alvics and Content of tb\ Council oi dm Protnxc* 
aii Tcrrit*r«t Til ugh. 61 1 M in ml i>;ctarc- That I wilt Uifcountaianre and feverdy Pu- 
B' b a. flnajr « Vice. I.on 'Hiiv a i ■'npiian nrft. ^ all js^rfanswhatToevcr, w<rhin thisGovcrn- 
n: it, iic kill o; $vUy of t.i: 1 os * id I doe hereof (tfiftly forbid all mirmer ol Dubaachery, Lewd- 
BCit 1>*M<; liJi's iTJ.iuie i.r-tr-ng Cm^[Uitii| jr jfe njutuic iajoun, iNig'ii-wi'fcingscLm- 
feiioujie hoars wimcfU UwijI Bufii icl» SCall other UifordersWhatloeverthar are contrary to thtDj- 
tt:» <u a Cinftui Lue 8c rti : Xi L c% of true Virtue. Aid 1 do (rnctly Co omand 8c Require all Magiliraics^ 
ju ibeca, 5 nerds, Conftablusind all Officers whaifoever, and others hti M > flU good Subj^fc, rhat they 
ootoaiy be regular and drcumfpec) in thefr O'to Dvts that bv then goo • ti.implcs , they rmy i<*cim 
Cjr.eciit behold them tome Prt&ce ot virtue . butaifbthat thev be very D< igent in the D-fcovery 
ail tJ-riul i*rofxii.t-j>i of all OrT-n-iers and tharrb'-y ruaroully put in Extcu-ion all the * 
wijiJ >m- Li*> aii'Jri'in.^ p jvided againft heaibrTnl and fuch other IrD;noraIite» vr.a-i mt 
fivsir hmi ' y tf %iJi > iny p rfoii whtnfoever ischeywitl »d Ver nu- i-mi^ciy G#a j-,d 
incaf my utm >it D:f -leafure. 

%iii*rtv; Q»r:stf tul .*nl cttion ijreif I toreq lire and Cm mid rhe J ift csotq, trtt* "■ tti- 
•Hi: .a-'irrerwt /e J».n.' 0>rs n us Jjv nnert and rue « ./..* .« i \ -t >: wr oi n Cf'frj. 
A j*»4, >.itr th.-/ canfe t >;s q / V oci inn un .0 je ,111 dukly r&iJ m o^-u Oj jn , imne namely att r iheir 
Catr^s t» gi«n .9 cor grand- Jury . 

Vutcmth. ^ i.dvra stf ^ Clutches. andrevt'rt*C gr>atif « v h?t rfiis Provmct and Torrfiv 
««, *iii*s tha &HJ tobt ftWl .nihe time of Divine their refpecl've place* ol vVoribiu at 
4eil fis times inev.-rv V;ar. \1J1t1at they oe very .jm gem, m Uiicoi«,t^ *ii manner of Vice .and 
La 1 jriiuf ia iti-r \jlkors > 1 Exhorting cnem co tne Cicrcife of piety and virme. 

in;\ it Pkttdlehbiatt Nib U/ n Octabtr man. .« i.- 4 r ,i ..- ^e,^ ^ ou- Sovcrtig* Lady 
J.W bytaeOriceof 3 >J « S«g-/*»J &9t-!*n4, Fr*»ct iniJre-tanJ j&an DsKuder ot die 
faua Sec And the iw\,my fojrch of the pM/net^rkt Gm*rumm$ Annoq.- Ljpmiai 1704. 


God Save the Queen. 

Prterio rjj«r(ttoi I, lift pi* rw* 

108 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

for years continued in that profession in the vicinity of 

However, be that as it may, in the main it matters little 
whether these cards or pamphlets were printed in Europe 
or America. Kelpius's scheme to raise the moral standard 
of the Germans by their use had an effect that extended 
far beyond the bounds of the German Township, and, being 
seconded by the Society of Friends, culminated in the 
issuing by Governor John Evans of a proclamation against 
immorality and profanity. This edict was printed by Rey- 
nier Jansen in 1704. A reduced fac-simile of the original 
broadside is reproduced on another page. 

According to Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, in his " Settle- 
ment of Germantown," 151 Jansen, almost a year after citizen- 
ship was conferred upon him in Germantown, bought, 
December 23, 1699, seventy-five acres of land from Peter 
Klever, in the deed of which he is described as a "merchant" 
of Philadelphia. This land he, "as printer," sold to Daniel 
Geissler, October 20, 1701. 

His career as printer was very brief. 152 He died about 
March 1, 1706, leaving personal property valued at ^"226. 
is. 8d., among which was included " a p'cell of Books from 
Wm. Bradford, £4.. 2s. od." He left a son, Stephen, in 
business in Amsterdam, whom he had apportioned there, 
and brought with him to this country two sons Tiberius 
and Joseph, and two daughters, Imitry and Alice. The 
sons, after the father's death, seem to have made some 
attempt to continue in the printing business, as imprints 
are still in existence bearing the names of both Tiberius 
and Joseph, respectively. 153 

151 "Penna. Mag.," vol. iv, 37. 

152 Early Printing in Philadelphia, ' ' Penna. Mag. , ' ' vol. iv, p. 432, et seq. 



'ESIDES the relig- 
ious and educa- 
tional work fostered 
by trie Community on the 
Wissahickon and the specu- 
lations as to the expected 
millennium, Kelpius and 
the more advanced mem- 
bers indulged in the study 
of the Hermetic arts, as 
well as astronomy. Nightly 
vigils were maintained in 
the rude observatory that surmounted the Tabernacle. 
There, high above the tree-tops of the surrounding forest, 
one or more of the brethren was always on the look-out 
for celestial phenomena. These astronomical studies and 
speculations were calculated according to the manuscripts 
and publications of Johann Jacob Zimmermann, the Ma- 
gister of the Fraternity, under whose leadership the scheme 

An Old Horoscope. 

no The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

for emigration to the New World was consummated, but 
who unfortunately died on the eve of the embarkation at 

Zimmermann was an astronomer of no mean order, who 
in his deductions combined 


theology and astronomy, ac- "-"■'" . .r.„>.iu. 


cording to the custom ot the '"&*$"* ^iafc? 

middle ages. The last work ^iRffiSiSSSS?* f ' 

published by him, but a few ^ «™J fW f \* 
months prior to his death, is. ^vJvvlRllJll 1*1/ 

entitled, « Scriptura S. Co- Copem ic a „i W Sj W t l ( kWrtw 

permzans seu potius Astrono- • apt jgrfi. 6cf)tifft, 

mia Copermco Scnpturana i. 'JjHjWJreSoiitjmfaifttmrtemgijfirtnm 

bipartlta." That IS, An en- $iiw(mnaiflrll*«UMaufflw*PdWic!mn8f»lfrtn; 
. r .11, ©it wrmtfmllrtj wiDtrfpntfairtr ®fgnv> 

tirely new and very curious ©pro* «i« mm ^iktiif^tn mt ©tita)i(<sen im 

J txuilicbirorttrr tDirtxn, 

astronomical proof of the Co- um,ro»6WSK£oGcii> prtttflidjfcmrttAuto- 

. -, . riiaiB<«.e.$»»taiif*fn2Bm«/t»i^Mf"no\M}e» 

t>ernican svstem 01 the uni- Kam^t^^mtt,,^u^,\^^im,M^\\, m \^ 

Jr J 

VerSe irOm tlie XlOly Writ. \^m*<W^$Mnnb.%bWt^*to*™W><nyi*<*' 

,. . - - pcrnicsnftnQitaffiftinu^fn Eonrn^BtrliflnO, btfl. 

The astronomical feature _.. , mJimwiio ««.(«■; 
of the Tabernacle led to fre- * n ?S,f£*™SStWiffi" Btw 
quent visits from Daniel jnimvnz^tuin tinfittiatmm«ifi«, 

Leeds who for SOme years l°»*w ]<co b 3itotti«ma nB t '1'I]ilO-Math effiati<». 
' ' J hah bu ac ." (t|i e$ii|! 'iu.iwbranbi. -' 

prior to the arrival of Kel- 

pius and his party, had published an Almanack. 164 Evidences 
are apparent in subsequent issues of the Almanack that he 
profited by his visits, and that the intercourse between 
him and the Community on the Wissahickon was of an 
intimate nature. 

While some of the Fraternity kept the vigils in the 
sternzvarte, others busied themselves with the study of 

163 The only known copy of this work is in the Royal Library of Wiir- 
temberg. The photograph of the title was furnished by Professor D. 
Th. Schott, librarian. A second edition was published in Hamburg, 1726. 

Hermetic Studies. in 

what is known as the Hermetic art. These researches 
were not made for the transmutation of metals, as many 
supposed ; for in their ambitions they soared to a higher 
plane than the laying up of this world's riches. Their 
object was to provide remedies and preparations for the 
alleviation of human suffering. 155 

In these chemical and pharmaceutical studies, which 
were mainly based upon the literature of the preceding 
century, the discovery of the Lapis Philosophorum, or the 
Elixir of Life, naturally entered largely into their specu- 
lations. It was believed that if the menstrum universale 
could be discovered, it would be by chemical means, and 
then it would be possible by its application to remove all 
seeds of disease from the human body, thereby renewing 
youth and lessening the infnnities of age, if not repelling 

154 Daniel Leeds was a resident of New Jersey as early as 1676. He 
lived in Burlington in 1680, and was married at the Friends' Meeting of 
that place, 2 mo. si, 1681. His occupation was then given as a cooper. 
In 1682 he was a member of the Assembly and Surveyor-General of West 
Jersey. His first quarrel with his co-religionists was about the almanac 
of 1688 ; but he did not withdraw from the Society of Friends until the 
Keithian schism. (Hildeburn, vol. i, p. 7. ) 

Jacob Taylor, in his almanac for 1707, calls him " That unparalleled 
Plagiary and unreasonable Transcriber D. Leeds, who hath now for 19 
years, with a very large stock of impudence, filched matter out of other 
men's works, to furnish his spurious almanacks." {An Almanack for 
1707. By Jacob Taylor. Philadelphia : Tiberius Johnson. Am. Philo. 
Soc, xix, 291.) 

165 Mention has been made in a preceeding chapter (p. 57), of a prescrip- 
tion of a universal remedy, bequeathed, upon his death-bed, by a former 
member of this Fraternity to Magister Francke, and made under the 
latter' s supervision, from the sale of which and the revenue derived 
therefrom the large cluster of buildings known as the " Francke Institu- 
tions at Halle" chiefly owe their existence. 

This remedy, known as the " Gold Tincture" or " Elixir Dulcis," is 
made and sold to the present day by the Apotheke connected with the 

ii2 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In these hermetic studies, that were practised only upon 
nights when the moon and planets were in a certain posi- 
tion, the brethren were often assisted by several highly 
respected English Quakers and a learned Scotchman, who 
were wont to make visits from the city. 

Upon the subject of an indefinite prolongation of human 
life, the members were not unanimous. While all agreed 
that this was possible under certain circumstances or con- 
ditions, some of their number, notably Koster, were in- 
credulous of an elixir of life, but advanced the theory of 
the use of mystical communications with the unseen world, 
as founded upon the Cabbala and the Apocalypse. 156 

As a matter of fact, all the leaders of the Brotherhood, 
which included Kelpius, Koster, Falkner, Seelig, and 
Matthai, scouted the idea of physical death, and firmly 
believed in bodily translation to the realms beyond, if they 
adhered to their Theosophical faith. 

Another favorite occupation of these Theosophical stu- 
dents was the casting of horoscopes and the use of the 
divining-rod. The latter implement was a forked, slender 
stick of witch-hazel, that was cut at a certain time in the 
year under peculiar conditions, at which time a mystic 

Orphanage. No more than a single person at one time was ever cogni- 
zant of its composition. The writer, during his visit to the Orphanage, 
obtained a vial of this remedy, and was informed by Hugo Hornemann, 
Ph. D., that he had been the custodian of the secret since June I, 1863 
it having been imparted to him by his father and predecessor who served 
from 1826 to 1863, and had in turn received it from Prof. Stoltze, who 
compounded it 1811-26. Prior to this time the secret formula was in 
possession of the Richters and Madais, who were the successive heads of 
the Apotheke. 

Prior to the Revolution, this nostrum had a large sale in Pennsylvania, 
and to the writer's personal knowledge was used here as late as the early 
fifties of the present century. 

166 Strodtmann, v. p. 255. 







The Divining Rod. 113 

incantation and ceremony was used. This rod or " hexen- 
stab" was used to find subterranean springs of water, and 
to locate veins of precious metal beneath the surface of the 
ground. To find the hidden spring, a branch of the twig 
or rod was taken in each hand between the thumb and 
the forefinger, the two ends pointing down. The rod was 
held in this position, the palms toward the face : the in- 
cantation was then said, the diviner walking slowly over 
the ground, and when a spring or subterranean water-course 
was passed the rod would bend downward. When it was 
desired to locate special metals, small nails made of the 
metals sought for were introduced into the long end of the 
rod. For general prospecting, the rod frequently contained 
nails of the seven metals, — viz., gold, silver, iron, copper, 
lead, tin, and an amalgam ; and it was firmly believed that 
in passing over a metallic vein the rod would be attracted 
downward. 157 

The casting of nativities by aid of the horoscope was a 
far more difficult and important matter than the use of the 
divining-rod. Two centuries ago the horoscope was firmly 
believed in by many intelligent persons of all nations and 
faiths. The calculations in individual cases required con- 
siderable mathematical as well as astronomical knowledge. 
By its use not only the life and fortune of an infant were 
foretold, but it was pressed into service to find the right 
position of the heavens for the undertaking of almost all 
important ventures, such as voyages, marriages, business 
speculations, and building operations. 

Among the treasures of the American Philosophical 
Society in Philadelphia there are two brass plates, finely 

167 The writer in his youth was shown a bed of iron ore near Flower- 
town, a small village a short distance above Germantown, which was said 
to have been located by one of these identical rods. 


ii4 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

wrought, engraved, and gilded. They are parts of an in- 
strument once used for calculating nativities, and in other 
occult studies wherein the hour of the day or night and 
the position of the planetary system of the heavens took a 
prominent part. This instrument, when in its original 
condition, was known as an " horologium Achaz hydro- 
grapkicum." The smaller of the two plates measures 5^ 
inches in diameter, and was the base of the instrument. 
In a raised centre it contained a compass one inch in di- 
ameter. The larger piece is a basin-shaped plate, with a 
flat, moveable rim one inch wide. Upon this are engraved 
the signs of the zodiac. The centre or concave part is ten 
inches in diameter, and is geometrically divided into the 
different planetary houses. The depth of the basin is 1 ^ 
inches, and the whole forms the dial of the instrument. 
The rim is surrounded by a brass figure representing an 
ancient astrologer ; it measures 3 ^ inches in height, with 
the left hand raised so as to hold the gnomon used to cast 
the shadow, or whereby a fine ray of light was thrown 
upon the dial in place of the shadow (photo-sciaterica). 
The dial and base were formerly connected with a mytho- 
logical figure ; the latter, however, as well as the gnomon 
and other parts are now missing. 

By the aid of this instrument it was possible to see not 
only the true time of day by sunlight and at night by 
moonlight, but other solar phenomena, such as the true 
time of sunrise and sunset, — the orb's place in the twelve 
houses of the zodiac, its perigee, and apogee, the height 
above the horizon, the relative length of the day and night, 
and many other phenomena. The most curious feature 
about this apparatus is the fact that when the basin is 
filled with clear water the time marked is advanced or 
retarded so many degrees as equal the angle of refraction. 168 

The Horologium Achaz. 115 

On the reverse of the rim that surrounds the large basin is 
engraved, " Christophorvs Shissler, Geometricvs ac Astro- 
nomicvs Artifex Avgvstae Vindelicorvm, Faciebat Anno 


The records of the venerable Society fail to show from 
whom these relics were received, or even when they came 
into possession of the Society. Tradition, however, con- 
nects this instrument directly with Dr. Christopher Witt, 
the last surviving member of the Theosophical Community 
that once occupied the Tabernacle on the Wissahickon, and 
who, prior to his death in 1765, gave some of his philo- 
sophical and scientific apparatus to the Philosophical 
Society, then presided over by Benjamin Franklin. 159 . It 
is known that after the death of Kelpius, in 1708, and the 
virtual disbanding of the Community, all of the philoso- 
phical instruments, as well as Zimmermann's astronomical 
apparatus, passed into the possession of Daniel Geissler 
and Dr. Witt. It may be. assumed without a shadow of 
doubt that the above relics once formed a part of Zimmer- 
mann's scientific outfit. 160 

As an illustration how the horoscope entered into local 
affairs, there was formerly a tradition current, and which 
is recorded in one of the Ephrata manuscripts, that prior 
to the laying of the foundation-stone {grund-stein) of the 

158 This instrument was known to and its peculiarity mentioned by 
Zacharias Von TJffenbach, a classmate of Justus Falkner at Halle, in his 
published travels, Ulm, 1753. 

159 There were at that time two scientific societies in Philadelphia, — 
viz., The American Philosophical Society and the American Society, 
held at Philadelphia, for Promoting Useful Knowledge. These two bodies 
united, January 2, 1769, and formed the present American Philosophical 

160 Vide paper read upon this instrument by the present writer before 
the American Philosophical Society, "Proceedings," February I, 1895. 

n6 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Swedish church at Wicacoa, Seelig, at the request of the 
Swedish pastor, first cast a horoscope to find a proper day 
for the commencement of the building, so that its com- 
pletion should be assured. The interesting service took 
place upon the appointed day in the fall of the year 1698, 
and was made an occasion of both joy and profit. 

The site finally decided upon, after some controversy as 
to the location, was within the Swedish graveyard at 
Wicaco, on the banks of the Delaware. The ceremony of 
laying the first or foundation-stone was performed by the 
three ministers under the direction of the Master Mason, 
while the Fraternity, led by Kelpius, intoned the Psalms 
and responses. 

Whether the old tradition that the day and site were 
selected by the occult calculations of the Mystic Brother- 
hood on the Wissahickon be founded upon fact or not, the 
day certainly was an auspicious one, as the old church, 
after a lapse of two centuries, is still in constant use, and 
is now the oldest and most venerable sanctuary within the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It has stood to be im- 
mortalized by the prince of New England poets : — 

" Distant and soft on her ear fell the chimes from the belfry 

of Christ Church, 
While, intermingled with these, across the meadows were 

Sounds of psalms that were sung by the Swedes in their 

church at Wicaco." 

Among the universal remedies in which the Germans of 
that period placed great faith was phlebotomy, or blood- 
letting, which it was believed would prevent sickness as 
well as effect a cure. Some persons were in the habit of 
undergoing the operation at regular seasons of the year, 

Phlebotomy. 117 

no matter whether sick or well. Owing to the belief in 
astrology, care was taken to perform it under favorable 
lunar and planetary influences. For this more than any 
other purpose the different Hermits on the Ridge were con- 
sulted by the residents of the surrounding country. The 
phases of the moon could be gotten from the almanac, 
either by the patient or the barber-chirurgeon, 161 and even 
the good and bad days easily calculated ; 162 but to find the 
correct position of the planets and foretell their influence in 
an individual case, this was another matter, and one of 
prime importance, as the operation would affect the person 
for a lunar year to come. 

Then, again, it was believed that the disposition of the 
drawn blood was a matter of great moment to the patient, 
and the art of the astrologer was once more invoked as to 
when and how the lost blood should be disposed of. 163 

Every vein or artery had also its own name, and came 
under the influence of a peculiar sign or planet. Thus 
there was the cephalic vein which was ruled by Aries ; the 

161 The barber-chirurgeon was then quite an important personage. His 
specialties were bleeding, cupping, and leeching. 

162 When the phase of the moon changed before noon the day was 
counted as the first day. If, however, the change occurred after high 
noon the day was not counted. From a fragment of an old manuscript, 
dating from that period, it is seen that according to the accepted theory 
the first five days of the new moon were all bad for blood-letting : the 
first caused a bad countenance ; the second, a bad fever ; the third, lame- 
ness ; the fourth, a slow death ; the fifth, giddiness ; while the sixth was 
marked "good," as it purifies the blood. The seventh, eighth, ninth, 
and tenth were all bad ; then came twelve days all good, with a special 
reference to the twenty-first, that this was the best day in the year. 

163 The early Moravians in Pennsylvania had a positive rule, that the 
lost blood should either be buried in fresh earth at once or thrown into 
running water. This was to prevent any possible spread of disease. 
(Bethlehem MS. Diaries. ) 

1 1 8 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

hepatic, the splenetic, arthritic, quinsy vein, etc., 164 each 
with a different sign. The astrologer had therefore to 
indicate according to the celestial signs what particular 
vein was to be tapped, as well as when the other conditions 
would be favorable. 

It is not to be assumed from the above that Kelpius and 

his brother Mystics 

PorcenDens graVla eX aqVlLone practised astrology 

fVtVra CoMetes, y ^o K for P rofit > after the 
■Basuf. Afa?\ manner of the charl. 

atans of that day. 
A moderate use of 
the art was believed 
in by most intelli- 
gent people and the 
signs were consulted 
and studied for sci- 
entific as well as 
personal purposes. 
Though the Mystics 
on the Wissahickon 
made use of astro, 
logical signs and 
calculations, and 
believed in the in- 
fluence of heavenly 
bodies upon human affairs, yet that they were free from all 
charlatanism may be safely assumed from the following 
interesting extract, which appeared in Vol. xii, p. 270, of 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London, July 10, 1683. 165 Here, in the review of Johann 

164 Hauptader, Leber, Miltz, Gicht, Braun, etc. 

165 Copy in library of American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

c ^nbte[em i682.gja()r/tm 

von Xflutnmdjt tyt fefjen, 

fiftfffft unb duf bag efttfafngffe ttorttrt 


M. |£oft<mivgacp6 ^immfrmami/toon <23<it>< 

(jingm an ber £n$/ t<$>na(figm Diaconuin 
iu Stctiqbeim. 

£ CftUlt bro VntOifniOannn WILL nVntJbnrD vv„Dm 

> llftlfgiiirj) \of)<mn ®otifai,'$ubTobtm/ 

T utfrfrnnolmi in &iul t$art 

"WrnJr bui f Pomu9 trtiotn. 3" Won ' « 8 »-3»6r 

The Cometo-Scopia. 


Jacob Zimmerrnann's " Cometo-Scopia ; or, Three Astro- 
nomical Relations concerning the Comets that have been 
seen in the years 1680, 1681, 1682," 160 the editor states : 
"Though as he [Zimmermann] saith he doth not like 
the common Astrological Juggling Purse (so he calls it) 
\beutelschneider\ where, according to the Division of the 
Heaven in twelve Houses, and the Distribution of the 
Countries to the signs of the Zodiack, the Superstitious 
Fortune-Tellers do Prognosticate things, which have no 
reasons nor grounds, neither in Nature or experience, yet 
it seems he [Zimmermann] cannot forbear himself to make 
use of the same trifles, when he says that Virgo being the 
sign of Sterilty ; Libra, a sign of Justice and Death ; 
Scorpio, a house of Mars and sign of Poysons, — the Comet 
must signify War, Famine, Sickness, or a great Plague." 

i6« jj CO py f this work is known to exist. The title reproduced is 
from a similar work relating merely to the comet of 1682. The original 
is in the Royal Library of Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart. The writer is in- 
debted to Prof. D. H. Schott, chief librarian, for the photographic copy. 









Fig. A. 

NOTHER custom then in 
vogue among the Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania 
was the wearing of anhdngsel, a 
kind of astrological amulet or 
talisman. They consisted chiefly 
of small charts upon parchment 
or paper, formed by astrological 
signs, together with hieroglyphic figures. In rare cases a 
thin stone or sheet of metal was used in place of the parch- 
ment. These anhdngsel, or zauber-zettel as they were 
called, were prepared by the Mystics of the Community 
with certain occult ceremonies at such times as the culmin- 
ation of a particular star or the 
conjunction of certain planets. 
One of the anhdngsel most 
in demand (Fig. A.) was pre- 
pared at midnight on St. John's 
eve, and buried for a time in the 
place where the sonnen-wend 
fire had been. This special one 
was supposed to abjure all evil 
spirits. The anhdngsel, when properly prepared by a com- 

^UdMjrjCJi / 

$ ESS 




Fig. B. 

The Mystic Seal. 


petent magus (the hexenmeister of the ignorant), was sup- 
posed to exercise an extraordinary influence over the des- 
tiny of the bearer, particularly in averting disease, checking 
the power of evil spirits, and defending the wearer from 
malice and all harm. 

Various mineral and animal substances, such as bones 
and teeth, were also used with the same import, after they 
had been subjected to a certain mystic incantation. Vege- 
table substances were rarely used, as it was believed that 
their efficacy only lasted while the plant or tree was in a 
state of growth or activity. 

So universal was the belief among the Germans in the 

Fie. c. 

efficacy of the anh'angsel that hardly an adult or child was 
to be found without one. Frequently a charm of this kind 
would be placed upon an infant immediately upon its birth, 
as well as upon a corpse prior to interment. Then, again, 
some were prepared for special diseases, and worn or ap- 
plied when the occasion presented itself; and it was firmly 
believed where a cure was effected that the result was due 
more to the mystic charm written upon a triangular parch- 
ment, and then folded thrice and placed upon the body of 
the patient, than to the remedies used by the practitioner 


122 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

of physic. Several of these anhangsel are here repro- 
duced. Fig. B was supposed to banish all evil spirits, being 
a secret protection against which no demon could prevail. 
Fig. C was known as the wunder-sigel ; it was believed to 
be a sure protection against any and all kinds of mechan- 
ical injuries, as well as against gun-shot or stab wounds of 
any sort. Fig. D, known as an artabel anhangsel, con- 
sisted of a thin plate of metal, usually copper, but in rare 
cases gold or silver. It was worn around the neck by a 
plaited three-strand cord made of hair taken from the 
tail of a horse at midnight upon Christmas eve. This 

charm was believed to insure to its 
fortunate owner a long life of 
wealth, power, strength, and cheer- 
fulness, prolonged youth and an easy 
death. Fig. E : this peculiar chart 
was called a Tritheimzettel, and was 
supposed to banish all harm from 
the house in which it was used. 
The derivation of the characters or 
their symbolism, however, has not 
been traced by the writer. 
D Independent of the above de- 

scribed charms or talismans, there 
was another kind of superstition common to the general 
populace. This was known as besprechen, a kind of con- 
juration for the cure of wounds or minor diseases in both 
man and beast. The ceremony was nearly always performed 
by an old man or woman, usually the latter ; and in some 
cases, such as burns, scalds, erysipelas, wounds, and hemor- 
rhages, it was believed to be of greater efficacy than any 
medical treatment. 

A curious matter in connection with the transmission of 

The Mystic Signet. 


the formulae for these conjurations was, that to maintain 
their efficiency they had to be handed down by an alterna- 
tion of the sexes. As an illustration, a woman who could 
besprech fire, as burns and scalds were called, in transmit- 
ting her secret formula would have to communicate it to 
one of the opposite sex, and he in turn to another woman ; 
otherwise the charm would not work. 

Another strange belief, one in which the Mystic Brethren 
figured, was the use of the wunder-sigel, or mystic signet. 
This was nothing more than an ordinary brass seal, one of 

Fig. E. 

which is now in possession of the writer, whereon were cut 
certain astrological figures and signs. It was used not only 
upon documents and articles of writing, but was impressed 
upon various parts of the body, whether of human beings 
or of animals. This was done to prevent or cure certain 
ailments. For this purpose the signet or petschaft was 
smoked by aid of a fatty flame and then impressed upon 
{he spot where the trouble existed. The application was 
generally made with an incantation, in which the names of 
the Trinity bore the leading part. When used upon cattle 

124 T^ Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

it was believed, among other things, that it would prevent 

them from straying away, and would cause 

them to return home at the regular time ; also 

that no vermin of any kind would come near 

them. A horse so sealed could not be stolen, 

but if taken would at once return to its owner. 

An impression of an electrotype made from 

one of these identical signets used by the Theosophical 

Brotherhood is here given, also a drawing of the same 

seal, showing the size of the original. 

Watson, in commenting upon this peculiar phase of 
German character in days gone by, writes, " Germantown 
was certainly very fruitful in credulity, and gave support 
to some three regular professors in the mysterious arts of 
divination. Besides Dr. Witt, there was his disciple, Mr. 

Frailey, sometimes dubb 
possessed of learning. 167 
to by Watson was an 
Shrunk." When cows 
sons, got strange 
fled ordinary medi 
mary to consult 
lief, and their pre 
seeing the patients, 

ed doctor also, though not 

The other person alluded 

old man known as " Old 

and horses, and even per- 

diseases, such as baf- 

cines, it was custo- 

these persons for re- 

scriptions, without 

were often given under the 

idea of witchcraft, somehow, and the cure was effected. 

167 No reference to Dr. Frailey could be found in support of his connec- 
tion with Dr. Witt. 



k HEN the Brotherhood on 
the Wissahickon began 
to be better known they 
attracted considerable attention 
among the Dissenters and Sepa- 
ratists scattered throughout the 
other colonies, as well as in Penn- 
sylvania. Among the first to com- 
municate with Kelpius and his asso- 
ciates were the leaders of the Sab- 
batarian movement in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey. Abel Noble, 168 
the Sabbatarian apostle, who was then active in the Prov- 
ince among the Keithians in Philadelphia and Chester 

Macrocosm, or Seal of 
King Solomon. 

168 Abel Noble was the son of William Noble, a wealthy Friend of 
Bristol, England, and arrived in this country in 1684, coming to Philadel- 
phia shortly afterwards. He was a nephew of Richard Noble, who came 
from England in the "Joseph and Mary," Captain Mathew Payne, the 
first vessel that landed passengers at Salem, New Jersey, May 13, 1675, 
and who held some office under the Duke of York, and will be remem- 
bered as the surveyor of the Jerseys who laid out Burlington ; he was also 
active in the early settlement of Pennsylvania after the grant to Penn. 

126 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Counties, was a frequent visitor at the Tabernacle in the 
forest, where the question of the true Sabbath received the 
earnest consideration of the Theosophists. In these dis- 
cussions they were frequently joined by the Swedish pastors 
Rudman and Auren. 

According to the Ephrata manuscripts and traditions, it 
is to be inferred that not only the rival band under Koster, 
but the original Community, as well as one of the Swedish 
pastors, became convinced of the Sabbatarian doctrine and 
kept the Sabbath or Seventh-day holy. So far as the 
Keithian congregation under Koster is concerned, as well 
as in the case of Rev. Jonas Auren, we have ample docu- 
mentary evidence to substantiate this claim. The former 
eventually became a distinct Church, known as the Seventh- 
day Baptist Church of Philadelphia, with Thomas Rutter 
as the first pastor ; while the Rev. Jonas Auren embraced 
the doctrine of the Seventh-day without letting it interfere 
with his Lutheran pastorship. 169 He also went as a mis- 
Abel Noble soon after his arrival became possessed of a large tract of 
land in what is now known as Warminister Township, Bucks County. 

The claim of his having been a Seventh-Day Baptist preacher prior to 
his arrival in this country is a matter of doubt, as he had not yet arrived 
to the years of manhood when he landed on these shores. Further, from 
the start he professed Quakerism, and soon became a prominent member 
among the Society of Friends in the infant colony. However, when the 
Keithian troubles commenced we find him a staunch upholder of Keith, 
and his name, together with William Davis, is prominent among the 
forty-eight who signed the reasons for the Keithian separation. But at 
the same time he continued in accord with the society and remained in 
good standing among them, as is shown by his marriage in 1692 at Darby 
Meeting to Mary Garrett. 

After his final separation from the parent society the transition to the 
Baptists was an easy matter, and the tradition that Noble, during a busi- 
ness trip through the Jerseys, came in contact with Killingsworth and 
was baptised by him, is probably correct ; but how, and through whom 
he was convinced of the Sabbatrian doctrine is an unsolved question. 
169 Acrelius. 

Jonas Auren. 127 

sionary among the Indians, and by a curious coincidence 
preached the Gospel of Christ and taught the doctrine of 
the Sabbath to the Indians upon almost the identical spot 
where thirty years later the Ephrata Community was settled. 

[The Rev. Jonas Auren, of Wermeland in Sweden, ac- 
companied Rev. Rudman and Biorck to America at the 
king's command. He had been ordained along with Biorck 
at Upsala, and was under the special patronage of King 
Charles XI. His special mission was to make a map of 
the Swedish possessions, with a description of their charac- 
ter and the condition of the inhabitants, all of which he 
was to bring or send to his Majesty without delay. 

The party sailed from Dalaron August 4, 1696, arriving 
in London October 10th. It was, however, not until Feb- 
ruary 4, 1697, that they left London for America. Their 
voyage to the capes of Virginia lasted ten weeks. They 
first went to Maryland, and remained for several weeks as 
guests of Governor Francis Nicholson, when they con- 
tinued their journey on a yacht to Elk River, and reached 
Pennsylvania by way of New Castle, June 24, 1697. 
Rudman and Auren remained in Philadelphia, while Biorck 
went down the river to the Christiana congregation. 
Shortly afterwards word was received of the death of King 
Charles XI, when Auren concluded to remain in America, 
and subsequently became pastor of the Racoon Church in 
New Jersey. 

Auren's intercourse with the Sabbatarians at Providence 
and Philadelphia, as well as with the Mystics on the Wis- 
sakickon, was of an intimate nature, and resulted in his 
becoming convinced that the seventh day, or Saturday, 
was the true Sabbath. 

He published his reasons for the above in English in 
Leeds' Almanac for 1700, under the title of " Noah's Dove. " 

128 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

This caused considerable trouble between the three clergy- 
men and in the congregations. It was answered by a 
counter pamphlet from Biorck, also in English, entitled, 
" A little Olive Leaf put in the Mouth of Noah's Dove." 170 

In addition to his other labors, Auren actually engaged in 
missionary work among the Indians in Chester County 
(now Lancaster), preaching to them the gospel together 
with the doctrine of the Sabbath, upon the identical ground 
on which the Ephrata Community of Mystic Sabbatarians 
was subsequently established. 

A communication from Auren appears in Biorck's Disser- 
tatio Gradualis, de Plantatione Ecc. Sued., dated January 
13, 1699-1700, which gives some account of his labors in 
this missionary field. 

It is further an interesting fact that Auren laid the 
corner-stone of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church of 
Christiana (Wilmington), on the Seventh day, Saturday, 
May 28, 1698. 

Notwithstanding his outspoken Sabbatarianism, Auren 
was called as pastor to the Rattcong (Racoon) Church in 
New Jersey, and as he continued to preach the doctrine of 
Sabbath, he was cited by Biorck to appear before the Gov- 
ernor of New York ; but so ably did Auren defend his 
position, that he was permitted to return as pastor, with 
the understanding that he was to preach the Orthodox 
Lutheran doctrine on Sunday to his congregation, while 
he and his family were at liberty to keep the seventh day. 

Auren died February 16, 17 13, and was buried in New 

170 "A Little Olive Branch put in the Mouth of the (so-called) Noah's 
Dove, Printed and sold by William Bradford at the Sign of the Bible in 
New York, 1704," sm. 4to. Title from catalogue of "The Bradford Ex- 
hibition" by the Grolier Club, New York, 1893. The copy on exhibition 
is the only one known. The owner of the specimen refused to leave his 
name be known to the public. 

Kelpius 1 Letter. 129 

Jersey. The funeral sermon was preached, February 24, 
I 7 I 3i by Rev. Abraham Lidenius ; and on the next day, 
February 25, he was buried in the Racoon Church, the 
service being read by Dr. Andreas Sandel. 171 He left a 
widow 172 and two sons, the youngest only five weeks old. J 

As to the Sabbatarian tendencies of the Kelpius party, 
the evidence is not quite so clear. It is known, however, 
that at an early day communications were opened between 
Kelpius and others on the Wissahickon and the leaders of 
the Sabbatarians in Rhode Island and Connecticut. 

This fact is shown by the following letter, the draft of 
which is in the Journal of Kelpius in his own handwriting, 
which gives perhaps the fullest and most exact account of 
the peculiar theosophy of the original Community which it 
was possible to reveal to any one who had not made the 
subject an especial study. It is addressed to Steven Mum- 
ford, to whom is accorded the honor of establishing the first 
Sabbatarian congregation in America. 

" To Mr. Steven Momfort in Long Island, 1 ' 3 in America, concerning the 
Pietists in Germany. 

" 1699, 11 December. 

" Dear Friend and Brother : 

" In fellow-fighting in that Free and Royal Spirit which 
strives for the Prize of the first Resurrection when in this 
Midnight the Cry of the Bridegroom's coming is sounded 
forth among the Virgin waiters for the Preparation of the 
Temple Body, wherein the King of Glory and Father of 
the coming Eternity is to enter. 

171 February 16, 1713, Auren died at Ratkungs Hook, and was buried 
by me, February 25, in tie Ratkungs Church. — Diary Andreas Sandel. 

ra Auren was married in November, 1710, by Rev. Biorch to I,ydia, 
daughter of Hans Giostason. He was then living near the Susquehanna 
River. — Diary Andreas Sandel. 

1,3 This should be Rhode Island. 


130 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Your great desire for to be a little further informed of 
the Principles and Practizes of those People that go under 
the Name of Pietists, 174 what they hold as Doctrin differing 
from others, what their Discipline is and what Methods 
they use in their own Country ; this desire I will hope, 
doth not arise from the Root of that Athenian Curiosity to 
hear some new thing; But rather you being one among 
thousands in Juda, who sees how since that glorious Primi- 
tive Church of Christ Jesus the Apostacy hath run in a 
continual current till this very day, and though this Stream 
hath divided itself in many smaller Rivulets, under several 
Names of more reformed Purity, yet you are not ignorant 
how they derive their Emanation from one Spring and 
ten to the same End, Viz. that the Woman in the Wilder- 
ness might be carried away by the Flood. Therefore you, 
as a Remnant of her seed, long for to see your Mother and 
groan for the Manifestation of her children. No wonder 
then, if your continual Gazing upon this Supercaelestial 
Orb and Sphier from whence with her Children, causeth 
you to observe every new Phoenomena, Meteors, Stars and 
various Colours of the Skei, if peradventure you may 
behold at last an Harbinger as an Evidence of that great 
Jubelee or Restitation of all things and glorious Sabbath- 
ismos or the continual days of Rest without intervening 
or succeeding Nights, whereof God hath spoken by the 
mouth of all his Prophets since the world began (Acts 3, 21) 
and whereof both the Testaments prophesie in evey Title 
and Iota. If now this late Revolution in Europe (not to 
speak of that in other parts) which in the Roman Church 

174 Christopher Sauer states that the name first arose from an expression 
used by a Prof. Veller, who, in a funeral sermon on one of the students, 

said " He was a Pietist," meaning that he was a God-fearing person. 

Sailer's Almanac, 1751. 

Mysticism Defined. 131 

goes under the Name of Quietism, 176 in the Protestane 
Church under the Name of Pietism, Chiliasm, and Phila- 
delphianism, If I say this together or one in Special pur- 
tends any thing to this effect. I do not question, but it 
will be your as well as my desire, who would rejoyce not 
only to give you full satisfaction as to this, but to see with 
you, yet in our days, that happy day, which when its new 
Earth swallows all that forementioned Floud and where 
its glorious Sun causeth all other Stars and Phoenomena 
to disappear, no Night succeeds it, but that the Night is 
swallowed up in ye Day, Darkness into Light, Death into 
Life, Judgment into Victory, Justice into Mercy, all im- 
perfect Metals into Gold, and Gold itself is refined seven 
times, and all Churches and Virgins comprised into the 
one Dove (Cant. 6, 9), then all the Sons of God will shout 
for joy as they did in the Beginning, when God was all in 
all, as he will be all in all, when again the End hath found 
its Beginning. Amen ! Halleluiah ! 

" Dear and worthy friend, though unknown to the Flesh 
but known in that better, yea in the best Line and highest 
descent in the Life of our Immanuel, whose Day we re- 
joyce to hear of and more to see, as well within us as 
without us, in its Depth, Hight, Breadth and Length, 
through the whole palsed and groaning Creation, as well as 
in our Mother Jerusalem above and Beneath ! How can I 

175 The Quietists were the followers of Miguel de Molinos, a Spanish 
Mystic. The chief object of this sect was the attainment of spiritual 
and physical perfection. The founder taught that little value was to be 
placed upon ceremonial observances, but m piritual perfection consisted in 
the perfect repose of all the faculties of the soul in God and indifference 
to all the actions of the body. For those who obtained this "fixed" or 
"continuous" state there was no sin and no occasion for anxiety. " Mys- 
tical theology," said Molinos, "is not a science of the intellect, but of 
sentiment ; it is not learned by study, but received from heaven." 

133 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

write the particulars of the Quietists or Pietists, Chiliasts 176 
or Philadelphians, 177 whose Fame is spread in all the 4 
quarters of the now Christianity. They first sprang in 
Italy, in Rome itself (and are increased now through the 
whole Roman Church in many Millions, though they was 
and are still depressed) 15 or 20 years before the Pietists or 
Chiliasts in Germany and Switzerland (where the first 
Reformation) in the year '89 and '90, with a swift increase 
through the whole Nation, so that their Branches also did 
break forth into other Nations, as in England under the 
name of Philadelphians. This Penn is too dull to express 
the extraordinary Power the Pietists and Chiliasts among 
the Protestants in Germany (and especially in Saxony) and 
Switzerland was endued with in their Infancy. This only 
I say, as one who hath read the Histories, that since the 
days of the Apostels, such Miraculous Powers and opera- 
tions have not been manifested as in a matter of 3 yd years 
among these. And like as the Miracles wrought by God 
through the Hand of Moyses was for the main part in the 
outward Creation or Macrocosm, the Miracles of Jesus the 
Messia on the Bodys of Man or Macrocosm, 178 so these in 
our days was wrought (much like unto them in the days 
of the Apostels) on the Soul and more interiour parts by 
Bctases, Revelations, Inspirations, Illuminations, Inspeak- 
ings, Prophesies, Apparitions, Changings of Minds, Trans- 
figurations, Translations of their Bodys, wonderful Fastings 

178 Vide, p. 37, 38, Ibid. 

177 Vide, p. 16, Ibid. 

1,8 Macrocosm, used in a figurative sense to denote the universe or visi- 
ble system of worlds, literally the great world. The opposite, microcosm, 
the little world, was a name given to man in the times when astrology 
nourished, as it was supposed that his organization accurately corres- 
ponded to the organization of the universe. The above conception dates 
back to Democritus (b. 460 B.C.). 

Man or Macrocosm. 


for n, 14, 27, 37 days, Paradysical Representations by 
Voices, Melodies, and Sensations to the very perceptibility 
of the Spectators who was about such persons, whose con- 
dition as to the inward 
condition of their Souls, 
as well as their outward 
Transactions, yea their 
very thoughts they 
could tell during the 
time of their Exstacies, 
though they had never 
seen nor heard of the 
Persons before. 

" These and many 
other Gifts continued 
as is said, for a matter 
of three years and a 
half among all sorts of 
Persons, Noble, and 
ignoble, Learned and 
unlearned, Male and 
female, young and old, 
very conspiciously and 
generally Protestants chiefly, and some Papists, and with 
some though more refined such and like Gifts last till this 
very day. 

"Thus partly I have declared how they was baptized 
with such energical drops out of that supercaleistial Pillar 
of Cloud by Gifts and miraculous Manifestations of the 
Powers from on high. 

" Now will I tell in short in what a craggy, uneven yea 
dark wilderness they have been led since, when hitherto 
they have been baptized with the fiery Pillar of many 


134 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, 

inward and outward Tribulations, Sorrows, Temptations, 
Refinings, Purifications (but nevertheless this Fiere casts 
such a Light befor'm that securs'm from the persuing 
Might and dark influence of Egypt and guides'm in that 
beloved land and City.) This must be through many 
Tribulations as the Apostels have witnessed, so they felt it 
and feel it still very smartly. For when these things begun 
to ferment every where, i. The Students in the Universities 
forsake their former way of Learning and applied them- 
selves wholly to Piety and Godliness, (from whence their 
name was derived) leaving and some burning their heath- 
enish Logiks, Rhetoriks, Metaphysiks. 2. The Laymen 
or Auditors begun to find fault with the Sermons and 
Lifes of their Ministers, seeing there was nothing of Ye 
Power of the Holy Ghost, nor of the Life of Christ and 
his Apostels. 3. The children under the Information and 
Tuition of Pietists, (for the Students applied themselves 
chiefly to the Education of Children, as they do till this 
day with great, yea extraordinary success) begun to reproof 
their Parents if they was working and Lye or unrighteous- 
ness ! yea some in their tender years came to witness strange 
things of the Invisible worlds. Till at last Demetrius with 
his Craftsmen begun to see and hear that hot only in 
Lipzig, (from which University this Motion first begun to 
spread abroad) but almost throughout all Germany and 
adjacent Contrys these Pietists did persuade and turn away 
much People, saying that the Form of Godliness without 
the Power thereof is meer Idolatry and superstition ; Yea 
they saw, how that not only this their craft was endangered 
by these and set at nought, but also the Temple or Uni- 
versities of the great Goddess Dianoria or Reason and 
Ratiocination (which is quite different from that Dionoria 
or Understanding or Unction whereof John witnesses 

The Anti-Pietists. 135 

1 Joh. 5. 19. c. 2, 27.) should be despised and her Magnifi- 
cence (thus the Rectors in the Universities are titled) should 
be destroyed, if in the place of Dianoria, the Sophia from 
on high should be adored and instead of Temples or Uni- 
versities, the Hearts of men should be consecrated. (Ex- 
cuse me, dear Heart, that I thus run into an Allegoricall 
Application, for the very same Comedy was played as you 
read in the Acts of the Apostels, only the time and persons 
changed.) Thus the Battel and Insurrection begun, which 
lasteth till this day. 

" The Anti-Pietists (so their Adversaries are pleased to 
call themselves) betook themselves to the secular Arm. 
But several Princes being partly inclined to the Principles 
of the Pietists, partly convinced of a superior Agent in 
these things, took them in their Protection, especially the 
Elector of Brandeb. In the Principality of Brunswick 
and Lunebourg, the course was otherwise, for in the very 
beginning 3 Bishops or Supirts was removed their offices ; 
the same happened in other Countries and Cities, as Erford, 
Lipzik, Quedlinbourg, Halberstad, Hambourg, Hassen 
Cassel, where and in Switzerland lately several Ministers 
are removed and some banished the Country. Thus they 
increased under the Cross. As for any peculiar Badge or 
Mark, they have none being above these trifling affections) 
or any peculiar Church Ceremony or Discipline which 
should cause a Shism or branch a new sect. For they are 
not ignorant of the wilderness wherein the Church is and 
hath been hitherto, and in what a glory she will appear 
when she comes up from the Wilderness leaning on her 
beloved. Cant. 8. 5. They see will enough how all the 
Reformations and Revolutions in this last Age as well as 
theirs are but Apparitions of the fair colours of the Aurora 
or Break of the day, mixed with many uncleanness wherein 

136 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

there is no stay (as my beloved Brother and faithful Fellow- 
Pilgrim in this Wilderness state Seelig hath written) for 
they are not the substance or sun itself through the various 
beautiful Apparitions of the Skie, should entice one allmost 
enamoured in them and to mistake the Harbinger for the 
King ! whom to meet they prepare themselves earnestly, 
some of'm laying aside all other engagements whatever, 
trimming their Lamps and adorning themselves with white 
silky Holiness and golden Righteousness, that they may be 
found worthy, when the Bridegroom comes, to receive him 
with confidence and joy and to bring him in the House of 
their Mother, where He will drink with'm that new spicy 
wine of the Kingdom in all everlasting Progresses. That 
we also may prepare ourselves with our whole endeavours 
continually I wish heartily, who do recommend you in the 
Clifts of the Foundation-Rock of our Salvation, Jesus 
Christ. Remaining your fellow Traveller in this blessed 
work and best engagement. 

"Johannes Kelpitjs." 

Dated in the Wilderness. 

[Stephen Mumford (born 1639 ; died July, 1701) is ac- 
credited with being the founder of the Seventh-day Baptist 
Church in America. He was a native of England, and 
prior to his emigration to America had been a member of 
the " Bell Lane Church of Christ" (Seventh-day Baptist), 

He arrived in New England in 1664, and at once joined 
with Dr. Clarke's First-day Baptist Church at Newport, 
though his views favored the observance of the seventh 
day, as Backus states in his " History of New England," 179 
" bringing with him the opinion that the whole of the Ten 

1,9 Vol. iii, p. 232. 

Stephen Mumford. 137 

Commandments, as they were delivered from Mount Sinai, 
were moral and immutable ; and that it was the anti- 
christian power which thought to change times and laws 
that changed the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day 
of the week. 

Several members of the First Baptist Church in Newport 
embraced his sentiments, and yet continued with the church 
for some years. They kept up a correspondence with their 
brethren in England, by which they were much strength- 
ened in their resolution to lead a Christian life. 

These persons were wont to meet together for worship 
on the seventh day with Stephen Mumford and others, in 
a very primitive manner, at their own houses. 180 Finally, 
five of these members withdrew from the First-day Baptist 
Church, and on December 23, 167 1, together with two 
other persons, entered into a church covenant and formed a 
Seventh-day Baptist Church upon the model of the one in 
London. 181 

From this small beginning originated the Seventh-day 
Baptist Church in America, which now numbers about 
9000 members, about 100 churches, three colleges, and 
maintains missionary stations in Shanghai, China ; Harlem 
and Rotterdam, Holland ; together with thirty-four home 
missionaries operating in twenty-five States and Territories. 

But little is known of the personal history of this Sabba- 
tarian pioneer, as many of the records of the church prior 
to 1700 have been lost. In the year 1671 he became a 
freeman of the Community. Three years after the forma- 
tion of the Newport Church, Mumford went to England 

180 Seventh-day Baptist Memorial, Vol. i, p. 70-71. 

181 The members who withdrew were Stephen Mumford, Samuel Hub. 
bard, Roger Baster, William Hiscox, and Mrs. Tacy Hubbard ; to these 
were added Rachel Longworthy, and a sister whose name is now forgotten. 


138 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

in the interests of the faith and for the purpose of obtain- 
ing aid for the struggling Church in America. Upon his 
arrival in London he writes, under date of March 14, 1675 : 
" I took my journey to London in the Waggon, where I 

was received by ^ ^^ the brethren with 

much joy, in some / ^v of them, who had 

a great desire to / * \ hear of our place 

and people; some/ i /* y \talk of coming 

with me." He re yi V turned to New 

England shortly \ \/ /afterwards, arriv- 

ing in Boston in \ " / October of the 

same year. 182 In \^ >/ the year 1687 we 

find him living in Jamestown. How- 

ever, November 29, 1687, he and his wife Ann conveyed 
some of their property at that place to William Phipps, Kt. , 
of Boston, and returned to Newport, after which we have 
no record of him, except the memorandum in the diary of 
Magister Kelpius in 1699. ] 183 

A late writer, in commenting upon the Mumford letter, 
states : "In such contemplations did Kelpius dream away 
his young life. Doubtless to him all was a brilliant reality 
to be enjoyed at some future day ; and with a heart full of 
faith in his doctrines, and sustained by holy aspirations for 
the higher life, he went forth to meet the heavenly Bride- 
groom. Far better for him thus to live and die, visionary 
though he was, than to live and die without hope and 
without God in the world." 

182 Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island. 

183 Stephen Mumford and his wife are both buried in the old cemetery 
of the Sabbath-keepers at Newport, R. I. 



; S the close of the 
seventeenth cen- 
tury drew near, 
the leaders of the Com- 
munity looked forward to 
the coming of the millen- 
nium with greater faith 
than ever. The terrible 
scourge of the Barbadoes 
plague (yellow fever) that 
had swept the Province 

AMn„, A u:s,M. U L. durin S the summer of 

1699 was looked upon as 
but another forerunner of the expected deliverer. It is 
true their mystic number was far from complete ; reports 
from their emissary in Europe were not encouraging ; 
enemies at home were casting ridicule at their religious 
teachings, while in Germany their brethren were proscribed 
and scattered. Still the religious enthusiasts in both hemi- 

" Gloria Dei," a.d. 1700. 

140 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

spheres who clung together and adhered to their precepts 
felt far from discouraged as the sun arose upon the March 
day which, according to them, ushered in the first day of 
the seventeenth century. (They made the popular mistake 
of supposing that 1700 began the new century.) In looking 
over the situation the American Community felt that their 
labors had not been altogether in vain. The religious 
condition of both Germans and English in the Province 
had been greatly changed for the better by the services 
which they had instituted and maintained since their 
arrival. In Philadelphia there were now two churches, — 
an Episcopal church, solidly built of brick ; 184 a Seventh- 
day Baptist meeting-house, 185 within a stone's throw of the 
other; while the Swedish Lutheran church at Wicacoa, 
humble as it was, was nearing completion. Presbyterian 
and Baptist services had also been held, but as yet no 
regular organizations had been established. In German- 
town such as were followers of Simon Menno were already 
casting about for a piece of ground, upon which to build 
a regular meeting-house. 

Then, again, the educational labors of Kelpius were 
beginning to bear fruit in the children who received moral 
instruction at the Tabernacle, and who had there been 
taught to pray and sing. Many of these children were 
now growing up into men and women, through whom the 
religious training would soon make itself felt among the 

184 Christ Church, on Second Street aboye Market. 

185 This house of worship was on Second Street north of Christ Church. 
It came into the possession of the Baptists in 1707, and became known as 
the "First Baptist Church of Philadelphia." In 1762 a new church 61 
feet by 42 was built. It was enlarged during the present century, and 
finally sold and abandoned for a more fashionable neighborhood (Broad 
and Arch Streets). The burying-ground was in the rear of the church. 

Peter Schaffer. 141 

Toward the close of the old century the Community was 
reinforced by several Pietists from Halle in Germany, the 
most important among whom was one Peter Schaffer, 186 a 
native of Finland and master of arts of the University of 
Abo. When this party arrived they were cordially received 
by the brethren and domiciled at the Tabernacle. 

Schaffer, who was a learned but somewhat eccentric 
character, soon differed with Kelpius and the other Mystics 
as to the sacraments, which were not insisted upon by them. 
Consequently he offered to withdraw from the Community, 
and proposed to live a life of seclusion and contemplation. 

Kelpius thereupon submitted to him the names of four 
or five devout families who would give him his living, pro- 
vided that he would instruct the children of the household 
for several hours in each day, the remaining time to be 
passed in his esoteric studies. Schaffer, however, rejected 
these offers, and concluded to labor as an evangelist among 
his countrymen along the Delaware and Schuylkill, and 
when the opportunity offered to act as a missionary among 
the Indians. He soon left the Tabernacle and came direct 
to the city. He presented himself to Edward Shippen, one 
of the magistrates and leading Friends of the Province, and 
informed him and his wife Rebecca that he had a call to 
stay under their roof for forty days and nights, during 
which time he was to subsist on bread and water. He was 
permitted to remain there during his pleasure ; and during 
this visit, it is stated, he became more and more involved 
in his mystical speculations. 

186 Peter Schaffer, together with Ulstadius, a priest, and Ulhegius, a 
student of theology, some years prior to the former's arrival in America, 
had given the courts and consistory of Sweden great trouble. Finally, 
Ulstadius was condemned to death, and Schaffer recanted and drifted to 
Halle, whence he went to England and America 

142 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Early in the year 1700 he appears to have been chosen 
as schoolmaster at Wicacoa, where he, according to Pastor 
Biorck, at first must have given satisfaction, as the latter 
writes that at last a school has been established at Wicacoa 
" with an able teacher at the head of it, who also serves as 
parish clerk." It is not known how long this eccentric 
visionary remained in charge as schoolmaster at Wicacoa. 
From there he went to Pennsneck to open a school, but, 
according to the Swedish records, he effected but little. 
Soon after he came to New Jersey he entered upon what 
he termed a " death-fast," and received a revelation that he 
should arise and wander about at random. 187 From Penns- 
neck he returned for a short time to the Tabernacle on the 
Wissahickon. While there he received a call from the 
Swedes at Pennsneck to return to them and act as their 
pastor, with the assurance that £z\ was ready for his sup- 
port. This offer he saw fit to refuse, and the next that is 
learned about him is that he accompanied Jonas Auren upon 
one of his missionary tours to the Indians on the Conestoga. 
Returning from this mission, he had another vision com- 
manding him to return to Europe, which he did forthwith. 

After his arrival at Plymouth he subjected himself to an 
enforced fast of fifty days, at the end of which time he 
received another revelation that he should return to his old 
home in Finland and there reprimand his former judges for 
their course against him. He obeyed, and was imprisoned 
in the fortress of Gefle, where he became insane and died. 

Kelpius, in a letter written to Deichmann in 1699, refer- 
ring to Peter Schaffer, writes : " His heart yearned toward 
his own nationality, — the Swedes and Finns, as well as 
toward the Indians. All three had an interest for him, and 
he felt that he could do good among them. We parted in 

187 Acrelius, New Sweden, p. 316. 

" Gloria Dei." 

J 43 

love, and left the doors open so that he could return to us 
at any time in case that he did not receive the reception 
he anticipated among his own kindred." 188 

Another interesting incident toward the close of the 
century was the final parting of Henry Bernhard Koster 
from his former associates prior to his return to the Father- 
land in the winter of 1699. Although he had been sepa- 
rated from his former friends for over five years, and had 

" Gloria Dei," a.d. 1895. 

run a somewhat eccentric course, a certain bond of sym- 
pathy and friendship had always been maintained between 
the leaders. So when Koster finally determined to embark 
for the Fatherland the parting between the men was sad for 
all, and he went on his way not only with the good wishes 
of every one of his former companions, but was followed 
by their blessings and prayers for his safe journey. 

The first year of the new century (according to their 

1 Kelpius MS. Journal, p. 29-30. 

144 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

reckoning) was crowned by two happy events, both bright 
spots in the history of the Community. One was the con- 
secration of the Swedish Lutheran Church at Wicacoa; 
the other the arrival of Daniel Falkner and a number of 
accessions to their number from Europe. Among the 
number was Justus Falkner, a brother of Daniel, and who 
was destined to become an important figure in the religious 
history of Pennsylvania. 

The consecration of the Swedish Lutheran Church at 
Wicacoa took place on the first Sunday after Trinity, July 
2, 1700. The building, 60x30 feet and 20 feet to the 
square, had been completed far enough to warrant its use 
for public worship. The event was made the occasion for 
a festival that extended over three days. It was opened on 
Saturday, July 1, with a jollification or kirckweih, held after 
the manner of the Fatherland. On Sunday the consecra- 
tion services took place. Pastor Biorck preached the sermon 
from the text 2 Sam. , viii, 29, 189 and christened the church 
" Gloria Dei" {Gud^s Ahra's Huus or Gottes Ehre). Upon 
this festive occasion a great crowd was present, not only of 
Swedes 'and Gennans, but English as well. The latter 
were so numerous that Pastor Biorck was forced to repeat 
his Swedish sermon in English at the close of the services. 

Prominent among the great assemblage were the Theo- 
sophical brethren from the Wissahickon, who not only 
furnished instrumental music for the occasion, but acted as 
choristers as well, chanting the dedicatory Psalms and re- 
sponses ; while the three resident pastors, Rudmann as 
Vice-Bishop or Provost, Biorck as Celebrant, and Auren as 

189 "Therefore now let it please thee to bless the house of thy servant, 
that it may continue forever before thee : for thou, O Lord God, hast 
spoken it : and with thy blessing let the house of thy servant be blessed 
for ever." 

The Frankfort Land Company. 145 

assistant, all robed in surplice and chasuble, conducted the 
consecration services. A nach kirchweih on Monday con- 
cluded the festival. 

The other event referred to was the return of the emis- 
sary who had been sent to Europe, and had remained there 
in the interest of the Community for over two years. Great 
was the joy of the brethren and the rejoicing at the Taber- 
nacle on the August day which marked the return of Daniel 
Falkner and his companions from the Fatherland who had 
accompanied him to the New World so that the mystic 
number of perfection would once more be complete and 
the circle unbroken. Manuscript and tradition are both 
silent as to the exact date of Falkner's return : even the 
names of his companions remain unknown, with the ex- 
ception of his brother Justus, a candidat theologies who had 
studied at Halle, Johann Jawert, Johann Hendrick Sprogel, 
and Arnold Storeh. 

When Daniel Falkner returned to America he came for- 
tified with documents from the Frankfort L,and Company, 
dated at Frankfort-on-Mayn, January 24, 1700, which sup- 
planted Pastorius as their agent, and named himself with 
Jawert and Kelpius in his place, thereby making him virtu- 
ally the dictator of the German Township. He also ha'd a 
power of attorney, dated April 23, 1700 (n. s.), from Benja- 
min Furley, who was William Penn's trusted agent in 
Rotterdam, to act for him in Pennsylvania. This was 
subsequently reinforced by an autograph order from Penn 
to his secretary, 190 ordering him to prepare land warrants 
for Falkner and his brother. 

A certified copy of the power of attorney from the Frank- 
fort Company has lately been discovered among a number 
of old Pastorius papers in Germantown. 

190 Minute book " G," Penna. Archives, 2 Series, Vol. xix, p. 244. 


146 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In addition to the above, Falkner brought a deed of gift 
for 4000 acres of land, being a part of the 25000 acres 
belonging to the original German purchasers. 191 This 
indenture was executed by Catherine Elizabeth Schutz, 
widow of Johann Jacob Schutz, and was intended for 
charitable uses, to be ad- 
ministered by the Theoso- 
phical Fraternity. 

A result of the change 
in attorneyship became ap- 
parent at the next town 
election (1701), when Dan- 
iel Falkner was elected 
vogt or bailiff; Johann Ja- 
wert, recorder; and Justus 
Falkner, one of three bur- 
gesses. 192 

The return of Falkner 
to the Community and the addition to their number infused 
fresh courage into the hearts of the leaders, who now felt 
more sanguine than ever of the ultimate success of their 
experimental enterprise in the " Wilderness" of the Western 

A Phallic Emblem. 

191 The original purchasers were Jacob Van de Walle, Daniel Behagel, 
Johann William Peterson, John Jacob Schutz, and Caspar Menan, who 
acquired 14,000 acres of land from William Penn, and on April 2, 1683, 
gave a letter of attorney to Francis Daniel Pastorius to administer the same. 

192 Gerichtsbuch von Germantown. See also Collections of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, November, 1852. 

The German township was erected into a borough by virtue of a patent 
granted by William Penn, dated London, August 12, 1689. This docu- 
ment was recorded at Philadelphia 13th 3d month, 1691. It gave to the 
corporation the right to have and use a common seal and hold a court of 
record every six weeks for hearing all civil causes according to the laws 
of the Province. The separate government of Germantown began August, 
1691, and terminated in December, 1706, being fifteen years. 



JTH the advent of 
the new century 
the Fraternity on 
the Ridge received numer- 
ous accessions from different 
parts of the Old World, in- 
dependent of such as ac- 
companied Daniel Falkner 
upon his return. Promi- 
nent among the number was 
Conrad Matthai, from Swit- 

Great Seal of the Province (reverse.) zer l an( J ) an d. Dr. Christopher 

Witt, from Wiltshire, England. 193 Another interesting 
incident that belongs to this period is the intercourse 
between William Penn and the Theosophical Brotherhood 
during the former's second visit to the Province. There 
can be but little doubt that during the proprietary's stay in 

LUX E TENEBRIS,— from an old Pietistical book. 

193 Another account connects Dr. Witt with the celebrated Dutch family 
of that name. According to the Ephrata MSS., Gottlieb Van der Looft 
and Frederick Casselberg joined the Community about the same time. 

148 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

America, from November 28, 1699, to October 2, 1701, 
there must have been frequent visits to Germantown to 
attend the meetings held by both German and English 
Friends, and that upon such occasions the peculiar institu- 
tion on the Wissahickon was not overlooked by him. This 
argument is strengthened by the fact that long before Penn 
returned to America Kelpius had been accused of Quaker- 
ism, and his followers had been publicly charged with 
having embraced the tenets of the Society of Friends, — a 
charge which was apparently justified by the fact that they 
refused to administer either baptism or the eucharist, 194 
except in rare cases. 

A direct evidence of this peculiar feature of the Kelpius 
party is to be found in the reports made to Halle by Rev. 
Heinrich Melchoir Muhlenberg. In reply to a communi- 
cation from Halle respecting the survivors, if there were 
any, of the original party of Pietists and the particulars of 
their sojourn here, he states: "So far as I could gather 
from acquaintances and old residents, it seems to me that 
most of these former candidates (theological students) cared 
little or nothing for the holy sacraments of baptism and 
the eucharist as instituted by the Holy Spirit and recorded 
by the prophets, evangelists, and apostles. So much of the 
Holy Writ was a dead letter to them ; but, on the contrary, 
they busied themselves greatly with the Theosophical 
Sophia, speculations, etc., and at the same time practised 
alchemy." 195 

194 In Germany they were, on account of this peculiarity, called sacra- 
ments-verachter, or despisers of the sacrament. See Civitatis Erffurtensis, 
pp. 1065-1069. 

The non-observance of the sacrament became one of the chief causes 
for contention between Koster and Kelpius after their arrival in America, 
and did much to widen the breach that was formed by the course Koster 
pursued during the Keithian controversy. 

195 Halle Reports, original edition, p. 1265. 

William Penn. 149 

It is not to be supposed from the above statement that 
the Theosophical students, pious and ascetic as they were, 
and who had left home, friends, and plenty to banish them- 
selves here in the wilderness, were opposed to the two 
sacred ordinances. The fact was they merely objected to 
their abuse by too frequent and unauthorized administration. 

Unfortunately, thus far the writer's researches have failed 
to find any documentary mention of an intercourse between 
William Penn and the Germans in the Province during his 
second visit, except the statement in Watson's Annals (Vol. 
ii, p. 23) that Penn preached in Germantown upon two 
occasions, — once in a low house, built of framework and 
filled in with bricks, which formerly stood upon the site of 
Dr. George Bensell's house (now 5458 Germantown 
Avenue) ; and another time in the original Schumacher 
house, built in 1686, which was still standing in Watson's 
day. A picture of this interesting landmark has fortunately 
been preserved. 196 

However, by a tradition which has been current in an old 
Pennsylvania family for generations, we learn that there 

196 Mr. T. H. Shoemaker kindly furnishes the following particulars 
respecting this old landmark : 

" The Shoemaker house was located on Lot No. 8. Gerhardt Hendrick 
Isaac Shoemaker married his daughter ; hence it became known as the 
Shoemaker house. The house was situated in the meadow, about where 
Wingohocking station is on the Reading Road. Shoemaker's Lane ran 
back to it, say a half mile from Germantown Avenue. According to a 
letter written by Watson to S. M. Shoemaker, it was built in 1682. But 
I think this an error of memory : the date was more probably a year or 
two later. The house was taken down in 1846 ; but close to the railroad 
at Shoemaker's Lane stands an old stone house known as the ' Rock 
House,' because it is built on a large rock which stands some twelve or 
fifteen feet above the meadow. This house was most likely a tenant- 
house, and tradition says it was from this rock that Penn preached to the 
people who assembled below in the meadow. I do not know of any other 
places Penn preached in. It has been said he was present when one of 
the houses was raised : I think Johnson's old one, but am not sure." 

150 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

was an estrangement between Penn and Kelpius, as the 
latter is said to have questioned the religious sincerity 01 
the proprietary on the ground of his being a slaveholder, 
who persisted not only in holding human beings in bond- 
age, but also sanctioned the traffic in their bodies. 197 

Kelpius in a subsequent letter to Professor Fabritius, his 
old preceptor at Altdorf and who was now at the University 
of Helmstadt, intimates rather strongly that Penn and the 
leading Quakers at that time were mere Christians by word 
of mouth, Maul- Christen} 96 An allusion is also made to 
Penn's second visit to the Province, and relates an incident 
where he was refuted by the Indians, at which meeting 
Kelpius seems to have been present. He states that during 
Penn's visit in 1701 he went to an Indian festivity or 
kintika, m and there took occasion to preach to the Indians 
about belief in the God of the heavens and the earth. The 
Indians, after listening to him with great patience, answered 
him : " You ask us to believe on the great Creator and 
Ruler of heaven and earth, and yet you yourself* do not 
believe nor trust Him, for you have taken the land unto 
yourself which we and our friends occupied in common. 
You scheme night and day how you may preserve it so 
that none can take it from you. Yea, you even scheme 
beyond your life and parcel it out between your children, — 
this manor for one child, that manor for another. We 
believe on God the Creator and Ruler of heaven and 
earth. He maintains the sun ; He maintained our fathers 
for so many, many moons. He maintains us, and we believe 

m " William Penn in America," by W. J. Buck, p. 379 et seq. 

198 MS. Journal, p. 84. See photographic facsimile, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 

199 Probably at Pennsbury, Penn's country residence in Bucks County. 
John Richardson, in his Journal, makes mention of such an assemblage 
in 1701. 

A Curious Legend. 151 

and are sure that He will also protect our children as well 
as ourselves. And so long as we have this faith we trust 
in Him, and never bequeath a foot of ground." Our manu- 
script unfortunately fails to record Penn's reply to the astute 
Indian, or even to hint at the outcome of the discussion. 

William Penn's second visit to the Province was evi- 
dently not a welcome one either to his own partisans or to 
the so-called "hot church party." But little mention of 
Penn or his actions is made in any of the literature or 
private journals of the day. Thomas Story's Journal, 
which is so full as to the year 1699, is almost silent for the 
next two years, or the period when Penn lived in Pennsyl- 
vania. During this sojourn he spent his time, when not 
travelling in the Province, between his mansion, known as 
the "Slate-roof house" in Philadelphia, and his country 
place at Pennsbury on the Delaware. It was in the " Slate- 
roof house" that Penn's son John was born a month after 
his arrival. The founder's life in America during this visit, 
according to an old Friend's journal, must have been any- 
thing but enviable on account of the political dissensions, 
as well as the objections made by his wife and daughter to 
taking up a permanent residence in the Province, to which 
must be added his impecuniosity and the pressing demands 
of his creditors. 

One of the most curious legends in connection with the 
Tabernacle in the forest is the following tale, recorded in 
the Ephrata manuscripts, which partakes somewhat of the 
supernatural : It was the seventh anniversary of the landing 
in Philadelphia, — a day which was always kept in remem- 
brance, as it not only marked the date of the Mystics' arrival 
in Pennsylvania, but it was St. John's eve as well. Greater 
preparations than usual had been made for its celebration, 
because it was the seventh, — the number of the seals on the 

152 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

book, the vials of wrath, the trumpets of the Apocalypse, 
and the union of the Square and the Triad. The old 
legend tells us that all preparations for lighting the mystic 
fires upon the hills at nightfall were completed, when just 
about twilight, "whilst engaged in their accustomed ser- 
vices or ceremonies in commemoration of their arrival, 
which they observed with solemnity, a white, obscure, 
moving body in the air attracted their attention, which, as 
it approached, assumed the form and mien of an angel. 
It receded into the shadows of the forest, and appeared 

again immediate 
as the fairest of 

It may easily be 
this aerial apparition 
phical ascetics, the 
the hopes and fears 
within their hearts, 
the cause of it, to 
long been upon a ner 
if at last the forerun 
had come. The man 
" They fell upon their 
binger of good tidings, 

ly before them 
the lovely." 
imagined what effect 
had upon the Theoso- 
commotion it raised, and 
that were engendered 
Whatever may have been 
their minds, which had so 
vous strain, it seemed as 
ner of the great Deliverer 
uscript goes on to say : 
knees to welcome the har- 
but, alas, the spirit van- 
ted brethren were prais- 
liverance at hand." As 
ed a degree of consterna- 
of all. Prayer and invo- 

ished while the devo 

ing their God for the de 

the mysterious form vanish 

tion and alarm filled the hearts 

cation, however, were continued without intermission until 

the hour near midnight, when the mystic fires were lighted. 

High rose the bright flame, until its reflection illuminated 

the symbol that surmounted the Tabernacle. Weird was 

the scene as the incantations were chanted, and the blazing 

embers scattered down the rugged hillsides, sparkling in 

the dark shadows of the hemlock and the pine. 

Andreas Sandel. *53 

After the ceremony was over the whole party returned 
to the saal, where they " continued wakeful in prayer and 
fervent supplication during the whole night without any 
further disclosures." 

The legend further states that when at last the morning 
dawned "the luminary of the skies appeared above the 
hills and shed her cheerful rays to renovate the energies of 
the laboring man ; but the gloom of darkness hung upon 
the waiting hermits." 

The next night was anxiously awaited by the watchers, 
who confidently expected the reappearance of the fair mis- 
sionary to mankind, but it brought no intelligence. 

On the third evening, while all were assembled at prayer 
in the saal, the apparition again appeared. All at once 
fell upon their knees ; but their prayers, instead of availing, 
always repelled the fair delieverer. After this the appari- 
tion did not reappear. 200 The manuscript further mentions 
that after this episode " Kelpius and his brethren remained 
at the ' Laurea,' m wearing out the thread of life in retire- 
ment and patient waiting for the final drama they were to 
enact in the wilderness." 

That the belief in the supernatural in the early days of 
our Commonwealth was not confined alone to the Germans 
in the Province is shown by the following interesting story 
in the diary of Pastor Andreas Sandel. The family was 
an English one and were members of the Church of Eng- 

"January 12. — A dreadful thing happened in Phila- 

200 It is further stated that the probable reason for the non-return of the 
apparition was a confession made to Kelpius by one of the hermits that 
he had committed some crime in Europe prior to coming to America. 

201 ' ' Laurea. ' ' This term appears only in the Ephrata MS. It evidently 
has some reference to "Laurentium," a classic grove in the Aventine 


154 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

delphia to the wife of a butcher. She and her husband 
quarreled in the evening. He asked her to make the bed. 
She said she would not. When she had refused for a while, 
he said he would turn her out of the house. She said, did 
he do it she would break the window-panes, invoking the 
devil to come for her if she did not. The husband led her 
out. Then she became at her wit's end because of her 
invocation. Finally, she broke some of the window-panes, 
and through the kitchen made her way up into the attic, 
bringing with her a candle, and lay down on the bed greatly 
disturbed on account of her promise. She then heard 
somebody coming up the stairs, but saw no one. Shortly 
afterwards she again heard a noise as if a person were 
coming up stairs, but could not see any one. This lasted 
for about half an hour. Becoming more and more agi- 
tated, fearing that her awful invocation was about to be 
realized, she went down to her husband, telling him of her 
anguish, and asking him to aid her. In lying down on 
a bench near the hearth she perceived a darkish human 
face looking at her with its mouth wide open and making 
horrid grimaces with gnashing teeth. Then she became 
thoroughly terrified, and asked her husband to read to her. 
Turning to the 21st Psalm, he read it to her, and then the 
face was not seen by her any more. 

" Soon afterwards she perceived at the window, the one 
where she had broken the panes, that someone was standing 
there with both arms extended through the window. By 
this her fright was increased. At last she saw merely a 
head coming nearer to her. She could not see where it 
came through. Her husband then clasped his arms about 
her, when suddenly such a smell of brimstone was felt that 
they scarcely could stay in doors. The smell was also per- 
ceived by others coming in later. The husband saw nothing, 
but smelled the brimstone odor. 

Tribute to Pastor Rudman. 

J 55 

"At one o'clock she sent for the minister, 202 who came 
and prayed with her. Upon the next day a great many 
persons came to her, and in telling it over she was all of a 
tremble, and had to fold her hands across her knees, so 
violent was she shaking. But see what were the devil's 
further doings. On the third evening thereafter there came 
a godless man, and, in passing her house, he sung the most 
wicked ditties, repeatedly invoking the evil one to take him, 
and saying he wanted to drink to him, etc. This doubtless 
was to cause her and others to continue in the sin of blas- 
phemy or in the belief that no devil is in existence, etc. 
This was a few days afterwards told me by that same woman 
herself and by two other English ministers,— Mr. Ross and 
Mr. Smith." 203 

Reference has already been made of the intercourse be- 
tween the Mystical Brother- 
hood and the Swedish Lu- 
theran pastors on the Dela- 
ware. This interesting fact 
is further illustrated by a 
Swedish account of a fare- 
well service or reception 
given at the Tabernacle 
on June 15, 1702, to Do- 
minie Andreas Rudman, 
prior to his leaving the 
Province to take charge of 
the Lutheran congregations in the Valley of the Hudson. 204 

An Old Germantown Horoscope. 

202 Rev. George Ross, then temporarily serving at Christ Church. 
20 ' The identity of this Mr. Smith has not been established. No record 
can be found of a minister of that name in the colonies at that period. 
204 Vide, chapter Justus Falkner, supra ibid. 

156 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Upon this occasion a poem was presented to the retiring 
pastor, or, as the Swedish account states," " a testimonial as 
a recognition of his faithful work. 205 

Rudman der Armen Sweden Hirte 

Kahm hier ins land zu reenter zeit, 
Das Irthum auch noch dass Verwirrte, 

Was allbereit unwissenheit 
Von Luther's wahrer lehr bey nahe entfernet, 
Das hat Rudmannus nun auch wieder neu gelernet. 
Ein jedes werk preist seinen meister, 
Und wie der Haus herr, so sein lohn : 
Rudmannus hast die flatter-geister 
Und predikt Christum Gottes Sohn ; 
Sein leben, lehr und ambt, kan selbst vielmehr erweisen 
Als meine feder ihn den leser kann an preisen." 

With the approach of Midsummer Day, 1704, the first 
decade of the Theosophic experiment was drawing to a 
close. Time had made the usual inroads. Notwithstand- 
ing the example and teachings of the leading spirits, many 
of the original members, in view of the conditions under 
which they lived, had fallen in with the allurements of the 
world. Some followed the example of Biedermann, and 
married ; others left the Community to gather riches or 
honors for themselves, while perhaps a few succumbed to 
the temptations of the wicked world. History and tradi- 
tion, however, are both silent as to the last. 

Then, again, the Community attracted the attention of 
various adventurers and religious enthusiasts who drifted 
into the Province, and thought to enter the society and use 
it for their own sinister purposes. A prominent example 
was the case of Tolstadius, a Swedish adventurer, who for 

205 (Vi, Meddela for egendomlighetens skull ett testimonium, som 
tyskarne i Germantown gifvit honom den 15 juni, 1702, sasom ett erkon- 
nande of hans trogna arbete. Engestromska-Samlung. ) 

Civil Affairs. 157 

a time not only deceived Kelpius, but the Swedish pastors 
at Wicacoa and Christiania as well. It frequently took all 
of Kelpius's firmness to discourage and eliminate such 
undesirable aspirants. But these drawbacks had only a 
temporary effect, for, owing to the numerous accessions from 
Europe within the last two years of the decade, the mystic 
number was once again complete or nearly so. 

Yet notwithstanding its apparent nourishing condition, 
the Community as a distinct organization was rapidly ap- 
proaching its end. This was no fault of the leaders or of 
the truths they taught. Their faith, courage, and sincerity 
were as strong as ever ; their belief as firm in the approach- 
ing millennium and the coming of the Deliverer as when 
they left the sand dunes of Holland. 

The great increase of the population, the encroachments 
upon their beloved solitude in the wilderness, the formation 
of new settlements in the vicinity, and the political changes 
all tended to have an adverse effect upon a society whose 
chief aim was to live in seclusion. Another matter that 
tended somewhat to weaken the influence of the Brother- 
hood with their German neighbors and countrymen at 
large, was the bitter strife that had been engendered be- 
tween Pastorius and Daniel Falkner since the lattef's return 
from Europe, and his active interest in the political and 
civil affairs of the German township, ending in the final 
displacement of Pastorius by virtue of the authority Falk- 
ner had brought from Europe. This feud was used by the 
partisans of Pastorius as another argument against the 
Community on the Wissahickon. Some went even so far 
as to demand their expulsion. The better judgment of 
Pastorius, however, prevailed ; and, so far as he was con- 
cerned, the whole matter was held in abeyance. From 
some of the Pastorius manuscripts that have come down to 

158 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

us it is to be inferred that the feeling between the two men 
and their partisans must have been exceedingly bitter. But 
neither Kelpius nor Seelig were in any way involved in 
this controversy. 

Among the important events in the life of the Com- 
munity, one that shines out even to the present day, is the 
ordination of one of their number to the ministry and the 
sending of him to an adjoining province as a missionary. 
This was Justus Falkner. He was ordained November 24, 
1703, in the Swedish Lutheran Church at Wicacoa, in the 
German language, by the resident Lutheran pastors, Rud- 
man, Biorck, and Sandel, assisted by Kelpius and the 

This was the first regular ordination of an orthodox 
Lutheran clergyman in the /% Western Hemisphere. The 

full record of his ,. 5fL , unselfish labors, 

godly life and un JL ^s^~ ^ ' / exampled piety 
still exists and N\XX^OnTT7^^' bears witness to 

the character of his ^^^ ^a/^j^ ^ associates. 

The changed condition SX £L of affairs in the Province, 
however, did not affect the ^» ■ -^ educational efforts that 
had been originally introduced by Kelpius, but increased 
their scope and usefulness among the Germans, who were 
now flocking thither in great numbers. But these efforts 
were not enough to counteract the general conditions, both 
civil and religious, as they affected the peculiar institution 
on the Wissahickon. From month to month it became 
more apparent that the state of affairs since the Church 
party became more dominant was inimical to the permanent 
growth of such a Community. 

Great were v the changes within the decade since Kelpius' 
arrival. Where ten years ago the southeastern part of 
Pennsylvania was but sparsely settled, the settlers were 

Return of George Keith. 


now numbered by thousands ; whereas formerly there were 
no houses of worship, except those of the Friends, there 
were now a number of fine churches and different congre- 
gations in Philadelphia, while throughout the rural districts 
were scattered churches with organized congregations of 
various denominations, — Episcopal, Baptist, Sabbatarian, 
German Lutheran, Mennonite, and Dunker. Stranger than 
all, George Keith, who had fomented the great schism in 
the Province among the Quakers from 1690 to 1694, now, 
in 1702, 206 returned to Pennsylvania as a full-fledged mis- 
sionary of the English Church. 207 He had but little sym- 
pathy with his former adherents who had gone out with 
him from the Society of Friends a decade before, except 
with such as had renewed their fealty to the Established 

The only record of intercourse between Keith and the Sab- 
batarian congregations that 
Heinrich Bernhard Koster 
had been partly instrumental 
in establishing in the Prov- 
ince is an occasional notice 
of the Philadelphia Church, 
under Thomas Rutter, and 
the feud that broke out be- 
tween Keith and William 
Davis of the Pennepack 
Church. This ended in a 
victory for the former and Great Seal of the province (obverse). 
the Sabbatarians lost their church, which henceforth was 
known as Trinity Church, Oxford. 208 The latter during his 

206 Keith landed at Boston, June n, 1702, 

207 See "The Sabbath-Keepers," a series of papers by the writer, pub- 
lished in the Village Record, West Chester, Pa., March, 1888. No record 
whatever is known to exist of any meeting or even acquaintance between 
Kelpius and Keith. 

208 Ibid. 

160 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

sojourn in Pennsylvania was accompanied by Rev. John 
Talbot and supported by the local minister, Rev. Evan 
Evans. He paid most attention to the Welsh, as it was 
thought that they, who were restive under the Quaker 
supremacy, were ready to throw off the religious as well as 
civil yoke and return within the fold of the Church of 

In this supposition the three churchmen- were not mis- 
taken, as their efforts resulted in the establishment of a 
congregation within the Welsh tract at Radnor. This was 
strictly a Welsh Church, the services being held in that 
tongue for many years. 

It is an interesting fact that both congregations at Oxford 
and Radnor were served by the Lutheran minister at 
Wicacoa. Further, at the laying of the corner-stone and 
dedication of both churches, in 17 11 and 17 14 respectively, 
the Swedish Lutheran pastors were prominent actors. 

The quaint stone church, subsequently built by the 
Welsh congregation at Radnor in 17 14, and commonly 
known as " Old St. David's," is now the oldest Episcopal 
church in Pennsylvania, and has become historic. 

An Old Germantown Relic in Possession of 
the Writer. 


'OW great the esteem 
was in which Kelpius 
and his fellow mystics 
were held by the various re- 
ligious separatists throughout 
the country is further shown 
by the fact that when the so- 
called " Rodgerines" sprang 
into existence in New Eng- 
land an attempt was made 
forthwith to establish a regular 
communication with Kelpius 
and his companions for the purpose of receiving advice and 

Several visits were made from New England to the 
Wissahickon at an early day by the new Separatists, but 
without results, as the extravagant religious notions of 
Rodgers and his followers were foreign to the Theosophy 
of Kelpius, which was based upon the fundamental doc- 
trines of the Christian faith. In fact, it has been stated 
that the only point in which they approached agreement 
was with regard to the keeping of the seventh day. 

Seal of the Colony of Connec- 
ticut, a.d. 1700. 

162 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Toward the close of the year 1700 John Rodgers per- 
sonally visited the Tabernacle, upon which occasion he 
arranged with Reynier Jansen, the (Germantown ?) printer, 
for the publication of his differences with Saltonstall. 
This curious work appeared in the following year (1701) 
under the title, "An Impartial relation of || An Open and 
Publick Dispute || Agreed upon || Between Gurdon Salton- 
stall, Minister of the || Town of New London || and || John 
Rodgers of the Same place || With the Circumstances 
leading thereto, and the Consequences thereof || as also a 
Relation of the said Gurdon Saltonstall's Recovering a || 
Judgment of Court of Six hundred Pounds, and Cost of 
Court || against said John Rodgers, for saying, the said 
Saltonstall went to wave, shun, or shift the said Dispute 
agreed upon. || The Truth of || which waving, shunning 
or shifting is here also evidently demonstrated. || By John 
Rodgers. || Printed [by Reynier Jansen] for the author in 
the year 1701." 

This work is a small 4to, and consists of twenty pages, 
of which the title forms one ; " To the reader," four ; and 
the "Relation" proper, fifteen. 208 

There still exists in Connecticut a traditional, if not 
documentary, account of another visit made by the same 
religious enthusiasts to Kelpius in the year 1702, and, 
further, that upon his return Rodgers stopped at New 
York to consult with a public Friend, then suffering im- 
prisonment there for conscience sake. 

This account the writer has been unable to secure in the 
original ; but there is, nevertheless, a strong probability of 
its authenticity, as Samuel Bownas, the public Friend in 

zo8 "issues f the American Press in Pennsylvania," by Charles R. 
Hildeburn, No. 86. Original in library of Devonshire House Meeting, 
London, England. 

The Rhode Island Records. 163 

question, was imprisoned in New York at that time, and 
mentions a visit from John Rodgers in his journal. 

"An || account || of the || L,ife, Travels || and Christian 
Experiences || in the || work of the Ministry || of Samuel 
Bownas || Stanford || reprinted by Daniel Lawrence || 
MDCCC, Page 135 et seq." 

Another evidence of the great esteem in which Kelpius 
and his companions were held throughout the provinces is 
shown by the action of the Rhode Island Sabbatarian 
Churches, which, in 1703, appointed two brethren, William 
Hiscox and Joseph Crandall, as a committee to journey to 
Wissahickon, and then, with the aid of Kelpius, to adjust 
if possible the differences which had been fomented by 
William Davis between the Philadelphia and Pennepack 
churches (Seventh-day Baptist). The records of these 
interviews and negotiations, as well as the resulting corres- 
pondence, the writer has good reason to believe is still in 
existence among the musty records of the Sabbatarian 
brethren in Rhode Island or Connecticut. 

The following interesting extracts from the old Westerly, 
R. I., church records bear upon this intercourse, viz., — 

" The church met at Newport the 3d Sabbath in June, 
1703, being the 19th day ; and the day before, on which 
some considerations were proposed, upon the request of our 
friends in Pennsylvania, relating to some differences between 
them, and the matter deferred until the First-day following. 

" And on the First-day, accordingly, the church met, and 
appointed Bro. Hiscox and Bro. Clarke, Sen., if Providence 
should so order, to go to Pennsylvania soon after the first 
Sabbath in the 7th month. 

" The church met the 1st of the 7th month, at Westerly, 
and Bro. Clark, judging himself incapable to perform the 
journey to Pennsylvania, Bro. Joseph Crandall was ap- 
pointed to go with Bro. Hiscox [on the] said journey. 

164 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" At a church meeting at Westerly the last Sabbath in 
the 8th month, 1703, the letters sent to the church from 
Bro. William Davis were read and acted upon. 

"Westerly, the 20th of the 8th month, 1704, the church 
met at Bro. Maxson's, Sen. , to confer with the Pennsylvania 
Brethren, William Davis and Abraham " m 

[William Davis was a native of Wales. He was sent to 
Oxford, but, becoming a Quaker, was forced to leave that 
institution. He came to Philadelphia in 1684, being then 
in his twenty-first year. He was at once recognized as a 
preacher of the Society. When Keith separated he be- 
came one of his staunch supporters, and was one of the 
forty-eight signers to the reasons for separation. 

After the decline of the Keithian meetings, when their 
leaders returned to England, Davis became an attendant of 
the services held by Koster, and soon became one of his 
most active supporters. He was baptized by the German 
evangelist, as related in a subsequent chapter, 210 and became 
pastor of the Sabbatarian congregation on the Pennepack, 
in Oxford township, a short distance from Germantown. 

It was while stationed here that he published a book in 
vindication of his peculiar doctrine, viz., — "Jesus || The 
Crucified Man, || the || Eternal Son of God, || or, an || An- 
swer || to || An Anathema or Paper of || Excommunication, 
of John Wats, en || tituled, Points of Doctrine preached & || 
asserted by William Davis. || Wherein the Mystry of Christs 
Descen- 1| tion, Incarnation and Crucifixion is || Unfolded. || 
By William Davis. Philadelphia Printed for the Author 
[by Reynier Jansen] in the Year 1700." 211 

209 Name illegible. 

210 It appears that William Davis was also baptized by the Rev. Thomas 
■Killingsworth, a First-day Baptist preacher, in 1697. 

211 No. 72 Hildeburn, i6mo. The title of this unique book is repro- 
duced in facsimile. 

William Davis. 165 


The Crucifyed Man, 


Ecernal Son of God* 

O R, A N 


T O 

An 'Anathema or Paper of 

Excommunication, of Job* Wats ca- 
tiru'ed, Points of DoHrine freathed & 
0J[ertedtjt William Davis. 

Wherein the Myftry of Chritts Defcen- 

(ion, lpcarnation and Crucifixion is 


By William Davis, 

[Printed bv Reynier Jansen. Philadelphia, 1700.] 

1 66 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Davis was naturally an agitator and disturber, and, by 
airing his own doctrinal views, he subsequently became 
involved not only with the regular Baptists and the Revs. 
Keith, Evans, and Talbot, of the Established Church, but 
with the members of his own congregation as well. 

It was to heal these internal differences in the Sabba- 
tarian congregation at Oxford that the New England 
churches took the above-recited action. 

The differences between Davis, on the one hand, and 
Keith and Evans on the other, also produced pamphlet and 

After the loss of their meeting-house they met for ser- 
vices in the different houses, under the leadership of Davis, 
until 1 710, when he left to take charge of a church at 
Westerly, Rhode Island. Here he remained until 1727, 
when he returned to Pennsylvania. In 1734 he again went 
to Rhode Island, whence ten years later he led a party of 
Seventh-day Baptists to establish a settlement at Squan, 
New Jersey, of which he became pastor. He died there in 
1745, at the advanced age of eighty-two years, honored and 
respected as a Christian clergyman.] 212 

The fame of Johann Kelpius's piety and learning also 
extended to other parts of the country, and his corres- 
pondence must, for that day, have been quite extensive, 
and it included various conditions of people. An instance 
of this is shown by his letter written, " 10 8ber 1704," to 
Maria Elizabeth Gerber, in Virginia. It was in reply to a 
communication from her in which she asks Kelpius's opin- 
ion of the Quakers. His reply is quite lengthy, and he 
takes the occasion to give his opinions rather fully, and 
emphasizes that he belongs to no special denomination, but 
to the elect of Jerusalem. (Gal. iv, 9, 10. m ) 

212 Vide Sabbath-keepers before quoted. 

213 He might also have added verse 26 : " The Jerusalem that is above is 
free, which is our mother." 



Arms of Frankfort on 


'F the papers of the old Frank- 
fort L,and Company were still 
in existence and accessible, 
the correspondence would no doubt 
show that for some reasons there was 
great dissatisfaction upon their part 
with Pastorius and his administra- 
tion of the company's affairs in 
Pennsylvania. This feeling may 
have been augmented by Daniel 
Falkner during his visits to Frankfort in 1 699-1 700. 
Whatever the true cause may have been, it is certain that 
Daniel Falker had the entire confidence of all members of 
the Land Company, as well as of William Penn and Ben- 
jamin Furley, his Rotterdam agent. 

It will be seen that the original power of attorney granted 
to Kelpius, Falkner and Jawert was signed and sealed by 
all members of the company, viz. : 

" We subscribed do manifest & confess herewith, Whereas we joiningly 
have bought five & twenty thousand acres of unseparated land in Penn- 
silvania, according to the documents & indentures thereof, with peculiar 
Privileges & Rights, And therefore in virtue thereof the 12th of Novem- 
ber, 1686, by a peculiar writing having formed a Society, & for the culti- 

168 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

vation & administration of the sd land have Impowred Mr. Francis Daniel 
Pastorius, J. U. L. according to the letter of attorney bearing date the 
12th of April 1683. And yet because of the death of some heads of the 
sd Company, & the between Irruption of the French War, as also 
chiefly because of the absence of the Governor, & the unableness of the 
sd our Factor, these our affairs in the sd Province are come to a Stop, 
the more mentioned Mr. Pastorius having also desired by & in several 
of his Letters to be discharged of his administration, That we for such . 
end do Conferr full Power & special Authority on Mr. Daniel Falkner & 
Johanes Kelpius as Inhabitants for the present in Pensilvania, And also 
on Mr. Johanes Jawert the Son of one of our Principals, nominally Mr. 
Balthasar Jawert of Lubeck, who hath resolved to transport himself 
thither, thus and in such wise that these our three Plenipotentiaries 
Joiningly or incase of death of one or the Other, they or he who remains 
shall have in the best form the Administration of all our goods we have 
there of the lands in the former where they are joiningly or separately 
assigned unto us, or shall be assigned, surveyed & set out, and of the 
City-Lots by reason of the five & twenty thousand acres being Competent 
to us, viz. , the 4 or 6 Places in the City of Philadelphia, and of the 300 
acres situated in the Right & Liberty of the City before & about Phila- 
delphia, And of the land bought by the Scullkill for a Brick-kiln, And of 
all & every erected Building & other meliorations, and of what hath been 
sent thither or bought there or otherwise got of Victuals, Comodities, 
Cattels, houshold-stuff, tools, Servants, Tenants & of other Persons, &c, 
and therefore to call to an account in Our name the sd Mr. Pastorius, who 
hitherto hath been our Plenipotentiary, and to take of him herewith all 
such Our Estates & effects, and in Case any of them should be alienated 
without our knowledge, above all things to vindicate them. So then in 
general or Special, as it can be done best, to dispose, exchange, sell & 
receive the money for them, and hereupon to quit, transact, make indent- 
ures & documents, assurances, & in sum to do & leave everything what 
we Ourselves could or might do or leave if we were then & there per- 
sonally present, Cum potestate, Substituendi, et Substitutionem toties 
quoties revocandi cumq clausulis rati grati, omnibusq, alijs illius loci & 
fori necessary's et consuetis. And in Case our aforementioned Plenipo- 
tentiaries should want any larger Power then [sic] herein is contained, the 
same we advisedly do grant herewith unto them, & do decently Implore 
the Governour in Chief and Magistrates of the sd Province to regard 
them as such, and to grant them upon their request their magisterial aid, 
in case they should want the same. On the other hand our Plenipoten- 
tiaries Joinedly & Separately are directed to the two Principals in Franc- 
fort on the river of Main, viz., the heirs of Jacob van de Walle & Daniel 
Behagel both deceased, to acquaint & give an acccunt unto them timely 

Bailiff Falkner. 169 

of every one of their transactions, and to address unto them moneys or 
Comodities, to Correspond within and to expect, if need, further Orders 
& Instructions of them in the name of the whole Company, wherewith 
they shall further in this Case Communicate and get their Consent. 
Lastly, we grant unto them herewith special Power to appropriate fifty 
acres of Our land in Germantown for the benefit of a Schoolmaster, that 
the Youth in reading, writing & in good manners & education, without 
partial admonition to God & Christ may be brought up and Instructed. 
All faithfully and without Fraud, In true witness whereof we have with 
our own hands Subscribed & Sealed this Letter of Attorney, and caused 
the same to be made under & by publick Authority. Done in Frankfort 
on the River of Mayn, the 24th day of January 1700. 

[L.S.] " Catharina Elizabetha Schutzin, Widow. 

[L.S.] " the Widow of Jacob van de Wallen, deceased. 

[i<.s.] " the heirs of Daniel Behagel, deceased. 

[i,.s.] "Johannes Kemler. 

[l*. S. ] " Bathasar Jawerl . 

[L.S.] " Johan Wilhelm Petersen, d. 

[L.S.] " Gerhard van Mastricht. 

[l»S.] "Johanes Le Brun. 

[L.S.] "Maria vandeWalle, widow of Doctor Thomas van Willigh 
with her Copartners." 

When, upon Falkner's return, Pastorius was informed of 
the new state of affairs he did not take kindly to the situa- 
tion : the recollection of the virulent attack upon him by 
Koster and his adherents was yet fresh in his memory. 
Therefore, it excites but little wonder that Pastorius, as 
well as his friends and followers, protested vigorously 
against Falkner's action in demanding an immediate ac- 
count from him as to the company's property. The new 
agent, however, was firm in his demands, and, having the 
support of both Council and Proprietary, was well able to 
enforce his position. 

That Daniel Falkner was by far the abler politician of 
the two is shown at the next general election at German- 
town in the fall of the year 1700, when Daniel Falkner 
was chosen bailiff; his brother, Justus Falkner, a burgess ; 

170 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Johann Jawert, recorder ; and Daniel Geissler, crier of the 

History is silent as to how this result was brought about : 
whether there was a general dissatisfaction with the old 
officials among the German residents, or whether Falkner 
anticipated the tactics of modern local politicians by voting 
the Community of Mystics "solid," and thus securing a 
victory, is a question hard to decide at this late day. Indi- 
cations, however, are that the election of Falkner's party 
to civil office was due rather to sharp tactics than to any 
personal animosity against Pastorius on the part of the 
older settlers. 

Magister Kelpius was entirely innocent of an}' collusion 
or sympathy with this movement on the part of Falkner 
and others to obtain a hold upon the civil power. So far 
as the Community property was involved, he naturally 
seconded Daniel Falkner's efforts to maintain their rights. 
When he first learned that, together with Falkner and 
Jawert, he had been made joint-attorney of the Frankfort 
Land Company, he was perhaps even more surprised than 
Pastorius was of his deposition. 

Kelpius refused to act as attorney or take any part what- 
ever in civil or political matters, and eventually renounced 
all claim to the appointment. To do this in a legal manner 
he executed the following renunciation : 

" Whereas, upon recommendation of Mr. Daniel Falkner, 
the Frankfort Society hath made me ye subscribed their 
Plenipotentiary, together with the said Mr. Falkner & John 
Jewart, But my Circumstances not permiting to entangle 
myself in the like affairs I do confess herewith that I do 
deliver all the authority, which is given unto me in the 
Letter of Attorney, to the said Society & him who did 
recomend me to the same, towit, Mr. Daniel Falkner, for 

The Board of Property. 171 

to act and prosecute the Case of the said Society without 
me with Johann Jewart upon their account according to 
the letter of Attorney who attributes to one or two as much 
power as to three in case of a natural or civil death." 

This unique document was witnessed by Johann Gott- 
fried, Seelig, and Johann Hendrick Sprogel. 214 

That there was evidently some understanding and inter- 
course between William Penn and the Falkner brothers 
during the former's second visit to the Province, is shown 
by several entries in Minute-book G of the Board of Prop- 
erty of the Province of Pennsylvania, where, in a dispute 
about some land, the Proprietary steps in and issues an 
order in favor of Daniel Falkner. 215 The next entry in the 
same book, made 12th of nth Month, 1701, shows that 
Penn's interest in Falkner continued during the former's 
stay in the Province. One of Penn's last official acts prior 
to his departure was the letter quoted in these proceedings 
before the L,and Commission : 


" Prepare a War't for 4,000 acres for Benjamin Furley, 
out of which 3 Wart's for 500 acres Each for Falkner and 
Brother and Dorthy and Brother and Sister, which recom- 
mend to the Commiss'rs of Propriety if not done before I 

goe. 25th 8ber., 1701. 

"Wiu'm Penn." 

The following interesting entries appear in the old Ger- 
mantown Court Records, now deposited with the Historical 

214 No date is appended to the transcript by Pastorius, from which this 
copy is made. Johann Heinrich Sprogel came to America either with 
Falkner, in August, 1700, or else shortly after. His name appears upon 
the official records as early as 18th 11 mo., 1702. See Pennsylvania 
Archives, Second Series, vol. xix, p. 351. 

215 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, vol. xix, p. 219. 

172 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Society of Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, being fragmentary, 
they give but little insight into the official doings of the 
few Mystics who temporarily preferred the excitement of 
political life to the quiet of the cloister on the Wissahickon. 

The first entry- after the election held subsequent to 
Palkner's return sets forth, — 

" At a court of record held at Germantown the 7 th day 
of the 9th month, 1700-1, before Daniel Falkner, Bailiff, 
Cornelius Swert, Justus Falkner, and Dennis Kunders, 3 
eldest Burgesses, and Johannes J. Jawert, Recorder. 

" F. D. Pastorius being Clerk and Jones Potts, Sheriff, 
it was ordered that the overseers of the fences in every 
quarter of the town shall go round some days before the 
next following Courts of Record, and thereupon acquaint 
the said Courts how they find the fences in their respective 
quarters and those who neglect to make them good. May 
be fined according to their circumstances and the harm 
done. Abraham op de Graef and Peter Keurlis were sent 
for to answer the complaints made against their children 
by Daniel Falkner and Johann Jawert. But the Sd Abra- 
ham not being well, and Peter Keurlis gone to Phila- 
delphia, this matter was left to the next session. Daniel 
Geissler refused to be Crier of the Court, which is likewise 
left to the general Court. 

" 28th 4th Mo. 1701. Johann Henry Mehls was chosen 
(Recorder) in place of J. Jawert." 

At the next general election, held a year later, it appears 
from the entry that none of the old officials, except Pas- 
torius and the sheriff, were re-elected, — 

"9th of December 1701, Aret Klinken Bailiff. Paul 
Wulff, Peter Schumacher and William Strepers three Bur- 
gesses. John Conrad Cotweis Recorder, D. F. Pastorius 
Clerk. Jones Potts Sheriff." 

Falkner as Attorney. 173 

Evidently one of the causes for Falkner's defeat for re- 
election was the determined effort made by him as attorney 
to obtain the lands and rights due the Frankfort Land 
Company, the affairs of which had been either neglected 
or overlooked by Pastorius. The first effort in this direc- 
tion appears in an entry in the before-quoted Minute-book 
G, under date 17th of the 10th month, 1701. He did not 
confine his efforts to the land office. Again referring to 
the court record, we find, — 

"4th day of the 6th month 1702. Daniel Falkner and 
Johann Jawert, as attorneys for the Frankfort Land Com- 
pany, requested in writing the consent of this Court for to 
call or summon this companies tennants in the companies 
houses, there to make up their accounts and pay. But this 
Court thought it needless to give such consent." 

Successive appearances before both local courts and land 
commissioners attest Falkner's activity in fostering the 
trusts, with which he was charged by the principals in 
Europe, as well as by his own Community. 

In the court records, under date of 16th of 12 th month, 
1 702 1 3, it appears, — 

" By order of this Court the letter of Attorney 216 from 
Catherina Elizabeth Schultzin to Daniel Falkner and Arn- 
old Stork was compared with the copy which Hans Henry 
Meels hath delivered to the said Daniel Falkner and were 
both found agreeing word for word. In witness whereof 
the said Copy by the said Courts order was signed by D. 
F. Pastorius." 

On 5th of 2nd month, 1703, Daniel and Justus went 
before the land commissioners, and produced a return of a 
warrant for fifty acres of Liberty Lands surveyed to Ben- 
jamin Furley. They also pressed a claim for a High Street 
lot of 132-foot front. 

m This was evidently the deed of gift recited on page 146. 

174 The Pietists of Provincial, Pennsylvania. 

24th of 3d month, 1703, both brothers again appear and 
ask for patents for sundry tracts of 1000, 1900, and 50 acres 

On the 30th of 6th month, 1703, Justus Falkner appears 
as attorney for Benjamin Furley in reference to a tract of 
1000 acres of land in Chester County, which either joined 
or overlapped the Welsh tract. This claim led to some 
complication with David Lloyd and Isaac N orris. 

On the 3d of October, 1704, Daniel Falkner came into 
court and " desired that an explanation of a certain letter 
of attorney from Catherina Elizabeth Schultzin to him the 
said Daniel Falkner and Arnold Storchen should be read 
in this Court, which being done, He further desired that 
the Sd explanation should be recorded. Which the Court 
consented to." 

28th 10th month, 1703. The case of Mathew Smith vs. 
Daniel Falkner being called, the plaintiff by reason of con- 
science, viz., — " That this was the day wherein Herod slew 
the Innocents, as also that his witnesses were and would 
for the same reason not be here, desired a continuance to 
the next term of court of Record. To be held for this 
Corporation, which is allowed to, provided the Sd Daniel 
Falkner do then appear and stand Tryal." 

8th 12 mo., 1703 1 4. "Proclamation being made the 
action of Matthew Smith against Daniel Falkner was 
brought before the Court, and being wrong laid was 

"d 3M0. 1704 Daniel Falkner request to this Court, was 
read and answered to the first of his desires, that Mathew 
Smith hath paid the Court's fees already and departed out 
of this County (Township). To the second, that Johannes 
Umstadt hath all the money which he is to receive for the 
land in the hands of Humphry Edwards where it may be 

Pastorius vs. Falkner. 

J 75 

In the year 1704 there appear three entries that concern 
the elder Falkner. According to one dated 13th of 4mo., 
1704, he was chosen as a burgess in place of Peter Keyser. 
October 14, 1704, he was fined six shillings for having bad 
fences. The next entry does not appear in the remaining 
part of the original manuscript record-book. It is taken 
from the "Collections of the Historical Society" for 1853, 
p. 256. 

"The 28th day of November, 1704. Daniel Falkner 
coming into this Court behaved himself very ill, like one 
that was last night drunk, and not yet having recovered 
his witts. He railed most greviously on the Recorder, 
Simon Andrews, and the Bailiff, Aret Klincken, as persons 
not fit to sit in a Court ; he challenged Peter Shoemaker 
one of the Judges on the bench, to come forth, and more 
the like enormities. The Sheriff, William de Wees, telling 
him that he would not do so at Philadelphia, the said 
Falkner himself, answered no, not for a hundred pounds ; 
and after abundance of foul language, when the Court bid 
the said Sheriff and the Constable bring him out, he went 
himself, crying you are all fools ! But afterwards coming 
again, the Court ordered him to pay his fine for having of 
late been extreme drunk, and convicted before Hans Gerry 
Meels, a Magistrate or Justice of the Peace, as also to find 
security for his appearance and answering for the many 
abuses offered to this Court. He said he would pay the 
said fine before going out of the house, but concerning 
security, the Frankfort Company was security enough for 
him, offering also paper of his to this Court, which the 
Clerk begun to read, but the Court having heard a few 
lines of it was not willing to hear it all over, and com- 
mitted him, the said Daniel Falkner, to appear at the next 
Court of Record to be held for this corporation and answer 
for the abuses above expressed." 



'HE gleam of encourage- 
ment that enlivened the 
hopes of the leaders of 
the Community toward the 
close of the first decade of the 
Theosophical experiment on 
the Wissahickon, when the 
mystic number, owing to the 
arms of Sweden, a.d. 1700. accessions from Europe, was 

once more complete, was but like the burst of light that 
often precedes the dying flame. While to all outward ap- 
pearances, in the minds of the leading spirits, stability was 
now assured, it was in reality the turning-point where dis- 
integration began. Many of the new members were imbued 
with entirely different motives from those that had insti- 
gated the original party ; and as soon as they commenced 
to feel the yoke of restraint, resulting from a communal 
life and discipline, they were the first to return to the free- 
dom of the world. Another matter that hastened the final 
dismemberment of the Community was the marriage of 
Daniel Falkner 217 and the course pursued by him and 
others in taking an active part in the civil and political 
affairs of the German township. 

m Frankfort, Pastorius papers, Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Falkner's Swamp. 177 

While Kelpius and a few others refused all honors and 
riches, the majority, owing to the continual increase in the 
population and the demand for men of their capabilities, 
again entered the world and assumed their previous occu- 
pations or other congenial employment. 

In consequence of this internal condition of the Frater- 
nity, the vigils in the sternwarte were abandoned, and the 
watch that had been kept so faithfully during so many 
nights to announce the first sign of the appearance of the 
harbinger of the Deliverer was kept no more. Then, as 
the new century increased in years, the expectation of an 
immediate millennium gradually grew less and less in the 
minds of many. The strict devotional exercises in the 
Tabernacle also became fewer in number, while the general 
discipline relaxed, and the mystical researches and Theo- 
sophical speculations were either altogether neglected or 
left to the leaders and such of the older or more enthu- 
siastic members as proved to be above the allurements of 
the surrounding temptations. 

Daniel Falkner soon found that, by virtue of his new 
duties as agent for the Frankfort Company and his family 
cares, he could not give the same attention as formerly to 
these recondite things. Then, in addition, the landed 
interests of the Community, as well as those of Benjamin 
Furley, required his personal attention and occupied much 
of his time. When the Manatawany tract was finally 
located and patented, a settlement was projected under his 
auspices upon the fertile stretch of well-watered meadow- 
land that is still known as " Falkner's Swamp." Coinci- 
dent with the earliest settlement of this tract, Daniel 
Falkner, and not his brother Justus, as has been errone- 
ously stated, organized an orthodox Lutheran congregation, 
of which he became the first pastor. This congregation, 


178 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the oldest German Lutheran one in Pennsylvania, is still 
in existence and in a flourishing condition. 

The departure of Justus Falkner for New York imme- 
diately upon his ordination at Wicacoa, November 24, 1703, 
to take charge of the German and Dutch Lutheran con- 
gregations scattered along the Hudson and in East Jersey, 
in connection with the Dutch Lutheran Church of New 
York City, was another severe blow to the permanency of 
the Fraternity as originally constituted. 

The explanation of the withdrawal of these two brothers, 
both prominent members of the Fraternity, is that they 
were men of strong character, and, in view of the changed 
condition of the German residents of the Province, brought 
about by the constantly increasing population, felt that the 
proper field for their activity lay among the populace, who 
needed spiritual guidance : they could no longer waste their 
talents and learning in seclusion in the expectation of an 
immediate approach of the millennium. 

To make the situation even more precarious, Kelpius, 
who was of a somewhat frail constitution, broke down 
physically under the great mental strain and the rigors of 
our climate. He, however, kept up his educational labors, 
as well as his Theosophical studies. He also continued in 
touch with his former associates in Europe. Letters are 
still in existence written by him during the summer of 
1705 to Heinrich Johann Deichmann, leader of the Phila- 
delphiac movement in Europe, and to his former tutor, 
Magister Johann Jacob Fabricius of Helmstadt. It is in 
writing to the latter that Kelpius again refutes the reports 
that he had turned Quaker or had assimilated to any special 
denomination. In the winter of 1705 he became so ill and 
feeble that his companions removed him to the house of 
Christian Warmer, one of the original Brethren who had 

"A Loving Moan.' 1 ' 1 179 

come over in the " Sara Maria," and had since married and 
settled in Germantown, where he was a tailor. Hither, to 
the humble abode of his former follower, the Magister of 
the Theosophists in the New World was brought during 
his illness, so that he might have better care and attention 
than could be given him at the Tabernacle. 

It was while recovering from this attack, in the following 
spring, that Kelpius wrote the hymn, " A Loving Moan of 
the Disconsolate Soul in the Morning Dawn," to which he 
adds : " As I lay in Christian Warmer's house, very weak, 
in a small bed not unlike a coffin, in May, 1706." 

The first and last verses of this hymn will show the state 
of his mind at that time, — 

" Here lye I submissive 

And weak, in a shrine 
O'er Come and made passive 
With the sweetest pain 
I think on the blooming of that lovely May 

Where I my Beloved shall ever enjoy 
And the little hut for a new do away. 

" So will I them set me 
Yet better to stand 
And over me let thee 
Have thy own free hand. 
Therefore kiss, or correct, come to me or go, 
Give presents, or take them, bring joy, or bring woe : 
If I can but have thee, thy will may be so." 

This was followed soon after by a peculiar epistle to 
Hester Palmer, 213 a public Friend 219 from L,ong Island, who, 

218 Hester Palmer was the daughter of one Joseph Palmer and his wife 
Sarah. The family is enumerated in the "Exact list of all Ye inhabi- 
tants names Wth In Ye towne of flushing and p'cincts of old and young 
fireemen & Servants, white & blacke. &C 1698." 

219 Benezet MSS. 

180 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

it appears, had had a personal interview with Kelpius pre- 
viously. On account of its peculiarity this letter is repro- 
duced entire. It treats of the Threefold Wilderness state : 
(i) The Barren ; (2) the fruitfull ; and (3) the wilderness 
of the Elect of God. 

"A. 1706 d. 25, Mayi. 
" My dearly beloved in our Immanuel Jesus the Messiah : 
" The Son of God our Saviour. 

" Being presented lately with a letter of yours, directed 

to our beloved Friend M B , I found in the 

P. S. that the remembrance of mine was not yet slipt out 
of your Minde, insomuch that you desired to see a few lines 
from my hand, which Desire is an evident sign to me that 
the said remembrance is in Love & in the Truth. 

" Assure yourself that it is with no less Fervency on my 
Side, but I finde as yet a double wall between us, which 
indeed seems to stop the current of this firey love-dream of 
which no more at present, least we should embolden our- 
selves to break through before the time appointed by Him, 
who nourisheth the Woman in the Wilderness (Rev. 12, 14). 
And since our Discourse broke just as we was about this 
STATE, I'll venture upon your Patience a few lines Con- 
cerning this subject, adding the Third State in the Wilder- 
ness, also having Confidence in your good Acceptance since 
you have in a manner bidden me to write & I finding no 
better Subject than to begin where we left it. 

" Of the first we did discourse somewhat, viz : — Of the 
Barren Wilderness, & as we was beginning the second, 
viz : — Of the Fruitfull Wilderness, we was interrupted. 

" The first hath a respect upon the Old Birth, like as Ye 
second upon the New. These two run parallel until the 

" Of the Fruitfull Wilderness. ' 


First dieth, & then the Second is set at Liberty. The first 
is begotten in Egypt, & then arriveth to its manhood, & 
being led out of Egypt falls and Dieth in the Wilderness. 
The Second is also begotten in Egypt but is educated, and 
arriveth to its manhood in the Wilderness, and after the 
death of the First enters Caanan. The First seeth indeed 
the stretched out Arm of God in Egypt as well as in the 
Wilderness, but murmurs, provokes & tempts God & 
limiteth the Holy one in Israel, alwais turning back with 
its Heart lusting after Egypt. The Second seeth God & 
its life is preserved, its face alwais turned Caananwarts & 
its Heart with Joshua & Caleb (Joshua signifieth Aid, Sal- 
vation, Conservation ; Caleb, full of heart, courageous, un- 
daunted, faithfull) stands faithfull & seeth Ye salvation of 
God, being filled with the fervent & only desire of attain- 
ing the same. The first is in continual fear of Death, & 
what he feareth cometh upon him (Num. 14, 28 ; Prov. 
10, 24). The Second is undaunted & liveth (Num. 14, 30, 
31) & puts his feet upon the necks of his enemies (Jos. 10, 
24 ; Psal. 94, 13). The Second deriveth its origen from the 
First, & dying to this riseth & liveth in God : The First 
when He dyeth, liveth in the Second (This is a great 
Mystery & wants an Explanation else it may be miscon- 
strued, but I hope you are no Stranger to it). The Second 
liveth under Moses as well as the First as long as Moses 
liveth (Gal. 4, 1 ; Rom. 7), but is hidd inward ; by chance he 
is called the inward Man in the Tabernacle, from which 
He never departeth (Exod. 33, n). But when Moses Dyeth 
the New Man, being arrived now to his Manhood, appears 
from his inward state outwardly to the Terror of his enemies 
(see of this coming forth Cant. 3, 6 ; & 8, 5) of Whose Land 
he taketh Possession (Num. 27, 15 ; Deut. 3, 21-end). I will 
not draw the Parallism further, since a word to the Wise is 

1 82 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Allegorical Representation of all Faiths. 

" The Barren Wilderness." 183 

enough. And since we have orally conferred of the First 
state, viz : — of Ye Barren Wilderness, let us insist a little 
upon the Mystery of the Second. In which Pruitfull 
Wilderness we enjoy the leading Cloud by day, out of which 
so many drops of the heavenly Dew (Psal. 33, 3) as a Bap- 
tism of Grace upon us do fall. This is a Day of Joy & 
triumph, when the Holy Ghost moves & stirreth the waters 
in our Hearts so that this living spring diffuseth it self 
through the Eyes in a sweet & Joyfull Gush of Tears : O 
Thou blessed water-baptism, who would not desire to be 
Baptized with thee every day. But there followeth a night 
also upon this Day, wherein nevertheless the Pillar of Fire 
is our Guide, refining us as Gold in the Furnace, which is 
the Baptism of Fire of Ye Son, & is indeed terrible to the 
old Birth, but bright & light to the New ; for she learneth 
by this to be resigned & say ' Not my will, O Father ! but 
Thine be done.' Thus our Tears are our Meat, yea, our 
Manna, not only by Day but also in the darkest Night 
(Psal. 42, 3 ; 80, 5). The most bitter Myrrh (which con- 
diteth the old man in his Grave) hath the most sweetest 
Sweet hid in herself. For the Tree of the Cross & the 
Yoak of the Beloved doth but sweeten the bitter water of 
Affliction & sufferings in Mara (Exod. 15 ; Matt. n). The 
darkest sorrow contains in herself the most inward Joy & 
Gladness (2 Cor. 6, 10). Darkness is like the Light (Psal. 
139, 12). To dye is in this pleasan Wilderness to grow 
lively. Poverty maketh rich. Hunger is the most desira- 
ble Meat, & Thirst the most refreshing Nectar (Math. 5, 6). 
To be nothing is to be Deified (2 Pet. 1, 4). To have 
nothing is to enjoy all (2 Cor. 12, 10). To become weak 
is the greatest strength. 

" Disquietness is the surest Peace (2 Cor. 7, 10). No 
work no Pain doth tire, for the more we work the stronger 

184 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

we grow (Gen. 32, 24), & yet we do experimentally find 
that the greatest weakness hath the greatest strength hid 
in herself (Cant. 2, 5). Oh everblessed Wilderness thou 
rejoyceth & blossometh as a Rose! yea, thou blossometh 
abundantly & rejoyceth even with Joy and Singing. The 
glory of Libanon is given unto thee, the Excellency of 
Carmel & Sharon ! In thee we see the Glory of our Lord, 
& the Excellency of our God ! In thee our weak Hands 
are Strengthened & our feeble Knees confirmed (Esa. 35, 1). 
Who would not desire to be a Denizon in Thee? Who 
would not delight to trace thy Solitary and lonesom walks ? 
O ! ye Inhabitants of this happy desolation, bless & kiss 
that gentle hand of that Divine Sophia who at the first did 
so wittily allure you, when she intended to bring you into 
this Wilderness, for to speak to your Heart, in order to 
search & trie the same ! Do not forsake her, untill she 
hath given you from hence your Possessions, & the hinder- 
most Valley for the opening of your understanding (Hos. 
2, 14, 15, according to the LXX Achor signifying hinder- 
most, furthest, comp. Exod. 3, 1, Syrach 4, 17-28). 

" This Valley of Achor, or hindermost Cavity, leads me 
to the consideration of a Wilderness yet of a higher 
(further) degree than the Second, which it exceeds by so 
much as the second does the First. We may call it the 
traced but by few, & none but peculiarly chosen Vessels of 
Honour & Glory. 

" I shall bring but four Instances for this, Two out of Ye 
Old & Two out of the New Test. The first is Moses, that 
great Prophet & mediator between God & the Israel, accord- 
ing to the Flesh, who, as the Acts 2, 7, give us to under- 
stand, had a Revelation that He should deliver Israel out 
of Egypt, whilst He was yet in the court of Pharao ; which, 


VIDE, PAGE 214. 

"Moses in the Wilderness.''' 1 185 

as he would put in Execution, miscarried of the Enterprise 
through the fault of the People, whereupon he fled into the 
Wilderness, where he remained 40 years. What He did 
there is nowhere described, only that towards the end of 
the 40 years He led his Flock to the Backside (or rather to 
the hindermost or furthest) Desert. And there the Angel 
of the E(ord) appeared unto him out of a burning Bush, 
in order to send him in embassage to King Pharao. But 
so forward as Moses was at the first to go, when he had got 
only an Intimation or Manifestation or Revelation or In- 
spiration or Motion (or what we may call it) of what He 
now was to do, without any express Commission & Cre- 
dentials (Viz. Miricales & Signs). So backward was he 
now to go, when he got express orders & extraordinary 
Credentials, so that we may easily find what he had done 
during the 40 years in the Wilderness having the two ex- 
tremes, viz., his Presumption & fervent Zeal at first in 
which he killed the Egyptian, & his great Humility & 
meekness at last when God would send him, which last is 
Symbolically typified by his leading his Sheep by Ye Back- 
side or deepest of the Wilderness. Whereas formerly when 
his firy Quality was not yet thoroughly tinctured and Met- 
amorphosed into the Lamlike nature, He led his flock, but, 
as it were, on the Brim & foreside of the Wilderness, of 
which I had more to say, but lest the Letter should exceed 
its bounds, I must hasten to the next Instance, which is 
Fleyah & runs into many things paralell to the first Wit- 
ness. Read the history 1 Kings 6, 29. He was a very 
zealous & had slain the Priests of Baal, as Moses had the 
Egyptian. They did seek his life, as the Egyptians did 
Moses his. He made his escape & fled into the Wilderness 
as Moses did. Moses his 40 years was turned to him in 40 
days, He came at last into the Hindermost Wilderness to 


1 86 The Prietists of Povincial Pennsylvania. 

the Mount of God Horeb, the very same where Moses saw 
the Vision, And here God appeared unto him, & gave him 
a gentle Reprimende as touching his Zeal & Presumtious. 
Shewing him withal, that the great and strong winde & the 
Earthquake & the Fire (wherein Elijah's his Ministry had 
consisted) did indeed go before the L(ord), but that the 
Ivord did not dwell therein, but in the still aethereall creat- 
ing voice & that there were yet 7000 left besides him that 
had not bowed unto nor kissed Baal ; though they were hid 
& unknown to him, & had not ministered publiquily with 
storming & quaking & burning Jealousy as he had done. 
Thereupon being Condemned to substitute another in his 
Room (viz : to edifie, whereas hitherto he had but destroyed), 
he was soon after taken up into Paradise, by the same ele- 
ment wherein he had ministered. This Eleijah leads to Ye 
first Wilderness in the New Testament, the Claus of the 
old John, the Precursor of the Messiah, who after his edu- 
cation was also in the Wilderness, till the day of his Shew- 
ing unto Israel in the Spirit & Power of Eleijah, baptizing 
with water to Repentance, as the first Eleijah had baptized 
with Eier for Destruction. What he did in the Wilderness 
is not described, but by that what hath been said we may 
safely conclude that he was gratified there for his so great 
a Ministry. That God appeared also unto him there ap- 
peareth out of what he saith himself ( Joh. 1, 33). He that 
sent me to Baptize the same said unto me. I will not draw 
the Parallelism any further, lest I should prove tedious at 
least. That like as the accorded of him who succeeded 
Eleijah, raised the dead man (2 Reg. 13, 21), so He who 
succeeded John, by his death became the Head, the Spring, 
the Principle & cause of Life & Resurrection unto all that 
believed in Him, both for Soul & Body. This is the last 
& greatest Witness I am to produce JESUS the Messiah of 

" The Prerogative of the Elect." 187 

God, our God & Saviour, the centre of all, who also in 
likeness of the first Lawgiver Moses was 40 days (the 40 
years of Moses being thus abridged) in the Wilderness & 
tempted there with all manner of Temptations (though 
without sin, wherein He hath the only Preogative above 
all, Heb. 4, 15 ; 2, 28). The Scripture indeed maketh 
mention of his firey trials (1 Pet. 4, 12). But nowhere 
saith what they was or are. They cannot be described ; it 
is only experience which can teach them best. The three 
temptations that happened at .the End of the 40 days (Matt. 
4) centre in this : If He was the Son of God or Not ! 
which indeed hath more to say than is commonly supposed. 
The very Ground of the Christian Religion circling therein 
& is founded thereupon, as appears from Matt. 16, 16 ; Joh. 
11, 27; 1 Joh. 4, 15; 5, 5 ; & is the greatest Stumbling 
block to the Jews (Joh. 19, 7) & to the Turks, the Latter 
believing that Jesus the Son of Mary (as they style him) is 
the word of God incarnate, & that he is anointed to the 
Holy Ghost above all the Prophets & above Mahomed, 
& that he is to be the Judge of the Quick & Dead & of 
Mahomed himself; but that He is the Son of God they 
cannot believe, for, say they, God is a Spirit & cannot 
beget a man for his Son, &c. And no wonder, this being 
a Mystery surpassing all humane & Angeelicall under- 
standing ; nor is it to be found out by the same, it depend- 
ing solely from the Revelation of the Father, like as that 
of the Father depends from the Reception of the Son & 
M. K. , is yet to answer the ? Why Jesus being God of very 
God, became to be Man & died ? The Prophets & Patri- 
archs have been tempted indeed with great Temptations, 
but non like this, none of the Nature of this, they being 
not cabable of the same, as being the Sons of God through 
Faith in Him, who being God, was to be made Man (Fxod. 

1 88 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

3, 14, where it should have been interpeted : I Schall be, 
what I shall be, viz : — Man) as we through Faith in Him 
who was God and is made Man. But Jesus having past 
this firy ordeal, He received the Almightiness from his 
Father, whereof he made no bragging Ostentation, as Rob- 
bers make of their Pray, but humbled himself unto the 
death even the death of the Cross, styling himself at this 
side of the Grave only the son of Man (or mankind, the 
Greek word denoting both the Sexes) though He was the 
son of God : Wherefore God also by the Ressurection from 
the Dead powerfully declared him to be his Sou (Rom. 1, 
4 ; Psal. 2. Act.) exalting him above all, l,ord over all 
worlds, visible & invisible, this & that which is to come 
(Eph. 1, 2; Phil. 2, 6-1 1). 

" To these four I will add two more out of the Scripture, 
passing by the rest (Heb. n, 38). This first is David, that 
man after God's own Heart, who was 10 years in the Wil- 
derness & exercised in continual Sufferings & Sorrows (as 
his Psalms bear witness) before He was installed in the 
Kingdom, to which He was chosen & annointed so many 
years before. The second is that great Apostle of the Gen- 
tiles Paul, who abided seven years in the Deserts of Arabia 
(Gal. 1, 17, & at the antient Church Records bear witness), 
before he went out for the Conversion of the Gentiles. I 
could produce a whole Cloud of such chosen Vessels out of 
the antient Records of the first Christians, who beeing pre- 
pared in the Wild's some for 10, some for 20, some for 40 
years, after their coming forth converted whole Cities, 
wrought signs & Miracles, was to their Diciples as living 
Oracles, as the mouth of God through whom he fed & 
guided them, but having exceeded the limits of a letter 
allready, I must stop the Vein which so liberally would 
diffuse it self; I hope what hath been said manifested to 

" The Third State." 189 

the full, that God hath prepared alwais his most eminent 
Instruments in the Wilderness. 

" When we consider now with a serious introversion of 
our minds those Three states of the Wild's, we shall find 
That there is no entring into the first Wild's without a 
going out of Spiritual Egypt; and so consequently no 
entring into the second without passing the first ; And so 
on, no entring into the Third without passing the second 

" We shall find in the next place, that like as there is a 
long Strugling & Groaning under the Egyptian Burdens 
before the delivery from the same ensueth, So there is a 
long contest between the first & second Birth in their Wil- 
derness-Station before the Second is set at perfect Liberty 
& made ready to enter & possess Caanan : But how long 
the Parallelism of the second & third state may run to- 
gether, & where the Borders of each meet together or if 
there be any Borders at all, I'll leave to higher graduated 
Souls than mine is to enquire ; by it to speak my mind : me 
thinks the Childhood & Manhood may both well consist 
with the second state, & one may arrive to the manhood in 
Christ without ever entering the Third Station, this being 
only for some chosen Vessels for a peculiar administration 
which requires also peculiar & extraordinary Qualifications 
& Endowments, which they are to acquire & make trial of 
in this Third Station before they appear & show themselves 
to the Israel of God. So that every one that is to enter the 
Third must of necessity be acquainted with the second & 
first. But not every one that hath entered the Second & 
after he is even with the first must also enter the Third 

" By the consideration of the Third State we shall find 
what a wighty thing it is to appear & to show oneself to 

190 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the Israel of God, as immediately called chosen & sent by 
the Lord. Such a being made, as Paul saith (1 Cor. 4, 9) 
a Spectacle to the World & to Angels & to Men. And 
what good reason Moses had to resist so hard when he was 
sent, whom God having heard the crey & Prayers of his 
People, did force as it were & thrust or cast forth (see Matt. 

11, 38) where it should have been rendered thurst or 

forth instead of sent forth). And what a great presump- 
tion it is, on the other Hand, to go forth without being thus 
duly prepared beforehand. For though such may have 
inspirations, Revelations, Motions & the like Extraordinary 
Favours ; yea, may have arrived at the very Manhood in 
Christ (which truly is a high attainment), yet they will 
effect & build nothing, but only (if they do any thing at 
all) destroy, as we see in the instances of Moses & Elias, 
before they had been in that Wild's. Yea, there is no 
small Danger of loosing themselves & to bruise & grind 
that good seed, which was not designed for Meat but for 
increase, not for to be sent forth but to be kept in an honest 

& Good Heart. (L,uc. ). Such are indeed with 

Child, they are in pain, but (as the common Translation 
saith, Esa. 26, 28, and as the common experience witt- 
nesseth to be so) they bring forth as it were but Winde, 
they make no deliverance in the earth, neither do the In- 
habitants of the World fall ; Whereas if they was duly 
prepared & had stood the firey ordeal it would fare with 
them, not as with the common, but as the Translation the 
first Christians made use of hath it : Through thy Tears 
Lord we have conceived & have been in Pain of Birth, & 
have brought forth the Spirit of Salvation, which Salva- 
tion we have wrough on Earth ; we shall not fall, but all 
that dwell on Earth shall fall. 

" I had many Considerations more to add, as also what 

" The Wilderness-Time.' 1 ' 1 191 

the Wilderness it self is in each of these States, having 
spoken only of some of the Inhabitants thereof & of some 
of their Qualities & Circumstances, & this rather under a 
veil &, as it were, but glancing at the Marrow & Substance. 
Nor have I counted the number of the Wilderness-Time, 
but touched only the root thereof, which is 40 Sun-Days 
for the New Birth & 42 Moons or Nights for the Old 
(which last I have not so much as mentioned). Neither 
have I measured from the Red-Sea of the Old Birth to the 
Jordan of the New, and a hundred such things more. But 
my beloved & esteemed Friend ! this was to write a Volume 
& not a Letter, And I begin allmost to fear that I have ven- 
tured too much upon your Patience this first time, not con- 
sidering also the wall between us. Oh ! that we may 
behold our Beloved alwais, standing behind our Wall, look- 
ing forth att the Window, shewing himself thorow the Lat- 
tesse, saying Rise up my Love, my fair one & come away 
(Cant. 29, 10). To whose Love-embraces leaving you, I 

" Your sincere, though unworthy Friend, 

"J- K. 

" Rocksborrow, 1706, d. 25, Maji. 
" For Hesther Pallmer, 

" in Long-Island in Flushing." 

When the bright warm weather returned Kelpius again 
rallied, and Midsummer eve (1706) found him once more at 
the Tabernacle in his beloved solitude in the forest. 

That his physical improvement was only of a temporary 
nature is shown by his next poem, " A Comfortable and 
Incouraging Song, made intentionally for two lonesome 
Widows," where he adds, by way of explanation, " By 
occasion of a great cold which seized me in July, 1706." 

Consumption had fastened its clutches upon the frail 

192 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

form of the Transylvanian Theosophist, and after lingering 
for almost two years longer, he succumbed, having labored 
for fourteen years in the Community in the wilds of the 
New World; as a late writer 220 aptly states, "working, 
preaching, prophesying, and, we almost may say, ruling by 
the right of moral and mental preeminence." 

The exact date of his death is unknown. All that we 
know to a certainty is the mention of the fact in Jawert's 
petition to the Provincial Council held March 1, 1708 | g, 
where the words occur : " Johannes Kelpius now deceased." 

' F. H. Williams, in "The New World," June, 1894. 



ERHAPS one of the 
strangest facts in con- 
nection with this pe- 
culiar Community on 
the Wissahickon is that no 
complete list of the mem- 
bership is known. Diligent 
search among the official 
records in both Europe and 
America failed to bring to 
light any additional infor- 

A Seal of the Ephrata Community. mation as to who Composed 

the original Chapter. The old shipping-lists of Rotterdam 
could not be found ; and, if not destroyed, are supposed to 
be stored at either The Hague or Flushing. 

Another curious fact is that all communications with 
Europe ceased soon after the death of Kelpius (except possi- 
bly the official communications that passed between Falk- 
ner and the Frankfort Company), and, on the other hand, 
the emigrants seem to have been forgotten by most of their 
former associates ; the exception being the inquiry sent from 


194 The Prietists of Povincial Pennsylvania. 

Halle and mentioned by Muhlenberg in his reports for the 
year 1769. 221 

All trace has long since been lost of the astronomical 
and philosophical apparatus, brought over at various times 
and used by the Mystical Brethren in their studies and 
speculations ; the only possible exception being the Horo- 
logium Achaz, mentioned in a previous chapter. 223 As to 
their books, at least such as were of a theological character, 
we are more fortunate. After the disbanding of the Com- 
munity and the departure of Daniel Falkner from the 
Province, the bulk of the books, consisting of a number of 
folios, quartos and octavos, mostly bound in parchment, 
came into the possession of John Henry Sprogel, and later 
into that of his brother, L,udovic Christian Sprogel, who 
kept them until the year 1728, when he gave such as were 
theological and orthodox to the Rector 224 and Vestry of 
Christ Church in Philadelphia. After the completion of 
the tower they were placed in one of the lower rooms, where 
they still remain. 

Here these musty tomes, in L,atin, Greek, Hebrew and 
German, representing the profoundest religious thought of 
the XVI and XVII Centuries, have found a resting-place 
for the last century and a half forgotten by all. The few 
of late years who must now and then have noticed a vol- 
ume or two but little imagined whence they came, and 
wondered at the import of the book-plate, which vouchsafed 
the information that they were the gift of one Sprogel : 
Bibliothecam Ecclesice Anglicance, in Philadelphia, Die 
Decembris 24., 7728." 

221 Original ed., p. 1265. 

223 Page 114. 

224 Rev. Archibald Cummings. 

A Rare Collection of Books. 195 

The writer in his youth frequently heard the legend that 
all the books and MSS. of the Mystics had been given to 
Christ Church, as the intercourse between the founders of 
both organizations in the earliest days was of an intimate 

Fortunate, indeed, was the day when it was found that 
the legend was a true one, and that a large number of these 
old tomes were yet in existence and in a good state of preser- 
vation, though yellowed by age and covered with dust. 
They had escaped alike the search for cartridge-paper by 
both Patriot and British foraging parties during the 
Revolution, 225 and the fate of being discarded as worthless 
and sold during the several alterations to the church. 

Another interesting legend in connection with this be- 
quest is that the books were given to the corporation as a 
nucleus for a free library. If this be true it would ante- 
date Franklin's efforts in the same direction by fully three 

The first of these books opened by the writer was a 
quarto, and bore the above-quoted legend, "Ex dono? etc., 
on the inside cover, while the title read : " Gasparis Sciopph 
|| Ccesarii & Regit Conselearii^Astrologia Ecclesiastica || Ex 
officina Sangeorgiana || Anno M.DC. XXXIV. m 

Among this rare and valuable collection were the fol- 
lowing : 

Homiliarum in Evangelia qum diebus festis tarn Jesu Christi quam 
aliquorum sanctorum ejus, pro condone proponuntur et explicantur. 
Authore Rodolpho Gualthero. (Leyden, 1585, 2 vols.,fol. ). 

Homilies of Lanuza, translated from Spanish into Latin. (Cologne, 
1686,3 vols.,fol.). 

225 So scarce was paper for cartridge-making during the Revolution that 
almost all the books in the Ephrata Cloister were confiscated and used for 
military purposes. Many of the Sauer Bibles were so used. 

226 The Ecclesiastical Astrology of Gaspar Sciopo, Imperial and Royal 

196 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Walton's Polyglott. {London, 1657, 6 vols., fol.). 

Lexicon Heptaglotton; Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samari- 
tanum, ^Ethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum. Authore Edmundo Cas- 
tello. (London, 1686, 2 vols., fol.) 

Greek and Latin Lexicon of Size, xvi. (No date.) 

Osiander's Latin Bible. ( Tubingen, 1590 f-1592, 3 vols.,fol.) 

Examinis Concilii Tridentini, per Mart. Chemnicium scripti, Opus 
integrum. (Geneva, 1641, fol.) 

Erasmus' Parallel Greek and Latin New Testament. (151S, 2 vols, in 
one, fol.) 

Huefs Origen. ( Cologne, 1685, fol. ) 

Conciliorum Quatuor Generalium : Niceni, Constantinopolitani, Ephe- 
sini et Calcedonensis : Que divus Gregorius magnus tanqz quatuor Evan- 
gelia colit ac veneratur. (Cologne, 1530, 2 vols., folio. ) 

Ln Mosis Genesim plenissimi Commentarii. Wolfgango Musculo Dusano 
autore. (Basle, 1554, fol.) 

Quatuor Unum : hoc est, Concordia Evangelica. Auctore Guidone de 
Perpiniano Episcopo. (Cologne, 163 1, fol.) 

Johannes Seelig succeeded Kelpius as Magister, but for 
a short time only. He soon renounced the honor, and, 
donning his pilgrim garb once more, retired to a hermit 
cell or cabin, where he spent his days in teaching and study- 
ing, while he supported himself by cultivating his garden, 
and, when the opportunity offered, working at his trade 
of bookbinder. 

Doctor Christopher Witt and Daniel Geissler also left the 
Tabernacle in the forest and took up their abode in Ger- 
mantown, where the former for many years practiced as a 

After Seelig's retirement, Conrad Matthai became the 
leading spirit of the Theosophists who still remained at or 
about the Tabernacle ; a Community in the original sense 
no longer, but merely a number of devout ascetics who 
lived in retirement on the banks of the romantic Wissa- 
hickon under his leadership. Even this reduced number 
became less and less as the years rolled by, and settlers 
continued to encroach on their favorite solitude. 

" The Separatists?'' 197 

According to the Chronicon Epkratense, " after their 
leader (Kelpius) died the tempter found occasion to scatter 
them, as those who had been most zealous against marrying 
now betook themselves to women again, which brought 
much shame on the solitary state that the few who still held 
to it dared not open their mouths for shame." 227 

Notwithstanding the radical changes which were contin- 
ually taking place in the vicinity, incident to the growing 
population, some show of an organization was kept up for 
many years, without, however, making any claim to com- 
munal life. Such as remained upon the original tract lived 
as did Conrad Matthai, in small houses or cabins, after the 
manner of the hermits of old, or the Separatists of later 
days. It was by the latter name that they afterwards became 

This remnant on " the Ridge" became a nucleus or rally- 
ing-point for the many religious enthusiasts, visionaries and 
separatists who, during the first half of last century, flocked 
to the Province noted for liberty of conscience ; to whom 
must be added such of the older settlers as were " awaken- 
ed," or felt inspired to withdraw from the world and its 
allurements, and live henceforth a life of seclusion. 

About a decade after Kelpius' death, quite an emigration 
of religious separatists set in from Europe. Some of these 
pilgrims, such as the Mennonites and Schwartzenauer 
Dunkers or Baptists, came over in a body, and forthwith 
opened communications with the remnant on the Ridge, 
some of their number even adopting the solitary mode of 
life. Several of these new acquisitions remained steadfast 
and ended their days as recluses; Andreas Bone and Hermann 
Drost being prominent examples. 

227 Chron. Eph., original ed., p. 12 ; trans., p. 152. 

198 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In the autumn of the year following this emigration 
(1720), a number of men arrived in Germantown with the 
avowed intention of devoting the rest of their lives to 
religious study in the wilds of the New World far away 
from civilized habitations. The names of Johann Conrad 
Beissel, the Eckerling brothers, Michael Wohlfarth, 228 
Simon Konig, Johann George Stiefel, Jacob Stuntz and 
Isaac Van Bebber 229 are all prominent in the movement 
which revived Esoteric Theosophy and Rosicrucian Mysti- 
cism in Pennsylvania. 

The most trustworthy information we have regarding 
the subsequent career of the survivors of the original Com- 
munity who remained in the vicinity of Germantown is to 
be found among the Moravian records at Herrnhut and 

From these old musty documents we learn that George 
Bohnish, the first Moravian evangelist, who labored in 
Pennsylvania from 1734 to 1737, was a frequent visitor 
among the recluses in the vicinity of Germantown. The 

228 Michael Wohlfarth (Michael Welfare). This remarkable man had 
been an active Pietist in Germany, and occupied later so prominent a 
position in the Ephrata Community, wherein he was known as Brother 
" Agonius." He was born in the fortress of Memel, on the Baltic Sea, in 
the year 1687. Just when he came to America is not known, nor is it 
known how long he sojourned among the Hermits on the Wissahickon. 

He was an active exhorter and evangelist, and first came prominently 
into public notice by exhorting the Quakers from the old court-house 
steps at Second and Market Streets, as well as in their meeting-houses. 

He became one of the staunchest supporters of Conrad Beissel. Wohl- 
farth was also a hymnologist of no mean order, and a number of his 
hymns are found in the Ephrata hymn-books. He died May 1, 1741. 
His remains rest in the old " God's Acre" at Ephrata, where his tomb 
formerly bore this epitaph : — 

" Hier ruhet der Gottselige Kamfer AGONIUS, Starb Anno 1741. 
" Seines alters 54 Jahre 4 Monate 28 Tage." 

No trace whatever is to be found of this grave at the present day. 

Count Zinzendorf. 199 

Rev. August Spangenberg, upon his first visit to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1736 for the purpose of ascertaining the religious 
condition of its German . population, sought out the survi- 
vors of the Theosophical emigrants who almost half a cen- 
tury before had located on the banks of the Wissahickon. 
His visits to Seelig and Matthai during his stay in the 
Province were frequent, and the intercourse between them, 
it is stated, was cordial and edifying to all parties. 

From Spangenberg's report to Herrnhut it appears that 
the survivors were then living as " Separatists." In a sub- 
sequent letter he gives us an insight into their daily life 
and austere habits ; he there states that they slept on hard 
beds, using neither feathers, after the manner of the Ger- 
mans, nor straw. Their garb was of a coarse homespun 
material. They would neither barter, trade, nor engage in 
any occupation for profit or gain. 

In another communication Spangenberg, referring to the 
above, states that " where individuals had a true desire for 
their salvation and for the cause of Christ, he knew of no 
fairer land than Pennsylvania." w 

When, five years later, Count Ludwig Zinzendorf landed 
upon these shores, 230 his earliest movements were directed 
towards the forks of the Lehigh, by way of Germantown ; 
and it was during this journey that the Count made the 
acquaintance of the surviving Separatists of the Kelpius 

That friendly relations were established between Zinzen- 
dorf and Matthai at the outset is shown from the fact that 
the latter's name was conspicuous on the call issued for the 
first Pennsylvania Synod, December 26, 1741. 

229 Leben Spangenbergs, Barby, 1794, p. 135. 

230 Arrived at New York, December 2, 1741 ; Philadelphia, December 

200 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

It was at this meeting, which was held at the house of 
Theobaldt Endt in Germantown, on New Year's day, 1742 
(January 12, 1742, N. S.), that the first attempt was made 
in America, since the unsuccessful efforts of Johannes Kel- 
pius, toward an evangelical alliance and unification of the 
German Protestants. At this meeting Conrad Matthai was 
prominent and active, and championed the cause of such as 
were adverse to being circumscribed by denominational 

A contemporaneous account of this meeting states that 
certain remarks made by Count Zinzendorf were construed 
as reflecting against the Mennonites and Schwenkfelders, 
who were not represented at the Synod. This caused 
Matthai to resent what he thought was an unwarranted 
reflection by Zinzendorf, and raised considerable discussion, 
resulting in a series of resolutions being adopted. 

Before the adjournment of the meeting a set of resolu- 
tions was agreed to, it is said at the instance of Matthai. 
The paper was signed by the representatives of nine different 
religious interests. 

The next trustworthy notice of the later period of the 
old Community is recorded by Fresenius (vol. iii, page 221), 
who there states : " Towards the end of this month [Decem- 
ber, 1742] came Brother Ludwig [Count L,udwig Zinzen- 
dorf] again towards Philadelphia ; he had secured a Lodg- 
ment at Rocksbury, two hours from Philadelphia, where 
he expected to hold a Conference. According to the testi- 
mony of his own followers [Unitas Fratum] the object was 
to gather in [to their fold] the remaining Solitary. 231 But 
with two they were not able to accomplish anything." m 

231 The survivors of the old Community on the Wissahickon. 

232 The two Separatists here alluded to were undoubtedly Seelig and 

_1 t 























The Monastery on the Wissahickon. 201 

Turing once more to the Moravian records, we find that 
one of the last official acts of Count Zinzendorf, prior to 
his departure from America on January 7, 1743, was to 
hold a deliberative meeting with the Separatists who re- 
mained on the banks of the Wissahickon, at which he had 
a long and earnest interview with Conrad Matthai. 

In a future chapter it will be shown how upon Conrad 
Matthai's advice Beissel journeyed to the wilds of Cones- 
toga. The same was the case with the Eckerling brothers 
in 1727. It was upon the advice of the old recluse that 
Israel Eckerling left the vicinity of Germantown for the 
Conestoga country, whither he was soon followed by his 
widowed .mother and her three remaining sons, all destined 
to become important factors in the history of the settlement 
on the Cocalico. 

When finally Conrad Matthai was left almost alone on 
the old Community tract, an unbroken forest no longer, 
events transpired which led to a renewal of the spirit of 
mysticism in Pennsylvania, and subsequently took shape 
in a new Community, " Das Lager der Einsamen" the 
Camp of the Solitary, known in history as Ephrata, a 
settlement on the banks of the Cocalico in Lancaster 
County, and which eventually became the most successful 
Theosophical community of which we have any record. 

A branch of this new society for a time flourished in 
Germantown and vicinity. For the purposes of the new 
community a massive stone building was erected in 1738 
on the Wissahickon, a short distance above the spot where 
the original Tabernacle was located. 

This structure, about which there were formerly so many 
gruesome tales and vague traditions current among the 
superstitious residents of the vicinity, is still standing, and 
although it is now serving the prosaic uses of a farmhouse, 
it is still known as "the Monastery." 


202 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

All vestiges of the original "Hermits of the Ridge" 
have long since passed away. A portion of their domain 
is now included within the bounds of Fairmount Park, 
the largest natural pleasure ground in the world. 

The straggling town of Philadelphia, as it was at the 
landing of Kelpius and his fellow-mystics, has extended in 
all directions, until it now joins and includes the whole of 
the German Township within its corporate limits. Palatial 
residences cover a part of the ground once cultivated by 
these Esoteric students. Over the very spot where rest the 
remains of some of this Theosophical Community is now 
reared a Christian church, with pealing organ and white- 
robed choristers, a fitting monument to their virtue and 

Great have been the changes wrought by time during 
the last two centuries. The metropolis of Pennsylvania is 
indeed no longer a churchless city. Hundreds of churches, 
with their tens of thousands of communicants, are now 
found within its corporate bounds. 

In approaching the great metropolis from the sea, one of 
the first landmarks to greet the eye of the mariner as he 
nears the end of his journey is the old Swedish church at 
Wicacoa ; and as the city proper is approached, the symme- 
trical spire of Christ Church becomes a prominent feature. 

Both of these churches, the early history of which is 
cotemporary with that of our band of German Pietists, are 
now among the most venerable historic landmarks of the 
great city of Philadelphia with its million of inhabitants. 

To return once more to the scene of the early labors of 
Kelpius and his followers. Of the tens of thousands of 
pleasure seekers who annually pass along the Wissahickon, 
from the purse-proud aristocrat who rides behind prancing 
steeds and liveried servants down to the weary and foot-sore 

The Ephrata Manuscript. 203 

toiler who on a Sunday seeks after a breath of fresh air, how 
few of this vast number know the derivation of the names 
" Hermit Spring" and " Hermit Lane," or have even heard 
the name of Johannes Kelpius, the pious and learned Magis- 
ter of the Theosophical Fraternity, who settled there two 
centuries ago in the unbroken wilderness to commune with 
the Diety according to the dictates of his conscience and 
benefit the spiritual condition of his fellowmen. 

The old Ephrata MS., in referring to the closing period 
of the original Community, and to such as remained stead- 
fast, states : " Dispensing religious instruction and charita- 
ble attentions to their neighbors who came to cultivate the 
adjoining wilds, they rendered their habitation the seat of 
piety and usefulness. Thus while years rolled on in rapid 
succession the few remained steadfast in their faith and 
patiently watched for the revelations they so fondly antici- 
pated. These faithful ones, however, followed each other 
to the shades of death and a happy eternity without accom- 
plishing the work of their devotion and self-denial. They 
were laid side by side in what was once their garden, and 
their requiems were sung by the remaining brethren. Their 
history may be closed in the language of the Apostle, — 

" ' These all died in faith, not having received the prom- 
ises, but having seem them afar off, and were persuaded of 
them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were 
strangers and pilgrims on the earth." ' m 

Notwithstanding that every vestige of these early religi- 
ous pioneers has passed away, the effects of the truths they 
taught is yet felt, not only among the German element in 
Eastern Pennsylvania, but throughout the whole State and 
country wherever the slightest trace of the Pennsylvania- 
German is to be found. 

233 Heb. xi, 13. 

204 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The benign influence exercised by the various Pietistic 
sects of Provincial Pennsylvania upon the rude pioneers of 
various nations and races that were attracted to the Province 
in the early days of our existence will endure for ages to 
come. Though the personality of the actors themselves 
may be lost in oblivion, and even their names be forgotten 
in the modern struggle for wealth and power, yet in our 
annals the story of these self-sacrificing enthusiasts, with 
their legends and traditions, will ever remain one of the 
brightest and most romantic episodes. 

The Tabernacle in the Forest, according to an old Manuscript. 



The Cave of Kelpius, 1894. 

•ORE or less uncer- 
tainity has thus far 
existed among wri- 
ters upon Kelpius 
and the Hermits on the Ridge 
as regards the actual location 
of theoriginalsettlement and 
the tenure by which they 
held their land. There are 
no documents whatever on 
record to show that this or 
any other land in the vicin- 
ity was ever held in fee-simple by either Kelpius or the 
Fraternity. All accounts that have come down to us agree 
to the fact that 175 acres were given them, shortly after their 
arrival, by Thomas Fairman, who was then deputy surveyor 
general. 234 If any title was passed it does not appear to 
have been placed on record. 

It has, however, been proven beyond all reasonable doubt 
that the portion of the tract, once the site of the Tabernacle 
of the Mystic Brotherhood, is identical with the estate now 
known as " the Hermitage," owned by the Prowattain 

234 Fairman was not commissioned-surveyor general until 1702. 

206 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

This is situated on the east side of Hermit L,ane, in 
Roxborough, in the Twenty-first Ward of Philadelphia, 
and extends down to the Wissahickon. The strip of land 
along the banks of the creek is now included within the 
bounds of Fairmount Park, having been acquired by the 
city under the Act of April 14th, 1868. 

Now the question naturally arises : How happens it that 
here are 175 acres of land without any record of having 
been either bought or sold, until about fifty years after the 
gift of Fairman ? Nor does this identical plantation ever 
appear to have been in the name of the person who is 
accredited with having given it to the German Theosophists. 

A careful search reveals to us the fact that at least a part 
of the land in question was contained in a grant of 200 
acres made in 1689 by William Penn to Thomas B. Vic- 
aris, 235 and that Thomas Fairman was in charge of the 
property, as well as the adjoining one to the eastward, 
which extended to the Schuylkill, and was also supposed 
to contain " 200 acres," granted by William Penn to John 
Jennett, by patent dated January 20, 1685. 236 

Jennett, on March 18, 1698, sold to Mathew Houlgate 
eighty acres of this land, which adjoined the Vicaris tract. 
Mathew Houlgate the elder, who was for some time either 
a member of the Community or else intimately connected 
with the same, erected the first fulling-mill on the Wissa- 
hickon. This was in 1720, and was an undertaking in 
which he does not seem to have prospered. 

Vicaris, according to the records, under date of August 
4, 1741, 237 sold to Michael Righter seventy-one acres of land 

235 f ne patent is not on record. Another account names Richard and 
Robert Vicaris as the original patentees. 

1 Patent Book A, p. 104.' Exemplication Book No. 1, p. 86. 
Deed Book FTW 103, p. 365. 


" The Righter Ferry.'''' 207 

adjoining the Houlgate or Jennett tract, which one Peter 
Righter had bought at sheriff's sale, December 6, 1728. 238 
This grant included all the improvements erected or made 
by the Theosophical Community, viz., the Tabernacle, 
several small log cabins or houses used by the Hermits 
after disbanding, the cave of Kelpius, a large orchard 
planted by the Mystics, and other improvements, such as 
fencing and cleared ground. 

Two months after the above conveyance, October 27, 
1 741, Peter Richter transferred his seventy-one acres to 
Michael Richter. 239 This gave the latter a plantation of 
151 acres, which, without doubt, included all the land once 
occupied both by the Community and the Hermits who 
succeeded them. 

The Righters or Richters, it is said, were originally con- 
nected in some manner with the Brotherhood. A legend, 
which appears trustworthy, states that Peter Righter, the 
first of the family in America, came over with Daniel Falk- 
ner in 1 700, but soon after left the Community and built a 
stone house on the banks of the Schuylkill a short distance 
above the mouth of the Wissahickon, where he also estab- 
lished a ferry. This was some years prior to the death of 

This ferry was kept by successive generations of the 
Righter families, until the building of the Manayunk 
bridge removed any necessity for its maintainance. 

The above 151 acres of land remained in possession of 
Michael Righter until his death, which occurred some time 
in 1783. His will is dated January 29, 1783, and under its 
provision three commissioners were appointed by the heirs 
to effect a division of the real estate. They apportioned 

238 Record Book A D B 142, p. 485. 

239 Deed Book H 9, p. 367. 

208 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

After Two Hundred Years. 



2io The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the above 151 acres to Peter Righter (2), 240 March 13, 1787, 
and from him it passed to Daniel Righter about the year 

It was from Phoebe Righter, the widow of the last 
named, that the direct proof was obtained of the former 
tenure of this land by the Mystic Brotherhood. 

The tract remained in the Righter family until the year 
1848, when a part of it, containing sixteen acres and six- 
teen perches, which included the site of the Tabernacle and 
the Kelpius cave and spring, together with one of the Her- 
mit's cabins, was sold by the heirs of Daniel Righter to 
Evan Prowattain, a merchant of Philadelphia. 

The new owner at once commenced a series of improve- 
ments so as to make the place suitable for a suburban resi- 
dence. A large mansion house was built near the former 
site of the Tabernacle, and upon its completion was called 
"The Hermitage." 

Shortly after this mansion was finished and the grounds 
laid out, the whole estate was leased to Col. Benjamin Chew, 
of Germantown, who made the place his home for a num- 
ber of years. The old log cabin in which Phoebe Righter 
had passed so many years of her life was at that time in a 
dilapidated condition. 

A gentleman with antiquated taste, who visited the Her- 
mitage during the first year of Col. Chew's occupancy, 
writes : " On the picturesque grounds of Evan Prowattain, 
the residence of Col. Benjamin Chew, are the old hut and 
the spring of Kelpius. About the hut there is some con- 
troversy. The settled opinion seems to be, however, that it 
was either the dwelling or the site of the dwelling of Kel- 
pius. It is built of logs, pointed or mortised at the ends, 

240 Deed Book D 18, p. 632, deed of Daniel Thomas, Mathew Holgate 
and Anthony Cook to Peter Righter. 

The Hermitage Grounds. 211 

and now rotted under the exposure of years. A rickity 
door and front window gave it the appearance of a tene- 
ment, and the chances are that a few more years will witness 
the demolition of the old landmark. 

" It stands on the side of an acclivity, and in the days 
of Kelpius the foxes burrowed in the cellar. It is now used 
as a tool-house and a chicken-coop. A few rods from this, 
farther down the hill, is the spring. It lies at the foot of an 
old cedar tree. The water is black and cold. Just below 
the spring is a stone cave, which looks like an old spring- 
dairy or milk-house. It is said that Kelpius hollowed this 
out and built it with his own hands. 

" Below the hill the glen lies still and always shadowy. 
Here in [time past] these Magi and Hermits wandered 
with thoughts of another world. From the Hermitage, as 
far up the creek as the red bridge, a deep glen or gorge fol- 
lows the north side of the Wissahickon. This was of 
old a favorite spot with the Hermits, the scene of their 

A visit to the Hermitage grounds by the present writer, 
in June, 1894, just two hundred years after the arrival of 
the German Theosophists in Pennsylvania, reveals the fact 
that a few salient features of interest are still in almost the 
same primitive condition as they were when Kelpius and 
his associates first trod upon its virgin soil. Other features 
may still be traced by vestiges and traditions. 

The object of this visit was to go over the ground care- 
fully, make a critical examination of whatever was thought 
to bear upon the former occupancy of the Mystics, and sift 
as far as possible such of the legends and traditions as hover 
about the place. Arrangements were also made to photo- 
graph such relics as should prove of historic value or interest 
as illustrations to this work. 

212 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The most important relic found was the ruin of the sub- 
terranean cell or cave once occupied by Magister Kelpius. 
This anchorite cell, as before stated, is not a natural forma- 
tion, but was built against the hillside with an arched roof, 
which was covered with about three feet of soil and then 
sodded. Upon it there is now quite a growth of timber of 
considerable girth. 

This cell or " Einsiedler-hutte 1 '' has now caved in, and is 
partially filled in with stones and soil. Originally it formed 
a room sixteen feet long by nine feet wide in the clear, and 
eight feet high. Entrance to the cave was had by an arched 
doorway, which faced towards the south. This entrance is 
now partly choked up with dirt and debris. 

Reared on either side of the old doorway are two jamb- 
stones, which were placed against the cave during the tenure 
of Col. Chew, for the purpose of hanging a door so as to 
bar the access to the old retreat. This became necessary 
on account of the frequent visitors who came to view the 
spot. Upon either side of the opening two large trees 
have grown, and now stand like silent sentinels to guard 
the scene. 

A few yards from the entrance to the cell, just beyond 
the fence shown in the accompanying photographic repro- 
duction, is the crystal spring, which in Kelpius' time gushed 
forth from amid the roots of an ancient cedar tree. The 
water is still as clear and cold as of yore, and invites the 
thirsty pilgrim of to-day to quench his thirst out of its 
rock-bound basin. It is still known as "the Hermit's 
Spring." M1 

The old hut, as described in the account above quoted 
was repaired and enlarged, shortly after the sketch was 
written, by another room and an additional story. It now 

241 Or " Kelpius' Spring." 

The Glen in the Forest. 213 

serves as a comfortable " tenant" house for the hired help 
or " farmer" of the estate. The size of the original cabin 
may, however, easily be traced from the dimensions of the 
cellar or basement beneath the house. This cabin, similar 
to the anchorite cell, was built against the hillside, and 
faced towards the south. 

There is but little to impress the chance visitor with the 
fact that any part of this structure ever served as the soli- 
tary habitation of the recluse philosopher or Theosophical 
student who here passed his days in voluntary seclusion 
and exile for the purpose of perfecting himself in spiritual 
holiness and aiding his fellow-countrymen, who had jour- 
neyed so far from the Fatherland, to better their condition 
and enjoy the promised religious liberty. 

Of the Tabernacle no trace whatever could be found. 
There is a vague tradition that the present mansion, now 
temporarily deserted and tenantless, stands upon the former 
site. This has some show of probability, as from the porch, 
when the trees are leafless, may be seen the former camping- 
ground of the Hessian troops, beyond the Wissahickon, 
during the British occupation in 1777-78 ; a fact which 
appears to agree with the Hessian letter, written at camp 
about the time of the battle of Germantown, wherein the 
writer states that the former " Kloster" of Kelpius was 
visible from their camp. 242 

But by far the most interesting spot within the bounds 
of the Hermitage estate is the level wooded glen a few 
yards west of the Kelpius cave, which tradition points out 
as the spot where the public gatherings and open-air ser- 
vices were held during the favorable seasons. This spot, 
now after the lapse of two centuries, is as secluded, romantic 
and beautiful as it was when the Theosophical Mystics 

Ephrata MSS. 

214 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

wandered among its shadows, enjoying the breezes and 
quenching their thirst from the springs that bubble forth 
here and there and unite in rills to feed the Wissahickon. 
One such rill is known even to the present day as " Hermit 

Except that some of the primitive forest trees are now 
replaced by those of second growth, little or no change has 
taken place in this romantic spot. The hand of modern 
art has not yet defaced any of its prominent features. The 
same wealth of wild flowers covers the ground during the 
spring and summer, while an occasional bird sings his song 
high up amid the verdant branches. Thus it presents 
almost the same vast, silent and unmolested solitude as 
when Kelpius, Falkner, Seelig and Matthai, here in one of 
God's first temples, wandered among the trees and sought 
spiritual inspiration amidst the beauties of primeval nature. 

The photographic reproduction will give some faint idea 
of the beauty of the glen. Could the stones and older trees 
but speak, they might tell of many a mystic incantation 
and magical exorcism here performed during the hours 
when graveyards were supposed to yawn. Perchance they 
could give reports of questions in occult philosophy and 
alchemy once argued and mysteries of unwritten Cabbala 
communicated by word of mouth from magister to neophyte 
under obligations of secrecy. 

The steep hillsides that extend from the glen and plateau 
down to the Wissahickon are still covered with trees of a 
primitive growth. But few thus far have fallen victims to 
the axe of the wood-cutter, except for a stretch directly in 
front of the Prowattain house, where the owner had a vista 
cut, so that from his porch he could see the park drive. 

As to the burial-place of Kelpius and Matthai nothing 
definite was to be ascertained. Several records state that 

Moravian Records. 


the former was buried within the garden of the Community. 
Two direct records state that Matthai was buried at the feet 
of his former Magister. 

From the Moravian records the writer is inclined to 
believe that the above traditions are true, and that both 
philosophers were buried in the large orchard, planted under 
the direction of Kelpius and Falkner On the plateau north 
or west of the present Hermit L,ane. 

The strip of land bordering on the Wissahickon and 
originally a part of the Hermitage property, was taken 
some years ago for public purposes, and is now included 
within Fairmount Park. It includes the gorge at the base 
of the hill, and extends up as far as the red bridge. 

This glen or gorge on the north bank of the stream is 
now a favorite resort for family picnics and children's 
parties, coming during the hot season from the built-up 
parts of the great city to enjoy the cool and 
rustic retreats afforded by the shady shore. 

Few among the tens of thousands are 
aware of the legends hidden in the signs 
erected by the Park Commission : Her- 
mit Glen, Hermit Bridge, Hermit Lane. 


1708 1748. 





will always remain one 
of the most picturesque 
characters of our early 
history ; the more so on ac- 
count of a certain air of mys- 
tery and romance which has 
thus far enshrouded his per- 

But few of his labors in 
kelp von Sternberg. America have been recounted 

in these pages. Unfortunately, in his modesty, he left but 
little written record of the great work performed by him 
during the fourteen long years that he lived on the banks 
of the romantic Wissahickon. How earnestly he sought to 
improve the morals and spiritual condition of the rude and 
heterogeneous population that was then scattered through 
Eastern Pennsylvania, is shown by the many traditions 
and legends that have survived for two centuries. 

By reason of his scholarly attainments, devout life, inde- 
pendent bearing, and, it may be said, broad humanity, 
together with his repeated refusals of worldly honors and 
civil power, that were at various times thrust upon him, 

Autograph of Kelpius, from Mumford letter, p. 129-136. 

220 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the Magister on the Wissahickon stands out in bold relief 
as a prominent example of piety and disinterestedness. 

There can be but little doubt that this devout scholar, 
who thus voluntarily banished himself from the Fatherland, 
home and friends had many difficulties to contend with, 
both within and without the Community, and that his posi- 
tion at the head of such a Fraternity was anything but a 
sinecure. There were conflicting interests to equalize and, 
upon more than one occasion, stubborn minds to combat. 
When internal dissensions threatened the Fraternity it was 
always left to Kelpius to use the olive branch. 

Thus far but little was known of the Magister's antece- 
dents, except that he was a native of Transylvania {Sieben- 
burgeri). Now, after the lapse of two hundred years, it 
has been the good fortune of the writer, during a late visit 
to Europe, to gain at least a slight insight into his history. 

After considerable inquiry it was learned that a book on 
Transylvanian savans had been published sometime during 
the last century. Diligent inquiry, however, failed to 
obtain either a copy of the coveted volume or any informa- 
tion of value. 

It was during the weary search for this work that the 
writer strolled into an antiquariat in the ancient city of 
Halle. 243 Turning over many volumes, almost ready to 
give up the search, he found an old book, not catalogued 
and apparently much the worse for wear. It proved to be 
the one so long sought for. 244 

From this book it is learned that our Magister was the 
son of Pfarrer George Kelp, of Halwegen, who at the time 
of his death, February 25, 1685, was the incumbent at 

243 F. W. Schmidt, Halle, a S. 

244 Sievert's Nachrichten, von Siebenbiirgischen Gelehrten und ihren 
Schriften. Pressburg, 1785. 

The Antecedents of Kelpius. 221 

Denndorf, a town in the district of Schassburg {Segesvar) 
in Transylvania. 

Pfarrer Kelp had three sons : Martin (1659-1694), George 
and Johannes, the subject of our sketch, who was born in 
1673. The exact birthplace of Johannes is not known to 
a certainty, but it was probably Halwegen, a town in the 
same district as Denndorf. At the time of Martin's birth 
the father was resident pfarrer at the former place. 

Shortly after Pfarrer Kelp's death, Johannes, who was of 
a studious nature, received an offer of assistance from three 
of his father's friends. 245 The young orphan then deter- 
mined to continue his studies, but away from his native 
heath, and selected the high school at Tubingen. But on 
account of the warlike movements in that vicinity and the 
troublesome times it was concluded to send the young stu- 
dent to the renowned High-School or University at Altdorf, 
a town near Nuremberg, in Bavaria, then at the height of 
its fame. 

Here the young student received a thorough scientific 
and religious education. He graduated in 1689, at the 
youthful age of sixteen, and was honored with the title of 
Magister, or, as it is stated in the old records of the former 
University, " der freien Kunste und Weltweisheit Doctor" 
doctor of philosophy and the liberal arts. 

His thesis upon this occasion was a treatise on natural 
theology : 

" Theologies Naturalis, sen Metaphysics Metamorphosin, 
sub moderamine Viri-M. Dan. Guilh. Molleri, pro summis 
honoribus, & privilegiis philosophicis legitime obtinendis, 
die 73 fun., 1689. Altdorfii." 

This thesis was published in several editions, both quarto 

245 Count Valentine Franck, Burgomaster Michael Deli, and Notarius 
Johann Zabanius. 

222 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

and octavo. It was while a student at Altdorf that the 
young philosopher attracted the attention of the principal 
tutor of the institution, the Reverend Johannes Fabricius 
[Altdorfmus], and in the year following his graduation 
(1690) a book was printed bearing upon the title-page the 
names of both master and scholar, which at that day was 
an almost unheard-of honor to a student. 

The title of this work, which is divided into eighteen 
chapters, is 

" Scylla Theologica, aliquot exemplis Patrum & Doctorum 
Ecclesics qui cum alios refutare laborarent, fervore disputa- 
tionis abrepti, in contrarios errores misere inciderunt, ostensa, 
atque in materiam disputationis proposita, a Joh. Eabricio, 
S. Theol. P. P. & M. Joh. Kelpio. Altdorfii, /6po, octavo. 

This work is divided into sixteen chapters and a sum- 
mary. The former treat on Tertullian, Pope Stephen I, 
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Arius, Marcellus, Jovian, Jerome, 
Augustine, Pelagius, Faustus, Bishop of Riez, Eutyches, 
Berengarius, Amsdorf, Stancar of Illyricum, Flacius and 
Huber. The concluding chapter or summary deals with 
the royal road between Scylla and Charybdis. 

This work was followed in the same year (1690) by a 
third book. It was an essay on the question whether 
heathen ethics [meaning the Aristotelian] were fit for the 
instruction of Christian youth. Printed at both Nurem- 
berg and Altdorf, entitled : 

11 Inquisitio, an Ethicus Elhnicus, aptus sit Christiance 
Juventutis Hodegus ? sive : Anjuvenis christianus sit idoneus 
auditor Ethices Aristotelicae? Resp. Balthas. Blosio, Norimb. 

This valuable treatise, to which is added the poetic con- 
gratulations sent to him upon the attainment of the degree 
of Magister, went through several editions, octavo and 

Magister Ludwig Brunnquell. 223 

quarto. Some of them are dedicated to his patrons who 
sent him to the University, viz., Count Valentine Franck, 
a noble of the Saxon nation ; Michael Deli, Burgomaster 
of Schassburg ; and Magister Johann Zabanius, provincial 
notarius at Hermannstadt. Other editions have a some- 
what different preface, and are dedicated to his Nuremberg 
patrons — Paul Baumgartner, Karl Welser von Neunhoff, 
J. Paul Ebner von Eschenbach, and Joh. Christoph Tucher. 
Among the learned men then in Nuremberg whose atten- 
tion was attracted to the young philosopher's writings was 
one Magister Johann Jacob Zimmerman, late Diaconus at 
Bietigheim, in Wurtemberg, a pupil and follower of the noted 
M. Ludwig Brunnquell, and who in addition to his sacred 
calling was one of the best mathematicians and astronomers 
in Europe. So great was the esteem in which Magister 
Zimmerman held the young Transylvanian, that when he 
subsequently organized a Chapter of Perfection or Col- 
legium Pietatis for the purpose of emigrating to the New 
World, there to meet the great Deliverer, we find Johannes 
Kelpius, as we will now call him, the second in command, 
or Deputy Master ; and upon Zimmerman's untimely death 
at Rotterdam on the eve of embarkation (1693) he became 
Magister of the Chapter. 

It was under the guidance of Kelpius that the journey 
to the New World was safely accomp- 
lished, where they expected to witness 
the Millennium, which, according to 
Zimmerman's astronomical calculations, 
was to take place in the fall of the year 
of grace 1694. 246 

Martin .Kelp, our Magister's elder 

246 Hartmann, Magister-buch, 1477-1700, MS. folio, 499, Konigliche 
Bibliothek, Stuttgart. 

224 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

brother, also became known for his learning. 2 * 7 He finished 
his education under the patronage of Elias Ladiver and 
Magister Schnitzler, and studied at Hamburg and Leipzig, 
where he received the degree of Magister. He too died at 
an early age, the year after his brother left the Fatherland 
for Pennsylvania. 

The remaining brother, George Kelp, 248 also received a 
liberal education, and subsequently became Burgomaster of 
Schassburg, the chief city of his native district. He mar- 
ried into the noble Sternberg family, and afterwards, 
together with his sons, was knighted, since which time the 
family has been known as Kelp von Sternberg. It is from 
this fact that Johannes Kelpius, the Magister on the Wissa- 
hickon, in the later Moravian records is alluded to as 
"Baron Kelpio." 

For some reasons unknown, Kelpius, after he came to 
Philadelphia, failed to keep in touch with his family in 
Germany. The Transylvanian chronicler, in closing his 

247 Rector Martin Kelp was the author of the celebrated work, — 

" Natales Saxonum Transylvanice, Aposciasmate Historico collustrati. 
Resp. Joach. Christiano. Westphal, Neo-Rupin-die 22 Mart., 1684. 
Lipsice. 4to. 

248 Uffenbach in his Memoirs gives the following interesting information 
about George Kelp, the brother of our Magister, who then seems to have 
been living at Liineburg, in Hanover : 

"January 28, 1710, I learned from a resident pastor that a certain person 
here, named Kelp, had purchased the library of Herr Horn, and then sold 
the books at auction. The sale of the Manuscripts, however, had been 
forbidden by the Magistrates, as there were many of local interest among 
them. My informant further assured me that Kelp, who had married a 
daughter of the " Stern" family, was wont to gather together many good 
things, but afterwards sold them dear enough. 

"January 30, 1710. — Called again on the above Herr Kelp and pur- 
chased from him, at a high price, various books and manuscripts. He is 
a young, pleasant but capricious man, and notwithstanding the poor ap- 
pearance of his house, acts big and does not urge one to purchase from 
him. — Uffenbach Reisen, vol. i, 483, 506. 


• jfon&rrtt&i /Ce^p-l 




The Diary of Kelpius. 225 

biographical sketch, adds: "Afterwards he journeyed to 
Pennsylvania, and his Fatherland heard nothing more of 

This statement may be true so far as his immediate 
family is concerned, for a regular correspondence was main- 
tained between Kelpius and the leading representatives of 
similar convictions to his own in England and Germany. 

This is shown by copies of a number of letters entered 
in the back of his Journal — one of the two manuscript 
books in his handwriting that have come down to us. 

This Journal, as it is usually called, contains 101 closely 
written pages, in addition there is a note upon two of the 
fly leaves. The first is apparently a quotation from Seneca, 
and is headed " Seneca de refor." 

[Translation. J — "I cannot go beyond my country: it is 
the one of all ; no one can be banished outside of this. My 
country is not forbidden to me, but only a locality. Into 
whatever land I come, I come into my own : none is exile, 
but only another country. My country is wherever it is 
well ; for if one is wise he is a traveller ; if foolish an exile. 
The great principle of virtue is, as he said, a mind gradu- 
ally trained first to barter visible and transitory things, that 
it may afterwards be able to give them up. He is delicate 
to whom his country is sweet ; but he is strong to whom 
every single thing is his country ; indeed he is perfect to 
whom every single thing is his country ; indeed he is perfect 
to whom the world is exile." 

The next leaf may be called a title, and sets forth that 
the following are " Literal copies of letters to friends in and 
out of Pennsylvania, sent from the Wilderness by Johanno 
Kelpio, Transylvania. 1694-1703-4-5-6-7." 

The first seventeen pages of the book proper contain a 
Latin diarium of his journey to America. It represents 


226 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

however, but a small portion of the voluminous correspon- 
dence which he is known to have maintained with the 
Theosophical Fraternity in Europe. 

The contents of this Journal are as follows : Diarium, 17 
pages ; m German letter to Heinrich Johann Deichmann in 
London, dated September 24, 1697, four pages ; another to 
the same, dated May 12, 1699, 13 pages ; with a seven- 
page postscript by Seelig. Then follows the well-known 
English missive to Stephen Mumford, December 11, 1699, 
seven pages ; a Latin letter to Rev. Tobias Eric Biorck, 13 
pages ; a twenty-two-page German letter to Maria Elizabeth 
Gerber in Virginia, dated October 10, 1704 ; one in German 
of five pages, dated July 1, 1705, to his old tutor, Prof. 
Fabricius, who was then at Helmstadt ; another to Deich- 
mann, of two and a half pages, dated July 23, 1705 ; and, 
lastly, the English missive of eleven pages to Hester Pal- 
mer, in which he describes the " Threefold Wilderness 
State." 250 

The Latin missive addressed to Rev. Tobias Eric Biorck 
unfortunately bears no date, but as it is inserted between 
the Mumford letter (December n, 1699) and the Gerber 
missive (October 10, 1704) it was undoubtedly written 
during the period when Rudman and Justus Falkner were 
active in New York, and appealed to Kelpius and his 
party for pecuniary assistance. 

The allusion to money evidently relates to the repayment 
of a loan made to either the struggling Dutch congregation 
in New York or the Swedish churches on the Delaware. 

The first page of this letter is reproduced in facsimile, 
together with a translation. A spirit of the true religion 

249 The first page of this diary is reproduced in facsimile on page 14 of 
this work. 
260 Letter in full, pp. 180-191, ibid. 

Greeting to Biorck. 227 

pervades the whole letter, and the allusion to the pious 
Rudman illustrates the intimacy between the mystical 
Pietists and the Orthodox clergymen in the Province. 


"pastor at christianna. 

" May Jehovah remember thee, that thou mayest see the 
good things of his elect ; may he remember thee for the 
sake of his favor toward his people, that thou mayest 
rejoice in the joy of his nation. May he visit thee in his 
salvation, that thou mayest glory in his inheritance. Amen! 

" Psalm cvi. 4 and 5. 
" Very reverend Sir and Friend, Master and friend in Jesus 

our Saviour, ever to be regarded by me with fraternal 

love : 
"In your beloved letter, written on January io, and 

received on January 17, through Mr. Jonas B , I got 

a twofold proof of your fraternal love, the epistle and the 
money. Would to God I were truly such as you have out- 
lined, or such as you have judged me with my most beloved 
Rudman. By day and by night I attend, indeed, that I 
may cleanse myself from every blemish both of body and 
of soul, and I perform my rites in the fear of the I^ord, and 
that I may obtain, by grace alone, that which is my pattern 
by nature, through sincere imitation of Him ; to wit, the 
adoption as a son, the redemption of our body (Rom. viii, 
23. Compare 1 John iii, 1-2; Phil, iii, 11-15; Gal. iv, 5; 
Apoc. xix, 8 ; 2 Tim. iv, 8). How many parasangs 251 as yet 

251 Parasang is a Persian measure of length, which, according to Hero- 
dotus is thirty stadia, or nearly four English miles. But, in different times 
and places, it has been 30, 40 or 60 stadia. 

228 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

ffi &o.*h' %*—« ferrk 

J-t/AvrruA ■vc*±ybcA-~ylu m/t Vie *4irrti /titrru' D**.* i^) r 

- /> • _ 




«*g ~~™ 7t/T"' ^"^ 

,-7**/. J>/f~" ' """v ( *■— -'-'.•■ f/^/***^ 

Letter to Magister Fabritius. 229 

I may be distant from the scope (aim) prefixed for myself, 
becometh known to the fellow-soldiers (Associates) of those 
crucified and buried with (in) Christ (Gal. ii, 20), and whom 
God, rich in mercy through Christ, kept secret (in silence) 
and awakened and placed in the heavenly [places] in Christ 
Jesus (Eph. i, 20). Better than myself no one knows [my 
shortcomings] save alone the searcher of hearts and minds ; 
for that which our beloved Rudman bore witness concern- 
ing me, is to be attributed rather to himself (Rudman) and 
to divine charity, wherewithal his heart was affected : these 
things also, Paul being a witness (I Cor., xiii). He en- 
dureth all, believeth all, hopeth all, sustaineth all." 
[End of the first page.] 

Another interesting missive in this old diary, and one of 
the most important, is the German letter written by Kel- 
pius to his former tutor, Magister Fabricius, then at the 
head of the Helmstadt University. It runs thus, — 


"July 23d, 1705. 
" To Dr. Fabricius, Prof. Theol. at Helmstadt : 

Your Magnificence : — The joy your letter afforded me 
I am unable, at present, to describe. I did behold in it, as 
in a mirror, the sincerity & uprightness of my good old 
master, Dr. Fabricius. What dear Mr. Ingelstatter, ex- 
rettore dei Falkein, reported, is true, so far as appertaineth 
to the principal point, namely, that I have not become a 
Quaker. Such an idea hath never come into my mind, 
albeit I love them from my inmost soul, even as I do all 
other sects that approach & call themselves Christ's, the 
Paptists even not excluded, &, with Peter, I have found 
out, in deed & truth, that God regarded not the person, 

230 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

but in all sorts of work & religion. He that feareth 
Him, & doeth what is right, is agreeable to Him. I could 
report of magnalities (if space permitted) which this great 
God hath wrought even amongst the Indians, whereof there 
is some printed notice in the Memoirs of the Phil. Soc. in 
L,ondon, & how they are brought to grief now & then by 
blind-mouthed Christians. Yet one instance I will report, 
as abashed Sir W. Penn, when he was here last, Anno 1701 
(if I remember rightly) when he wanted to preach to them 
of faith in the God of Heaven & Earth, at their Kintika 
(thus they call their festivity). After having listened to 
him with great patience, they answered : ' You bid us be- 
lieve in the Creator & Preserver of Heaven & Earth, though 
you do not believe in Him yourself, nor trust in Him. 
For you have now made your own the land we held in 
common amongst ourselves & our friends. You now take 
heed, night and day, how you may keep it, so that no one 
may take it from you. Indeed, you are anxious even be- 
yond your span of life, and divide it among your children. 
This manor for this child, that manor for that child. But 
we have faith in God the Creator & Preserver of Heaven 
& Earth. He preserveth the sun, He hath preserved our 
fathers so many moons (for they count not by years). He 
preserveth us, and we believe & are sure that He will also 
preserve our children after us, & provide for them, & be- 
cause we believe this, we bequeath them not a foot of land.' 
Whenever we shall be made worthy to see the many and 
varied dwellings in our Father's house (for who would be 
so simple, to say these dwellings were all of one sort), it is 
my belief we shall then see that the same Architect cared 
little about our common formula & systematic architecture. 
And, I trow, many disciples of Moses & Christ, when in 
want or dying, might be glad if they shall be received in 

" Restitution of all Things.' 1 '' 231 

any of the huts, described above, by him, whom they per- 
haps accused of heresy in this life. I hope that God, who 
maketh happy both man and beast, & hath mercy on all his 
children, will, at last, make all men, as died in Adam, alive 
in the other. But life & death are further distinguished from 
change, so that those that have been made to live in Christ, 
must be delivered from the second death. I know that some 
cranks, spiriti Divines,, trouble & crucify themselves con- 
cerning this Lexion theologies (as they call it), but espe- 
cially the Reprobratites, because these (Restitution of all 
things) ^ cancel & crucify their dogmas so very frequently. 
Meseems, however, their little faith hath its origin in the 
misunderstanding of the word Eternity, which neither in 
Greek nor in Hebrew denoteth a time but an end, but 
rather the contrary as they have both singular & plural 
numbers, & Paul even speaketh of the birth of Eternities. 
But just as the luminaries of the firmament are the dimen- 
sions of our time, so it seemeth that the Eternities have, 
also, their dimensions, which, however, those (sensual 
Man's having not the spirit) cannot well see, wherefore 
allowance must be made, if they, perchance, judge hereof 
as the blind do of colors. But if the Lord from out His 
infinite plentitude should give them the spiritual mind, 
they will, no doubt, judge otherwise. How wroth I for- 
merly would wax toward those who would not accept the 
sayings of Schertzer or Calov 263 as Oracles. And I trust in 

252 The doctrine of "Restitution of all Things" is still adhered to by 
the German Seventh-day Baptist Church in Pennsylvania, and who are 
the direct descendants of the secular congregation of the Ephrata Com- 
munity. They believe in ' ' The full restoration of all things to the prime- 
val condition, as it was before the fall, by Christ, that they may be one as 
we are." 

This is based on the following passages in the Holy Scriptures : John 
xvii, 2 ; 1 Cor. xv, 28 ; Eph. i, 10. 

232 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the infinite mercy of God (& your Magnificence also had 
great patience with me & to me, indeed, publicly, whereof 
I have since often been ashamed, but admired your Mag- 
nificence's humility & prudence), why should I then look 
with evil eye upon my blind neighbor, because God hath, 
perchance, showed me beforehand the abundance of His 
Mercy, by opening mine eyes before theirs ? Not to speak 
of, that I see but little fragments of the fragmentary work 
& the men of the creation as trees ! But, especially, because 
I hope to become one in God through Christ both with 
those who do not yet see as I do, and with those that see 
much better and farther than I. 

" Although I proffer this common love in the brotherly 
love, yet the brotherly love, the Philadelphiac, remains with 
me on a firm foundation ; whence I was wronged, if I have 
been called a Quaker on account of the former (common 
love), or even furthermore, a Papist, as has been done by 
the Quakers in this country, as I was unwilling to enter 
the married state, however advantageous the connection, 
wherefore I was either a Jesuit or an Indian Deitist, 
although, by the grace of God, it is easy for me to be 
judged from a human standpoint. Nevertheless I have 
mercy on such untimely judges and condemners, who are 
oblivious of the express prohibition of Christ & Paul, 
though professing to be his disciples ; therefore I can har- 
monize as little with the canon of the Anglical Church 
(Confession), as with the anathema of the Council of Trent, 

263 Abraham Calovius (Kalau), born April 16, 1612, was one of the most 
celebrated divines of the 17th century, and a native of Morungen, in East 
Prussia ; died February 25, 1686, while General Superintendent and Pro- 
fessor of Divinity at Wittenberg. He was one of the leading controver- 
sional writers of the period, and as the representative of the scholastic 
and zelotic Lutherdom opposed the union of the Protestant Church, in 
consequence of which his followers were called Calovians. 




The Anglican Faith. 233 

though having no part in the errors mentioned. To the 
honor of the Anglical Church, I must confess, that they 
practice the Doctrine of universal grace much better than 
the Lutherans. 

" Their 39 Theses, or Articles (I had almost said 40 less 
one) are so mild and general, that they can be accepted by 
any one, who is not too narrowminded and of too little 
faith. If any one amongst them have but a private 
view, as, for instance, concerning the universal restitution, 
the Millennium, the Metemptosis, 266 etc., he is, on that 
account, not excommunicated forthwith, especially, if he 
make them but serviceable to the practice of piety, not for 
the instituting of Sects, although they deem the Quaker 
Sect the last, & that the Lord would now soon come to His 
Temple, forasmuch as the opinion concerning the Millen- 
nium is quite correct both amongst them and the Presby- 
terians, or Calvinists, both in Old and New England, as 
well as here, and even amongst the Quakers themselves a 
few years ago. It is consequently wrong to place all these 
into one category. The majority of them are just as worldly 
in their opinions, as any of the great divisions may be, & 
if all their members should . be subjected to a particular 
examination on some points of Religion — the result would 
be, as amongst others — so many heads, so many opinions, 
as I have found out in mine own experience." [Here the 
letter ends abruptly. ] 

Most of the letters in this volume are somewhat rhapso- 
dical, and filled with obscure illusions to mystical subjects 
and scriptural quotations. 

A vein of true piety, however, pervades every missive, 
the whole being an evidence of the survival of superstition 
at that late day, strangely mingled with the observed facts 


234 ^ ne Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

of science, which, as a late writer states, 254 is one of the 
curiosities of spiritual development in all times. 

This unique book is now in the possession of Mr. Charles 
J. Wistar, of Germantown. Well-founded traditions state 
that some years after Kelpius' death the book was given to 
Johannes Wiister, an ancestor of the present owner, either 
by Seelig or by Matthai ; most probably the latter, as 
Wiister cared for the old recluse in his declining years. 

The other book contains a number of hymns, written 
both in German and English, and in most cases the musical 
score of the melody is neatly written at the commencement 
of the hymn, showing that Kelpius was a practical musician 
as well as a poet and philosopher. This hymn-book is 
about 5x7^ inches in size, and is a specimen of Seelig's 
proficiency in the bookbinder's art. It was for many years 
in possession of the Warmer family of Germantown, and 
eventually passed successively into the hands of William 
W. Leibert, who gave it to A. H. Cassel, of Harleyville, 
Montgomery County, from whom it finally came into the 
collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, where 
it has now found a permanent resting place. 

This unique volume of seventy pages contains twelve 
hymns and melodies. It is evidently a duplicate of a simi- 
lar manuscript collection, or else it is a compilation from 
loose sheets upon which were originally written such hymns 
as were in common use in the services at the Tabernacle. 
The hymns are written in German on the left hand pages, 
while on the opposite pages is an attempt at a metrical 
translation in English. The musical score as well as the 
hymns are all in the peculiar handwriting of Kelpius, and, 
like his diary, the book affords us an insight into his 
religious fervor. 

254 Francis Howard Williams. 

Knorr von Rosenroth. 235 

Most of the hymns are written somewhat after the style 
of the celebrated Christian Knorr, Baron von Rosenroth, 266 
whose name is quoted in connection with the melody of 
several of the compositions. 

Kelpius became acquainted with Knorr during his so- 
journ at the university, and it is supposed that he first intro- 
duced the youthful student into the secrets of Cabbalistic 

The title, together with a specimen page of the Kelpius 
hymn book, in both German and English, is reproduced in 
facsimile. An additional value is imparted to this quaint 
little book from the fact that it is evidently the first book 
of hymnology or German poetry and music that was com- 
posed and written in the western world. It is, however, 
just to state that Kelpius was not the only poet and com- 
poser among the original party of Theosophical emigrants ; 
Koster, as well as the Falkner brothers, also composed j 
hymns that have survived until the present time, as will be 
shown in a future chapter. 

The English translations are mere paraphases, and fail to 
convey the full fervor and meaning of the German original. 

255 Christian Knorr, Baron v. Rosenroth, was born at Altrauden, in 
Silesia, July 15, 1636. After studying at the universities of Leipzig and 
Wittenberg, he made an extended tour through France, England and 
Holland. At Amsterdam he became acquainted with an Armenian prince ; 
with the chief Rabbi, Meir Stern, from Frankfort ; a M. Dr. John Light- 
foot, Dr. Henry More, and others, and as a result devoted himself to the 
study of Oriental languages, of chemistry and of occult and Cabbalistic 
philosophy. He edited various Rabbinical writings, published several 
Cabbalistical works, notably his Kabbala Denudata (2 vols. Sulzbach, 
1677). He, however, is chiefly known by his hymns, published in Nurem- 
berg, 1684, under the title " Neuer Helicon Mit Seiner Neun Musen ; das 
its, Geistiiche Sitten Lieder, &c." A number of these hymns were incor- 
porated in the Halle Hymnal, 1704 (Geistreicher Lieder), since when 
they have been translated into different languages, and are now used by 
nearly all Protestant denominations throughout the world. 

236 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Cf the 

tfiddtn ~£pve , 

at the ttrne r r L 

ftflCm /he &y tn V&rjr *£(#*"> 
ZJc/,re#fy Me OU'&tKd* 

Of Mr £**''«*' 

ouit /ctaapce/tr jer me: /i« #«»« anna m? t-oiv/*. 

K*H0jfy>A* that if /June tnetJy/kaZfZtt, 
<uuCjh«m* Jhatf cover her to/JcA ,/a<J unto t/u 

" Ye/vtA/Su*"** in Amert'cu //ay 

English Title of the Kelpius Hymn Book. 

Voice of the Hidden Love. 237 

This applies to the titles as well as to the poetry. The 
titles are therefore given here in both languages : 

The German title reads, — 

" I.N. I.\\ Die Kl'aglige Stimme \ \ der \ \ Verborgenen Liebe 
|| zur zeit da Sie || Elendund Verlassen || darnieder lag || und 
von || Der Menge ihrer Feinde gedranget und geanchstiget\\ 
Wurde von einemn in Kummer Schwebenden. || Entworfen." 

The titles of the hymns are as follows : 

(1) " Von der Wustene'y der Jungfr'aulichen\\ Heimlichen 
Creutzes Liebe." 

" Parodie \ \ Die Seele ging zu Nechst. " 

Musical score. 

[Of the Wilderness || of the Secret or Private || Virgin 
Cross Love. J 

It is divided into three parts, of 9, 23 and 21 stanzas 

(2) Musical score. 

" Process || der in Tode grunenden || Liebe || Bey gelegen- 
heit eines freundes, so mich hassen wolte." 

An explanatory note states that " The first & third part 
may be sung on the following, & Ye Second and last part 
on Mel. page 1. 

[The Process of Love || growing in Death || By occasion 
of a Friend that would hate me.] 

This hymn is colloquial, and is in three parts and twenty- 
four stanzas, viz., part 1, "Johannes" 10 stanzas ; part 2, 
"The Friend" 4 stanzas; part 3, "Johannes" 9. Both 
together, 1 stanza, viz. — 

" Since then our friendship has in trying times stood even 
The I<ord increas it more & strengthen it from Heaven 
So that it fear no Might nor Pow'r of Death to come, 
But may Triumph above by God in Christ's Kingdom." 

238 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

T ?3£L 

m^'^g'Ti/ jp 

\ m j 1 f f 1 ^ m 




Fac-simile of a German Page of Kelpius' Hymnal. 

The Bitter Sweet Night Ode. 239 

(3) "Bitter Susse Nachts Ode || der sterbenden || Todes 
sich vergnugenden \\ Liebe. || Bey der betrachtung dass ihr 
Creutz sey der Liebe Pfand\\ von der hand Sophia ihr zu 


" Parodie Rosen :\\34 Du hast o Seelenfreund : ||^.. p." 
[Bitter Sweet Night Ode || of the dying || But contented 
|| Love || By the consideration that the cross is the Pledge 
of Love, sent to the Soul from Sophia. J 

The hymn proper consists of 12 stanzas, at the close the 
composition assumes a dramatic form, the stanzas being 
rendered alternately by a " Speaking Voice" and " The 
Soul," the purpose being to introduce " Contradictions" 
and " Objections" and " Conclusions" after the manner of 
the theologians of the seventeenth century. 

(4) Musical score. 

"Das Paradox^ und Seltsam || Verguugen || der gottlich 
Verliebten. || In eine Antwort auf einen Brief so v oiler || 
Liebe, trost und Demutk." 

Mel. " O Gott dufrommer Gott wie folget .•" 

[The Paradox and Seldom || Contentment || of the God- 
loving Soul.] 

This hymn contains twenty-one stanzas. 

(5) " Gesprdch der Seelen mit \\ sich selbst || Uber ihren 
lang Wehrenden || Reinigung || Gestillet in Traurigen Ver- 
langen || in der Wusten || Anno 1698 || jojan." 

" Parodie Rosenroth iS, Hier lieg ich gefangen." 

Musical score. 

[Colloquim of the Soul || with its self || Over her Long || 
during || Purification || Set in a pensive Longing || in the 
Wilderness || Anno 1698 Ye 30 Jan.] 

This also contains a series of objections, queries and 

240 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

(6) " Von der Ruhe \\ als ich mich einstens in der Wusten 
bey [| der Armuth so Mude gearbeitet 169J, Octob." 

"Im Thon: 'So wunch ich nun eine gute nacht: wie 
folgeV " 

Musical score. 

[Upon Rest || As I once in the Wilderness, in Poverty || 
had made me weary with Labour || in October, 1697. J 

(7) " Von Den neuen Jungfraulichen || Kraft Leib || worin- 
nen der Herr selbst wohnet || und seiner Geheimnisse offen- 
bahret || wie solcher muste bestellet sein || Gestellet in Sehn- 
lichen Verlangen || Anno 1699, Pebr." 

Melodie p. 17 (same as hymn No. 4.) 

[Of the Power of the New || Virgin Body, || where in the 
L,ord himself dwellest || and Revealeth his Mysteries : || How 
it is to be obtained, || Done in pensive longing, in Febr., 

The last seven stanzas of this hymn consists of a rythmical 

(8) " Die macht der Liebe || welche || der Welt der Sunde 
und dent Todt || Obsinget || in einen || Trauer Gedicht || 
entworfen || 1705 \\ N. B. 

"W. B. Nach dem unterschiedlichen S'atzen kan auch || 
die Melodie ver cinder t werden ; wiefolget. 

"£rsterSatz; Melod. ' Die Seele ging zu nachsten. 1 

Musical score. 

" Zweiter satz ; Mel. ' Du hast Seele freund] p. p. 

" Dritter satz ; ' Die Seele ging, dfc." 1 

" Vierter satz ; Mel. ' Herr schone Mein." 


; Metemptosis. — In chronology the solar equation necessary to prevent 
the new moon from happening a day too late, or the suppression of the 
bissextile once in 134 years ; as opposed to proemptosis. 

The Disconsolate Soul. 241 

"5i &■> 7i satz >' Mel. '•Die Seele ging zu nachstenS 

" Achter satz (This part was to be spoken.) 

"9 & 10 ; Mel. '•Die Seele ging &C. 1 

" Elfter satz ; Mel. ' O ! Gott dufromer Gott: 267 

" Zwolfler satz (To the enlightened souls, yet in Ye first 

" Melodie || am Ende." 

[The Power of L,ove || which conquers the World, Sin 
& Death || in a Pensive Poem || Composed || 1705. J 

(9) "Bin Verliebtes Girren der || Trostlosen Seele || In 
der Morgen Dammerung || Oder von des Willen || aufuna 
absteig || und still stehen." 

Musical score. 

[A Loving Moan || of the Disconsolate Soul || in the 
Morning Dawn || Or from the Will's Rising, falling & still- 
stand. || As I lay in Christian Warmer's House, very weak, 
in a small Bed, not unlike a Coffin, in May, 1706.J 

Contents : 

"The Soul does desire || To have Nuptial fruit || But as 
she rose hier || To soon in pursute || The Bridegroom slipt 
from her, & left her alone || She wish's to be perfect Re- 
signed, in Moan || So finds she then lastly that most blessed 
one || 25 stanzas." 

(10) " Trost und aufnmnterungs lied || Vor zwei einsamen 
Wittwen in sonderheit gestellet || Allheir aber zu gemeiner 
besten in etwas ver'anderet || bey gelegenheit einer grossen 
Verkdltung, so || Mich uberf alien || 1J06 in Julius." 

Musical score. 

" Mel: ' Was Gott thuet das ist wohlgethan." 

257 Geistreicher Lieder, hymn 303, p. 377, by J. Herman. 


242 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 


faff** ^M.&^y^ # 

1 *l i^i i jW ^ 

Jfu.Jtfuldots ctda 1 *, 

7h* irt'o^nwyj^/ '/ire/H. Att, qtyAer aSm^ 
A*lytf l * & fcfiejftrt Argued, m mxin, 
JofindiJtefUen Wtfy U*t most &/bct oh* - - 

^/tiul it>€a* . in \fty/irtne , 
toft*, ihejb&feft /JSt'rt . 


Fac-simile of a English Page of Kei.pius' Hymnal. 

Description of Kelpius. 243 

(11) " Der 121 Psalm DavicPs\\ Trostlich von einen an 
dem auser den 5 & 6 || Gesetz entworfen." 

[The 121 Psalin of David || comfortably paraphras'd. ] 
" Mel. ' Barmherziger treuer Gott. ' (Chriazo Rosenroth.) 
Musical score. 
Eight stanzas. 

(12) " Ich Liebe Jesum nur Allein." 
[The best choice.] 

Musical score, Mel. 

A late magazine writer, in commenting upon this col- 
lection of raphsodical poems, states : " The judicious bio- 
graphical student who brings to the consideration of the 
character of Kelpius an appreciative and unbiased mind, 
will find in these hymns evidence of undoubted sincerity, 
mingled with a spiritual exaltation bordering on fanaticism. 
There is little doubt that this lonely man, given to inces- 
sant contemplation and continually thrown in upon him- 
self, came at last to regard his mental visions as a veritable 
new apocalypse ; and the position of authority which he 
early attained, — the spiritual headship which his purity of 
life and great learning procured for him, — must have tended 
to fortify his belief in the semi-celestial character of his 

Johannes Kelpius was small of stature, slight in frame, 
and suffered from an affection or paralysis of the left eyelid. 
It is a curious coincidence that several of the noted religi- 
ous leaders of the last century had some marked peculiarity 
about their eyes, — Kelpius, Beissel, Whitefield, Muhlen- 
berg and others. In addition to the above infirmity, Kel- 
pius was of a frail constitntion, which soon broke down 

244 ^he Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

under frugal fare and abstemious habits and the extremes 
of our variable climate. 

A succession of heavy colds was the result, aggravated 
by the custom which Kelpius had of retiring to a cave in 
the hillside for study and contemplation. 

This cave, sixteen feet long by nine feet wide and eight 
feet high, 258 as before stated, was not a natural formation, 
but was built for his uses. 259 It was about two hundred yards 
from the Tabernacle, near a cold spring of water, which to 
the present day is known as the Kelpius' Spring on the 

According to the Ephrata MSS., this cell or cave was 
known as the " L,aurea," and was originally fitted up with 
much taste and ingenuity, containing, besides many books, 
curious utensils for chemical and philosophical purposes. 

Finally the repeated colds turned into consumption, and 
in the winter of 1705-6 he became so feeble that his life 
was despaired of. It was then that he was removed to the 
humble home of the Warmer family in Germantown, where 
he was tenderly nursed by Christiana Warmer. How re- 
signed the devout sufferer was during his illness is shown by 
the last three lines of the twenty-fifth stanza of his hymn, — 

" Therefore kiss, or correct, Come to me or Go, 
Give Presents, or take them : bring Joy, or bring Wo, 
If I can but have thee, thy will may be so." 26 ° 

It was less than two months after his temporary recovery 
and return to the Tabernacle (May, 1706), that we again 
find him suffering from a relapse, having, as he himself 
writes, a "great cold." 

258 p rom actual measurement. 

259 See frontispiece. 

260 << Drum Kusse und zuchtige, komme und geh, 
Beschenke, entziehe, bring freude, bring weh, 
Wann ich dich habe, dein wille gescheh." 

Christian Warmer. 245 

[Christian Warmer, the tailor of Germantown, whose 
wife Christiana was the good Samaritan of the Theosophical 
enthusiasts, was also strongly imbued with the mystical 
teachings of Kelpius and his followers, and remained stead- 

(y>l & f-i/itfl ^frtflltfr sion until his death, 

which occurred in 
the spring of 1728. His peculiar ideas of the future state 
are well set forth in his last will and testament : 

" In the Name of God amen. The 26 day of April in the year of our 
Lord 1728, I, Christian Warmer of Germantown in the County of Philada 
& province of Pennsylvania taylor, being of perfect mind and memory 
(for which I return hearty thanks to God my Heavenly Father) calling to 
mind the frailty of this Transitory life & that it is appointed for all men 
once to die Do Make & ordain this my last will & Testant that is to say 
First of all and Principally I Recomend my soul into the hands of Al- 
mighty God, my Heavenly Father who gave it to me & being in a fallen 
& Degenerate State, has again Espoused it a second time to himself, by 
& through the Death & sufferings of his Dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, 
who has purchased it with his bitter & bloody passion, to be his spouse 
& bride, with whom I hope to live & Reign Eternally, and my body to 
the Earth to be buried in a Christian like & desent manner, at the Direc- 
tion of my Execrs hereafter named, Nothing doubting but at the resurec- 
tion of the Just through the merits of Jesus Christ, I shall receive the 
same again, by the mighty power of God, to live & be with my spirit & 
soul united into one Heavenly Creature with my beloved Saviour & 
Redeemer & to Reign with him forever & ever. — Amen."] 

Thus Kelpius lingered and suffered, the disease gradually 
but surely gaining the ascendancy, notwithstanding Doctor 
Witt's " bolus" and the herb decoctions (haus-mittel) of the 
brethren, together with the tender attentions of neighbors 
and friends, who knelt beside him praying for his soul and 
watching his failing breath. He finally succumbed in the 
year 1708, at the early age of thirty-five. 

His whole life had been a preparation to meet the 
heavenly bridegroom, " laying aside all other engagements 

246 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

whatever, trimming his lamp and adorning himself with 
that white silky holiness and golden righteousness that he 
might be found worthy." 

Among the musty archives in the library of the Francke 
Institutions or Orphange at Halle, on the Saale, in Saxony, 
there is an old manuscript that gives a curious account of 
the death of Magister Kelpius. This paper is in the hand- 
writing of Pastor Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, and sets 
forth that in the year of his arrival in Pennsylvania (1742) 
Daniel Geissler, a trustworthy man of over sixty years of 
^» /t *n *i st age, and the former 

Y^/K^. s?f Lf&j /^//£.p famulus andconfiden- 
i/^^ / Zf*'*^T* tial assistant of Kel- 
£s pius, gave to him the 

following interesting particulars of the death of the 
Magister : 

" Kelpius among other things was of the firm belief that 
he would not die a natural death, and that his body would 
not decay, but that he would be transformed, transfigured, 
overshadowed and, like Elijah, be translated bodily into 
the spiritual world. 

" As his last hours drew near and the forerunners of disso- 
lution, the Magister spent three long days and nights in 
praying to God, struggling and supplicating that, in his 
case, the Lord Sabaoth would receive him bodily as he did 
Enoch and Elias of old, and that there might be no actual 
dissolution, but that body and soul might remain intact 
and be .transfigured and received in the flesh. 

" At last, on the third day, after a long silence he ceased 
his pleadings, and, addressing himself to his faithful famu- 
lus, said : ' My beloved Daniel, I am not to attain that 
which I aspired unto. I have received my answer. It is 

The Mysterious Casket. 247 

that dust I am, and to dust I am to return. It is ordained 
that I shall die like unto all children of Adam.' 

" Kelpius thereupon handed Geissler a box or casket, 
which was well secured and sealed, and told him to carry 
it to the Schuylkill, where the water was deep, and cast it 
into the river. Geissler took the casket as far as the river 
bank, and being of somewhat an inquisitive nature, con- 
cluded to hide the casket until after his master's death, and 
then possess himself of the secret of its contents. 

" Upon his return Kelpius raised himself up and, with out- 
stretched hand, pointing to his famulus, looked him sharply 
in the eyes, and said : ' Daniel, thou hast not done as I bid 
thee, nor hast thou cast the casket into the river, but hast 
hidden it near the shore.' Geissler, now more than ever 
convinced of the occult powers of the dying Magister, 
without even stammering and excuse, hurried to the river 
bank, and threw the casket into the water as he was 

The MS. goes on to state that as the mysterious casket 
touched the water the " Arcanum" exploded, and for a time 
flashes of lightning and peals like unto thunder came from 
out of the water. 

When Geissler again returned to the bedside of Kelpius 
at the Tabernacle, the latter told him that now was accom- 
plished the task he had given him. A few days after this 
episode the pious Magister entered into rest. All tradition 
seems to agree that his remains were consigned to a grave 
within the orchard or garden belonging to the Tabernacle 
over which he had so long and faithfully presided. 

Such of the brethren as were left of the original Com- 
munity performed the last rites according to the impressive 
ritual of the Mystic Fraternity. 

It was shortly before sunset that the cortege with the 

348 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

bier solemnly filed out of the Saal of the Tabernacle, the 
Mystics chanting a solemn " De Profundis," ranging them- 
selves in a circle around the open grave. The coffin was 
then placed over the opening until the orb of day was far 
down in the west. As the last rays were seen, at a given 
signal from Seelig, who was now Magister, the body was 
lowered into the grave. At the same instant a snow-white 
dove was released from a hamper, and winged its flight 
heavenward ; while the Brethern looking upward and with 
uplifted hands, repeated thrice the invocation: " Gott gebe 
ihn eine seilige auferstehung." [God grant him a blessed 
resurrection.] m 

The following eulogium, taken from the Ephrata MSS., 
is attributed to Prior Jaebetz (Rev. Peter Miller, the suc- 
cessor of Beissel). It was evidently written by a scholar, 
and one who had access to writings of Kelpius which are 
now unavailable. It shows the estimation in which the 
pious recluse on the Wissahickon was held during the last 

" Kelpius educated in one of the most distinguished 
Universities of Europe, and having had advantage of the 
best resources for the acquirement of knowledge, was cal- 
culated to edify and enlighten those who resorted to him 
for information. He had particularity made great progress 
in the study of ancient lore, and was quite proficient in 
theology. He was intimately acquainted with the principal 
works of the Rabbins, the Heathen and Stoic philosophers, 
the Fathers of the Christian Church, and the Reformers. 
He was conversant with the writings of Tertullian, St. 

261 If this story of the dove is historical, it is a survival of high interest. 
Dion Cassius, in an impressive account of the funeral by the Emperor 
Pertinax, of which he was an eye-witness, tells us that an eagle was tied 
to the funeral pyre. When the flames burnt the rope, the eagle mounted 
to the clouds, as the soul of Pertinax to the Gods. 

The Oracle at Delphos. 


Jerome, St. Augustine, St. Cyprian, 
Chrysostom, Ambrose, Tauler, Eck, 
Myconius, Carlstadt, Hedio, Faber, 
Osiander, L,uther, Zwingle and 
others, whose opinions he would fre- 
quently analyse and expound with 
much animation. He was also a 
strict disciplinarian, and kept atten- 
tion constantly directed inwards 
upon self. To know self, he contended, is the first and most 
essential of all knowledge. Thales the Milesian, he main- 
tained, was the author of the precept, ' Know thyself,' which 
was adopted by Chilo the Dacedomonican, and is one of the 
three inscriptions which, according to Pliny, was conse- 
crated at Delphos by golden letters, and acquired the 
authority of a divine oracle ; it was supposed to have been 
given by Apollo, of which opinion Cicero has left a record. 
(Cujus praecipiti tauta viz Delphico Deo tributor Cicero.) 
He directed a sedulous watchfulness over the temper, incli- 
nations and passions, and applauded very much the Counsel 
of Marcus Aurelius : ' Look within ; for within is the 
fountain of good.' " 

Thus lived and died Johann Kelpius, the first Magister 
of the Theosophical Community on 
the Wissahickon, whose history is 
so filled with romance and mystery. 
Learned and devout, he sacrificed 
his life in the interests of humanity, 
and in preparing himself and his fol- 
lowers for the millennium which 
he believed was near at hand. 
No other of the early settlers has 

Seal of the German Society 
ever attracted the attention of of Philadelphia. 


250 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

students of Pennsylvanian history, or excited so much 
speculation, as this meek and gentle Transylvanian philoso- 
pher. Although his last resting-place is unmarked, and 
known only from vague tradition, his memory has never- 
theless been kept green in song and prose. The most 
notable instance of the former is Whittier's " Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim," and such parts of it as allude to the subject of 
our sketch will prove a fitting close to this chapter : 

Or painful Kelpius from his hermit den 
By Wissahickon, maddest of good men, 
Dreamed o'er the Chiliast dreams of Petersen. 

Deep in the woods, where the small river slid 
Snake-like in shade, the Helmstadt Mystic hid, 
Weird as a wizard over arts forbid, 

Reading the books of Daniel and of John, 

And Behmen's Morning-Redness, through the Stone 

Of Wisdom, vouchsafed to his eyes alone, 

Whereby he read what man ne'er read before, 
And saw the visions man shall see no more, 
Till the great angel, striding sea and shore, 

Shall bid all flesh await, on land or ships, 
The warning trump of the Apocalypse, 
Shattering the heavens before the dread eclipse. 


i^^F all the characters con- 
yj nected with the Theo- 
*" sophical experiment 
in the New World none stands 
out in bolder relief than Hen- 
rich Bernhard Koster, one of 
the original promoters of the 
enterprise. To the compara- 
arms of chur-brandenburg, 1694. tive few who thus far knew 
his name, he is in fact the most heroic figure in the history 
of the German Pietists of Pennsylvania. Pious, devout, 
learned, courageous and combative, he not only boldly pro- 
claimed to the settlers of the young province the Gospel 
according to the orthodox Lutheran faith, but was ever 
ready to take up the gauntlet when thrown before him. 
Nor did he hesitate for an instant to follow his opponents 
into their strongholds, and in their very midst to fearlessly 
proclaim his convictions, fortifying them with quotations 
from the Scriptures. 

Nation or race made no difference to this devout enthu- 
siast. Casting aside for the time his mystical doctrines and 

252 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Rosicrucian speculations, he preached the plain Gospel with 
untiring energy and zeal among both English, Welsh and 

The seed sown by him at Germantown at the humble 
home of Isaac Van Bebber, upon that natal day of the holy 
St. John in 1694, struck root, grew and spread until its in- 
fluence permeated the whole Province. Upon that day 
began the movement which was to lead the settlers from 
the apathy into which they had sunken back to vital 
religion and established church forms. 

It is true that Swedish Lutheran services were held in 
Pennsylvania for almost half a century prior to Penn's 
coming, and for some years afterwards. But these were 
held only for the Swedes. No effort whatever was made 
either by Fabricius or L,ock to extend the faith among the 
Quakers and Germans who were nocking to these shores. 282 

262 The following documents have come to light since writing the notices 
of this clergyman in two previous chapters of this book (notes 32 and 99). 
The first is a letter from Governor Francis Lovelace of New York, and 
explains itself, — 

" Fort James in New York this 13th day of Ap' 1670. 
" CAPt Carr. 

" Upon the request of Magister Jacobus Fabritius Pastor of the Lutheran 
Confession comonly called the Augustan who by the Duke's Lycence hath 
a Congregation here, I have granted my Pass to him, & his Wife to go to 
Newcastle or any Place in Delaware River, I pray shew him all Civil 
Respect when he comes amongst you, & take care he receive no Affront 
there, & I presume he will comport himself wth gt Civility & Moderacon 
so as to give no just occasion of offence to others. I am 
"Your very loving Friend, 

"Francis Lovelace." 

The other document, an extract from the proceedings of the Council, 
gives us an insight into the subsequent private life and behavior of this 
clergyman : — 

" Att a Councel September 15th 1675. 

" Magister Jacobus Fabricius being Ordered by Special Warrt to make 
his personal Appearance before the Governor here ; to Answer to a Com- 

The Establishment of Church Services. 253 

It was left to Koster to take the initiative, and boldly 
raise his voice immediately upon his arrival among both 
Germans and English, and to institute services intended to 
induce the settlers to renew their fealty to orthodox religion ; 
no matter whether to the English Church as by law estab- 
lished or to the faith of the Fatherland. 

It is from the advent of the German Pietists in 1694 that 
we must date the religious revival in the Province. The 
results of Koster's efforts were widespread : they were not 
confined to Anglicans and Lutherans, but also stimulated 
the Baptists, Presbyterians and so-called Sabbatarians to 
organize in Pennsylvania. Finally, when, after a sojourn 
of seven years in the Province, the German philosopher 
became convinced that, on account of the changed religious 
situation, his usefulness as an evangelist was at an end, he 
returned to his native country, and resumed his Theo- 
sophical studies. He lived to a ripe old age, almost round- 
ing out a century, and died in an institution connected with 
the Lutheran Church. 

Unfortunately our estimates of the character and services 
of this pioneer have hitherto been based upon the accounts 
of his religious or personal antagonists, or of such as were 
ignorant of the true motives that inspired him, and the 
facts that guided him in his course in America. It is 
hoped that the matter now presented will place this devout 
enthusiast in a new light, and give him his proper position 
among the religious leaders of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Henrich Bernhard Koster (Kiister or Koster, as he was 

plaint made against him by the High Sheriff and Court at Newcastle in 
Delaware, for causing a Disturbance and Uproar against the Magistrates. 
" It is Ordered that the said Magister Fabricius, in Regard of his being 
Guilty of what is lay'd to his Charge and his former irregular Life and 
Conversation, be Suspended from Exercising his Function as a Minister, 
or Preaching any more within the Governmt either in Publick or Private. ' ' 

254 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

generally known in America), was born in November, 1662, 
in the little town of Blumenberg, in the Principality of 
Iyippe, in Westphalia. His parents were Rudolph Kiister, 
Burgomaster and leading merchant of his native district, 
and Frau Anna Catherina Blurnen von Schwalenberg, 
a sister of Simon Heinrich Blumen, privy-councellor of 
Detmold. The Burgomaster was not a man of classical 
education, but he was endowed with good sense. 

The subject of this sketch was the eldest of three brothers 
who composed the Kiister family, and all upon attaining 
their majority became men of note. L,udolph, the noted 
literary critic and linguist, was born in 1667, eventually 
entered the Roman Church, and became the superintendent 
of the Royal Library in Paris, where he procured the col- 
lation of the famous Ephrem Palimpsest. 263 

The youngest brother, Johann, also became a leading 
citizen in his native district. It was his son, L,udolph, who 
studied law, and afterwards became noted as the bailiff 
(Amtmanri) to the Countess of Schaak at Ingenhausen. 

Young Henrich received the rudiments of instruction 
in the common schools of Blumenberg, where he was taught 
by Pastor Vogelsang. When the latter was called to Det- 
mold as assistant rector, his student accompanied him, 
and remained four years under his instruction, perfecting 
himself in L,atin, Hebrew and Greek, beside his other 

At the age of fifteen he went to Bremen with the express 
intention of studying law and philosophy at the Gymna- 
sium of that city. He, however, devoted himself mainly 

263 It was the intention of the parents that young Ludolph should become 
a merchant and succeed his father. He, however, showed so great a pro- 
clivity for books and learning that his elder brother commenced to lead 
him into classical studies, continuing his supervision over him, even when 
the latter attended school in Berlin. 

Koster as Pedagogue. 255 

to the study of the philosophy of Descartes, 264 and attended 
the lectures of Schwelings. 

After a sojourn there of five years he went to Frankfort 
on the Oder, where he studied law for three years, leaving 
the University in 1684, and ending his academic days at 
the age of twenty-two. Koster had a natural inclination 
to teach or impart knowledge, and at once started upon a 
career as tutor. He made his debut as pedagogue at Kiis- 
terin, in the family of Aulic-councillor Polemius, where he 
remained about a year. 

In his curriculum he abandoned the old methods of 
instruction then in vogue, whereby the minds of the scholars 
were strained, but attempted rather to interest his pupils 
by rational discourses, delivered in an agreeable and impres- 
sive manner. 

This system of instruction became known to Pfarrer Stos, 
a Berlin divine, who in turn brought it to the notice of the 
Brandenburger privy-councillor, Baron Orten von Schwerin. 
The councillor was so much pleased with the new method 
that he asked Koster to instruct in this manner his three 
sons, Carl, Friedrich and Orten. A satisfactory agreement 
having been arrived at, Koster came to Berlin and was 
installed as resident tutor. This was in the year 1685 ; he 
remained in charge for seven years, dividing his time 
between the estates of his patron in Berlin and Landsberg. 

The father of the Baron of Schwerin was a consistent 
Lutheran, and was greatly grieved at the course of his son 
in affiliating with the Reformed Church. Every induce- 

264 Rene Descartes (Kartesius), a celebrated French philosopher, born 
1596. Died at Stockholm, February n, 1650. He advanced far beyond 
his predecessors, and if he had done nothing besides introducing a spirit 
of inquiry into the mysterious operations of nature, he would have labored 
much for the benefit of mankind. 

256 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

ment was offered to the son to adhere to the faith of his 
fathers, but even the promise of an increased patrimony 
failed to alter the course of the Baron. During this con- 
troversy between father and son, the former had greatly 
increased his library, mainly with orthodox standard and 
controversial theological literature. 

To this collection the young tutor had free access, and 
there came upon the famous English Polyglot, 266 a work 
that interested him above all others. He now improved 
his opportunity to perfect himself in Greek and Hebrew, 
and although jurisprudence had thus far been his specialty, 
he at once commenced to study such of the Eastern lan- 
guages as were used in the polyglot translation. 

He even went so far as to interest his patron by calling 
his attention to the preface of Brian Walton, 266 showing him 

265 This work, one of the " four great Polyglots," is usually known as 
the London or Walton's Polyglot, from the fact that it was published in 
that capital under the editorship of Brian Walton. This great work was 
completed in the midst of persecution and civil war. It consists of six 
volumes, folio, with two supplementary volumes (London, 1654-57), 
exhibiting the text in nine different languages : Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, 
Samaritan, Arabic, ^Ethiopic, Persian, Greek and Latin. The whole is 
based upon the Paris Polyglot (Le Jay, 1645), with many additions and 
improvements. A copy of this work was brought to America by Koster, 
and formed a part of the library of the Community, where it remained 
when he returned to Europe. Subsequently it came into the possession 
of the Sprogel brothers, and is now in the library of Christ Church in 

266 Brian Walton was born in Cleveland, Yorkshire, in 1600, and was 
educated at Cambridge, where he took the degree of Master of Arts in 
1623. During the Civil War he sided with the King, and was consequently 
obliged to take shelter at Oxford, where he formed the scheme for his 
polyglot Bible. Doctor Walton had several assistants in his laborious un- 
dertaking, of whom the principal was Dr. Edmund Castell. On the 
restoration of Charles II, to whom he presented his Bible, with a new 
dedication (the original one to Oliver Cromwell having been cancelled), 
he was made one of the royal chaplains ; and in 1660 he was raised to the 
Bishopric of Chester. He died in London, 1661. 

Translation of the Old Testament. 257 

how the Briton proved conclusively that the accepted 
Hebrew text of the Old Testament had been tampered with, 
and that the Septuagint translation had been made before 
the interpolations were added, and it therefore contained 
the veritable Divine Word of the Old Dispensation. 267 

These representations induced Baron von Schwerin to 
examine the polyglot and read the introduction by Walton. 
He, too, became of the opinion of his tutor that the deduc- 
tions of the Briton seemed feasible. He thereupon con- 
cluded to refresh his knowledge of Greek, and make a 
translation of the Septuagint into the German tongue. So 
patron and tutor studied Greek together, and translated the 
Old Testament from the Septuagint into German. They 
began with the Psalms, proceeded with the Pentateuch of 
Moses and so on, until the whole had been translated and 

After the work was completed, it was finely engrossed 
upon quarto sheets, illuminated and bound up into several 
volumes. This monumental work is still preserved in the 
archives of the Schwerin family. 

It is an easy matter to see how close the intercourse and 
friendship became between the two men, separated as they 
were by their social positions, and what favors the tutor 
could have asked, if he had been so disposed, from a patron 
who had so great an influence with the reigning House of 
Brandenburg. Indeed more than once was the tutor offered 
a suitable provision. His reply was, when offered a lucra- 
tive appointment under the former prince, " I am a Dutheran, 
and therefore must not serve a Reformed master, or go to 
a court where there are so many opportunities for sin." 

267 Besides the Latin of the Vulgate there is an interlineary Latin trans- 
lation of the Hebrew. Though nine languages are used, yet no one book 
appears in so many. Vide, note 265. 


258 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

It was while at Berlin that Koster became interested in 
the Pietistic movement, which had taken root and was 
spreading over northern Germany. Joining a local Colle- 
gium Pietatis, he became acquainted with Horbius, and 
through him with John Jacob Zimmermann. When, finally, 
the movement fell under the bans of both church and 
state, and it was decided to form a Chapter of Perfection to 
emigrate to the new World, we find Koster actively sec- 
onding Zimmermann in his efforts to secure transportation 
for the party, and concessions from Penn's representatives 
in Holland. 

After the issuing of the various edicts, the suppression 
of the Collegium at Frfurth, and the 
expulsion of Francke, it was decided 
to establish two central rallying-poiuts 
prior to the final embarkation at Rot- 
terdam. Magdeburg, on the Elbe, in 
Saxony, and Halberstadt, were the two 
places selected on account of their ac- 
cessibility and freedom from judicial 

Arms of Rotterdam. interference. 

Koster journeyed from Berlin to the former place, and 
there joined Seelig, Kelp, Biedermann, Falkner, and about 
twenty others. This contingent elected Koster as their 
leader, and when the time arrived, 
started, as was then the custom, 
on foot, staff in hand, and knap- 
sack on back, upon their pilgrim- 
age to America by way of Hol- 
land. Here the two parties were 
united, and the final preparations 
were made to embark for the prov- 
ince of Penn, under the auspices 

Of Benjamin Furly. Arms of Magdeburg. 

Erudition of Koster. 


The success in obtaining transportation for so large a 
party was mainly due to the efforts of Koster. It appears 
that Benjamin Furly and Eudolph Koster, then living at 
Amsterdam, 268 were intimately acquainted ; and it was 
mainly through the intercession of the Koster brothers that 
the experiment was *, 
How on the eve of Jf 
chief promoter, Mag 1 1 
died, and Kelpius | 
place, together with J 

on the "Sara Maria" ill 
told in previous ^lilj 


made possible. 

|||ij|. embarkation, the 

II' ister Zimmermann, 

I was chosen in his 

I 11 the eventful voyage 

II lil m has all been 
jjlljjP' chapters. 

The Rev. Ernest " <( «li!^^^ r ^ Eudwig Rathelf, 
pastor of Langen arms of Amsterdam, hausen, near Han- 
over, was a close friend of Koster after his return to Europe. 
In referring to the period we are now concerned with, 
Rathelf, under whose charge Koster was then living at the 
Hanover Orphanage, states : " Our Herr Koster is a Luth- 
eran, and has always adhered strictly to the dogmas and 
teachings of his church ; carefully investigated them, and 
held fast unto them. In his youth he was taught the two 
sacred languages, and he was thus able to read God's holy 
Word in their original tongues and purity. In his study 
of jurisprudence, he never neglected an opportunity to 
obtain a clear insight into theology." 

While in the employment of the Baron of Schwerin, the 
finding of the polyglot not only urged him to perfect him- 
self in the two languages, but also to learn to speak and 
read other tongues, and to inquire further into spiritual 

Koster was endowed with a remarkable memory, with- 
out which no linguist can succeed. His mind retained 

268 Memoirs of Zacharias von Uffenbach. 

z6o The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

everything which was entrusted to it, and the matter could 
be recalled with ease and rapidity. He could repeat ver- 
batim, in Hebrew and Greek, all the Psalms, the whole of 
Isaiah, and other books of the Old Testament. He was 
equally felicitous in his knowledge of the New Testament. 
It was far easier for him to recall any quotation from the 
Bible than to find it in a concordance. This peculiar prop- 
erty of his mind enabled him to repeat to others his spiritual 
deductions, and to defend himself in controversy. 

The society with which he went to America therefore 
elected him as their general instructor ; and he acceded to 
their wishes. He frequently spoke to his fellow-passengers 
about spiritual matters, and when Sunday came he preached 
to them a regular sermon, wherein he especially exhorted 
them to remain steadfast to the Lutheran Church. Several 
of his company were somewhat clouded, and seemed defi- 
cient in holiness, and in certain articles of the faith. More- 
over, he foresaw trouble when these persons would come to 
a country where they might be led astray by the Quaker 
doctrine. He therefore devoted all his energies to lead the 
erring ones aright, and fortify them against all such temp- 
tation. What he had done on shipboard he continued in 
Germantown, where there was a lack of spiritual teachers. 
As previously stated, Koster did not confine his ministra- 
tions to the German-speaking population, but also went 
among the English, preaching both in Germantown and 
Philadelphia, as soon as he learned that his English hearers 
were sincere in their search after spiritual enlightment. 

Rathelf mentions that George Keith took passage for 
Europe about the same time that Koster sailed for America, 
and that the former left many followers behind him, who 
now wandered about like unto sheep without a herdsman. 
When Koster arrived he knew nothing about, or the pecu- 
liar schism that had been fomented among the Quakers. 

The Founding of Christ Church. 261 

But when he learned of the situation, he at once began to 
instruct his people and friends upon Sunday and other days, 
and to impress upon his hearers such doctrines as the 
Quakers failed in. 

The Keithians soon found this out, and when they heard 
that he preached to the multitudes of the Saviour's death, 
His merits, His ascension, the use of the Scriptures and 
of the ordinances they flocked in crowds to listen to his 

It was these Keithians whom Koster, not knowing them 
at first, took for enemies. But he soon learned to know 
both them and their sentiments, and led them straightway 
from the ways of the Quakers. The large number of 
Bibles and prayer-books m which he received from England 
were a material aid to him, as they were scarce among the 

The Friends naturally made every effort to heal the old 
schism, and induce the seceders to return. But, the regu- 
lar Church services organized by Koster, and the Orthodox 
Lutheran doctrine preached by him, considerably changed 
the situation. It inspired new hope and courage in the 
Keithians, and they even went so far as to again enter the 
meetings, and boldly refute some of the Quaker tenets. 

The teachings of Henrich Bernhard Koster, however, 
had even a more extended effect upon the religious situa- 
tion of the Province, for they increased among the English 
and Welsh, a longing for regular services according to 
the ritual of the English Church. This was the case not 
only in the hearts and minds of the followers of Keith, but 

269 This incident has already been noticed at length on page 68 of this 
work. There can be no question whatever that Koster used the Book of 
Common Prayer in his English services, as did the Swedish pastors, Rud- 
mann, Sandel and others under similar circumstances. 

263 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

also in others who had been brought up in the Church prior 
to becoming followers of Fox and Penn. This longing 
for church services as by law established took shape under 
the guidance of Koster, and within eighteen months after 
his arrival in the Province (November 15, 1695), a piece 
of ground was secured in the city of Philadelphia for 
church purposes, subject to an agreement between Griffith 
Jones and Joshua Carpenter. 

This lot, upon which Christ Church now stands, con- 
tained one hundred feet fronting on Second Street, and 
one hundred and thirty-two feet in depth. 270 

The pecuniary consideration was a yearly rental of 
"tenne pounds of curant silver money of ye Province." 
This ground rent could be extinguished for ^"150 at any 
time within fifteen years. There was nothing whatever 
stated in the indenture to show or prove that the ground 
was secured for church or burial purposes. 271 

m A strip of land of forty feet on Second Street north of this lot was 
eventually purchased, making the total frontage of the Church property 
140 feet. 

271 It will be noticed that the conveyance, although dated on November 
5, 1695-6, was not consummated until four months later, March 5, 1695-6. 
There is not a single word in the indenture to indicate that the ground 
was to be held for any specific purpose. Upon the face it is a conveyance 
in fee-simple from Griffith Jones to Joshua Carpenter, subject to the above- 
mentioned ground-rent, which, had it not been extinguished within the 
limit of fifteen years, would have become an irredeemable incumbrance. 
It was extinguished by a deed made April 4, 1702, and acknowledged in 
open court in a Court of Common Pleas, June 4, 1702. (Deed not on 

On the 20th of July following, Joshua Carpenter signed a declaration 
which set forth the uses for which this ground was originally intended. 
After reciting the original deed and its extinguishment, it sets forth : 
" To all Christian People to whom these presents shall come : 

" And Whereas, fifty pounds part of the consideration money was the 
proper monys belonging to the comunity of the church and the other 

Opposition to Lutherans. 263 

The witnesses to this historic document were Samuel 
Holt, James Trewalla, Jeremiah Price and J [ohn] Moore. 
It was acknowledged in open court on the 5th day of March, 
1695-6, and has never been placed upon record. 

This attempt to establish the Church of England in the 
very stronghold o'f Quakerdom naturally added fuel to the 
flame of religious excitement in the Province, and increased 
the bitter feeling which the Quaker leaders bore against 
the German religious enthusiast. So great became the 
hatred of the Friends and others against the Lutherans, on 
account of Koster's successful efforts in establishing the 
congregation, that when William Davis, in one of his 
numerous disputes with the Orthodox Friends, suggested 
the appointment of a Swedish pastor as referee, the request 

hundred pounds residue thereof was advanced and taken upon interest 
by the said Joshua Carpenter for the use of the said church and the said 
Joshua Carpenter's name from time to time used only in trust the said 
piece of ground being always designed to be appropriated for a Church 
and Cemetary and the buildings and other improvements being compleated 
with the stock and joint charge of the members thereof : 

" NOW know Ye that the said Joshua Carpenter doth hereby acknow- 
ledge and declare that his name was used in the aforesaid deeds by the 
speciall nomination and appointment of the community of the said 
Church and for their use and benefitt and the Sd part of the lott of land 
is intended for a Cemetery or Church-yard and the Church and other 
premises are to be perpetually appropriated and used for the publick wor- 
ship of God and for the better instruction of the people inhabiting and to 
inhabit in Philadelphia aforesaid in the true Christian religion as it is now 
professed in the Church of England and established by the laws of the 
said Realm and to no other use or uses whatsoever the Wardens for the 
time being paying interest to the Sd Joshua Carpenter his executors ad- 
ministrators or Assigns from time to time for the sum of one hundred 
pounds till the principall mony shall be paid in out of the publick stock. 

" In witness whereof the said Joshua Carpenter hath hereunto sett his 
hand and seal this twentieth day of July 1702." 

The witnesses to the Indenture were Jonathan Dickinson, Charles 
Plumly, John White, and John Moore. 

The document is not upon record. 

264 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

was refused, with the remark that the Lutherans were as 
" bad as Indians or Heathens. 272 Koster, however, was not 
to be diverted from his course ; and in the absence of any 
English clergyman held services according to the Book of 
Common Prayer, whenever a suitable room was to be 

In referring to this movement he states : — " Here, then, 
there is an opening for a great harvest, which the Lord 
opens for us wider and wider, giving us strength to make 
his Philadelphiac Word a foundation on which Jerusalem 
can descend from above." 

This feeling against the Lutherans, upon the part of the 
Quakers, was not a new thing, but dates back to some time 
prior to the arrival of the German Pietists. It arose in this 
manner. One Charles Christopher Springer, a Swedish 
schoolmaster at Wicacoa, who, as the old record states, was 
" a plain, honest, pious man, but devoid of talents," m made 
a determined effort, after the incapacity and death of Fabri- 
tius, to maintain some show of church services among 
his countrymen, until a regular pastor should arrive from 
Sweden in response to their repeated petitions. 

These services were strictly according to the Lutheran 
doctrine, the sermon always being read from Luther's " Pos- 
tilla." It appears that they attracted the notice of the 
Welsh beyond the Schuylkill river, and the Quakers, fearing 
that this might alienate the former from their fold, at- 
tempted to prevent both the Welsh and the Swedes from 
crossing the Schuylkill on Sundays, so that they could 
not attend the services. 

272 "Jesus the Crucifyed man," p. 18. 

273 As a matter of fact Springer appears to have been a man of thorough 
education, as he was an attache of the Swedish minister in England, 
whence he was abducted and carried off to Virginia, where he was sold 
into bondage. After serving as a slave for five years he made his escape, 
and found a home with those of his own nationality on the Delaware. 

Persecution of Swedish Lutherans. 265 

This action upon the part of the local authorities was 
met by a protest and petition from the Swedes to Gov. 
Benjamin Fletcher of New York, as soon as the news came 
of his appointment to the governorship of Pennsylvania 
under the Crown. 

This petition was read before the Provincial Council on 
May 11, 1693, his Excellency Gov. Fletcher presiding. In 
this paper " they sett forth that their meeting house is on 
the other side the river : that they live three miles distant 
from the ferry, and that they are restrained from passing 
the river the nearest way to their worship on Sundays & 
Holydays by Philip England, keeper of the ferry att 
Schuilkill." «' 

Governor Fletcher, as the minutes of the Council state, 
" did offer his Inclinations to remove any obstruction that 
might be given to the worship of God, and his regard to 
the Interest of the proprietarie in the ferry, desiring the 
CouncilPs advice." 

The members of the Council present at the meeting — 
Andrew Robeson, Robert Turner, Pat. Robinson, Lawrence 
Cock, Wm. Clarke — gave as their opinion, "That the 
petitioners may have Iyibertie granted them to transport 
themselves over the river to & from their worship, pro- 
vided they doe not abuse this L,ibertie to other ends, to 
the prejudice of the ferry." 

Koster's course of action, together with the opposition 
of the Quaker leaders, made many enemies for him among 
his countrymen as well as among the English, and culmi- 

274 Philip England established the first regular ferry across the Schuyl- 
kill. He held his license under the hand and seal of William Penn, 
dated the 16th of 8ber, 1683. This grant was confirmed by order of Gov. 
Fletcher, dated the 29th of April, 1694, and further by a lease from the 
Lieut. Governor, in behalf of the Proprietor, for a certain term of years at 
an annual rental of seven pounds. 


266 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

nated in a disagreement with his fellow-mystics on the 
Wissahickon, and his retirement with a few others from 
the Community in the forest. 

How he attempted to start a somewhat similar Com- 
munity in Plymouth, under the name of " the Brethern in 
America " or " the True Church in Philadelphia," has been 
fully detailed in a former chapter. 275 

Pastorius, in his so-called " Rebuke," refering to Koster 
and his followers (1697), writes : — " They stile themselves 
the Brethern in America, the True Church of Philadelphia 
or Brotherly Love, etc. 

" This sounds mightly afar off, and some silly Women in 
Germany, who may happen to see their pamphlet, which 
probably for that end and purpose was printed in the high 
Dutch tongue™ besides the English will be ready to think 
this Church or Brotherhood something real and consider- 
able. But to undeceive those, who prefer Truth before 
fictions and falsehood, I herewith must inform them that 
all these specious Names and Epithets in the pages above 
quoted, and more others, are mere Kosterian Chimera, an 
idle fancy. He, the said H. B. Koster, arriving here in 
Pensilvania, his heart and head filled with Whimsical and 
boisterous Imaginations, but his hands and Purse emptied 
of the money, which our Friends beyond Sea imparted 
unto him, and some in his Company, was so cunning as to 
intice four or five to a Commonalty of Goods, and so 
settled a Plantation near German-town, upon a tract of 
Land given unto them, calling the same IRENIA ; that is 
to say, the house of Peace, which not long after became 
ERINNIA, the House of raging Contention, and now 
returned to the donor, the Bretheren of America being gone 

275 Page 84-92, ibid. 

2,6 This was the first book printed in the German language in America. 

The Yearly Meeting at Burlington. 267 

and dispersed, and the Church of Philadelphia (falsly so 
called) proving momentary, and of no moment; Mark iii, 

25." ' 

Among the men whose enemity Koster evoked was the 
above-named Daniel Francis Pastorius of Germantown. 
The controversy thus engendered between the two leaders 
became very bitter, and was aggravated still more by the 
occurrences of the following year. 

The breach between the Orthodox Friends and the 
Keithians gradually widened toward the time of Yearly 
Meeting ; but the tact of the Friends prevented the seceders 
from making themselves heard or disturbing their annual 
gathering. In the next year (1696), however, when the 
meeting was to be held at Burlington, New Jersey, some of 
the more aggressive among the Keithians devised a scheme 
to make themselves heard. There were six in the party, 
among whom were Thomas Rutter, Thomas Bowyer, and 
William Davis. 277 As the time approached they called on 
Koster, and invited him to accompany them, but without 
unfolding their plan of action. They merely told him 
that, as Burlington was in West Jersey and was a Protestant 
town and not under Quaker supremacy, they could there 
refute the Quakers assembled without fear of arrest as 
disturbers of public worship. 

According to Koster's account, the Keithian party, on 
the 23d day of September, 1696, took their English Bibles, 
and another book with which they expected to refute the 
Quakers, and journeyed to Burlington. 

Arriving at the place where the Yearly Meeting was 
being held, they found the gathering anything but a peace- 
ful one. Even as they were attempting to enter, they were 
met by a number of Friends who were in the act of expell- 

277 For sketch of William Davis see page 164. 

268 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

ing from the building an old Keithian, a Scotchman by the 
name of George Hutchison. 278 The latter then told the 
party that the meeting had refused to hear him, and as he 
had presisted, had finally expelled him. 

Davis and Rutter now unfolded their plan to Koster, 
requesting him to act as spokesman. This he refused, 
stating that the Quakers would accord to him the same 
treatment as to the luckless Scotchman, and that if they 
did, he would not submit so tamely. 

The Keithians, however, called his attention to a sentence 
in a book by Edward Burrough, wherein he states that 
according to the rules of discipline, any one, when moved 
by the Spirit, can go into a meeting and refute the speaker. 

Four contemporaneous accounts of what followed have 
come down to us. The first is in Koster's own printed 
narrative of what took place. The others are : the MSS. 
of Phineas Pemberton, who was present ; the epistle sent 
by the meeting to the governing body of London ; and an 
entry in the minutes of the ministering Friends. They 
all agree in the salient points. 

Koster's narrative is perhaps the most reliable, on account 
of his extraordinary memory. But as a matter of history, 
Pemberton's account is also printed, thus presenting both 
sides of this controversy, the effects of which proved so 
widespread and portentous. 

Koster, in his account, states that as he still hesitated to 
enter the meeting, the Keithians asked him how they could 
best controvert the doctrine of a spiritual Christ. He 
answered that they must take a clear and convincing verse 
from the Scriptures. While he was speaking he recalled 

2,8 George Hutchison (also spelled Hutcheson and Hutchinson) died in 
1698, and on the ninth of the third month was buried in the Friends' 
ground at Fourth and Arch Streets. — Friends' Records. 

The Demand of the Keithians. 


two verses in the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, viz., chap, 
vii, 27, and ix, 26. There you 
have, said he, in the word, " him- 
self," the smooth pebble to throw at the 
forehead of your Goliah. They then fgg§|i 
all entreated him to do the speaking, as i^mi, 
the Lord had inspired him with both texts, 
and would certainly support him. K6s- ==i 
ter still refused, and argued that they were all older and 
of more standing in the community than himself. Even- 
tually, however, he was forced to accede to their wishes. 

So they went into the building and mingled with the 
people. The meeting, continues Koster, was almost 4000 
strong, 279 and about thirty Quaker preachers were upon the 
raised benches. 

279 This must be an error. The old meeting-house at Burlington, built 
in 1683, was a haxagonal structure, or, as the original draft in the Friends' 
records state, " a six square building of Forty feet square from out to out," 
for which Francis Collings, the builder, received ^"190. A brick addition 
of 30 feet was subsequently (1696) added to this structure, but under no 
circumstances could a building of this size have held anything like that 
number of people. A sketch of this old meeting-house, the scene of the 
Koster episode, is here reproduced ; it is copied from an original painting 
which is still extant. 

270 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The six Keithians stood around him, so that the people 
could not crowd on him when he began to speak. Their 
plan was first to read a quotation from the Quaker book, 
and then ask three times for an audience. Then the Ger- 
man was to make the address. 

It was the custom at the Yearly Meetings for the Friends 
to preach in succession. A number had already spoken ; 
and as one ceased, before another could commence, one of 
the six Keithians (William Davis) addressed the meeting 
thus : " We beg of you, Friends, that you will permit us 
to edify you from the Scriptures." The Quaker, however, 
whose turn it was to speak continued to talk. As he fin- 
ished, the Keithian again raised his voice : " We beg of 
you, Friends, once again that we may edify you with some 
quotations from the Scriptures." Again the request was 
ignored, and the next Friend in turn commenced his 
address. He was not interrupted, but when he had done 
they immediately arose once more, and said : " We beg of 
you, Friends, for the third and last time that you may 
hearken unto us. If you heed us not, we will make our- 
selves heard." The Friends, however, paid no attention to 
the request, and the speaker next in order commenced to 
preach. Then one of the six Keithians stood upon a bench, 
and read in a clear voice the words from the Quaker disci- 
pline : that, according to their own laws, they were bound 
to listen unto them. 

Hereupon Koster stepped out, and began to speak. The 
Friend who was preaching had a weak voice ; Koster, on 
the contrary, had a strong and penetrating one, which he 
now exercised to its fullest extent. 

The volume of sound from the robust German completely 
drowned the weak voice of the Public Friend, who was 
forced to desist. Immediately all the preachers in the 

Exhortation of Kdster. 271 

gallery stood up, and thereby thought to silence the fearless 
Teuton, but he was not to be frightened. His address 
opened with this introduction: "We have begged you 
thrice for a hearing, and did not wish to interrupt any 
speakers. But as you would not have it otherwise, so now 
we shall make ourselves heard. 

" I raise my voice against you in the full conviction of 
the Word of God, to refute from the Holy Scriptures your 
blasphemous doctrine, which is worse than that of the 
heathen of America, namely the doctrine of your spiritual 
Jesus, and that whatever was human in Jesus was dispersed 
among the clouds during his ascension into Heaven." He 
thereupon called their attention to the two quotations from 
the Epistle to the Hebrews : " For this he did once for all 
when he offered up himself " (vii, 27); and, " now once at 
the end of the ages hath he been manifested to put away 
sin by the sacrifice of himself," (ix, 26). Koster pointed 
out to them that He who made the offering and the sacri- 
fice was the entire Jesus ; that the Diety could not have 
become a sacrifice without humanity ; and that since this 
Jesus has once offered Himself, therefore His humanity must 
be imperishable. 

This testimony lasted about half an hour. Finally he 
closed with these words : " Now to-day has the light of the 
Scriptures appeared in the second American darkness, and 
its strength you shall learn, not only here in Burlington, 
but in all the Colonies. I stand prepared to give you an 
account either in writing or orally of my words, and you 
shall learn that you must flee before these two quotations 
of Scripture." 

With these words as a parting admonition, Koster with 
his party left the meeting. The Friends immediately 
spread the report that a number of lunatics had come to 

372 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the meeting, and had jabbered much that no one could 
understand. This proceeding induced the Keithians to ask 
Koster to furnish an account of the affair, which he did and 
it was printed with his consent. 

The full title of this curious work is : " History of the 
" Protestation, done in the publick yearly meating of the 
" Quakers at Burlingtown in the year 1696, by the witness 
"of two remarkable passages, Hebr. vii. 27, and vim. 26, 
" aginst the false doctrine of the Quakers, whereby they 
" revile the blessed human nature of Iesus Christ and its suf- 
" fering, resurrection, ascension, rule over the church and his 
" coming again and the doctrine of the holy sacraments, 
" depending thereupon. Printed and sold by William Brad- 
ford at the Bible in New York 1696." 

The Friends' side of the controversy is thus told by 
Phineas Pemberton, who was present as clerk of the 
Meeting: 280 

"No sooner had George Hutchinson done and left us, 
but up steps divers Germans and Others, who Indeed were 
very Fierce & Violent Opposers, the Chiefest of them was 
one of those called Pietists, his name Henry Barnard Coster, 
whom Friends in London as we hear assisted in their 
Comeing here which (if True) they are very Ungrateful, 
and Forgetful of their Kindnesses Received, For divers of 
them have given Friends here much Exercise & Trouble 
but especially at this Meeting, where they brought divers 
Friends Books with them, some of E. B. Some of W. P's 
& the Clamour that they made against us was, that ' We 
deny the Lord Jesus Christ & they were there to Prove it 
out of these Books but Friends thought it not fit to gratify 
their Jangling Restless Spirits but Continued their Testi- 

280 Verbatim transcript from epistle sent by the Yearly Meeting at Bur- 
lington to the Yearly Meeting at Iyondon, 7mo. 23, 1696, O. S. 


I H 

m x 

■v m 


I s 

i- z 

> 7- 

r "D 

5 O 

5 H 






I - 




Keithian vs. Orthodox. 273 

monys over their heads Raising their Voices & Speaking 
Two or Three or more sometimes together, but the Lords 
Power Weighed & Chained them down & they left us. 
After which we had in the Close of our Meeting a Sweet 
& Quiet time in which Friends were much Solaced & 
United in the Love and Life of Truth." 

The above, continues Rathelf, is not the only thing that 
Koster and the Keithians undertook against the Orthodox 
Quakers. The heart of the former and the courage of the 
latter were strengthened by these various occurrences. 

The Quakers now began a new line of attack, and 
accused the Keithians of being people who failed to prac- 
tice what they preached. The charge was that while they 
continued to advocate the Holy Baptism and the Eucharist, 
they failed to administer either rite. 

" However," continues Rathelf, " the Quakers failed to 
consider that George Keith was a Briton, 281 and had natur- 

281 George Keith was born about 1639 in Scotland, probably in Aber- 
deenshire. He was educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he 
graduated M. A. , 1653-7. He was designed for the Presbyterian ministry, 
but it is uncertain whether he was ever ordained. About 1662 he adopted 
the tenets of the Quakers and promulgated their doctrines, and exercised 
an important influence by providing Barclay with illustrative material for 
his great ' ' Apology. ' ' Keith suffered several terms of imprisonment for 
his conscience sake, after which he, together with Penn, Barclay and 
Furly, made the memorable tour through Holland and Germany ; Furly 
acting as interpreter for the party. Returning to England he was again 

In 1682 he emigrated to East Jersey, where he was appointed surveyor- 
general. Shortly after Penn's arrival he came to Pennsylvania, and 
engaged extensively in writing and propagating the sentiments of the 
Quakers. In 1689 he taught school in Philadelphia. His career here 
was a turbulent one, and ended in the so-called Keithian schism and the 
establishment of the ' ' Christian' ' Quakers, who afterwards became Sab- 
bath-keepers, or Sabbatarians. Keith returned to Europe early in 1694, 
and set up a separate Meeting in London ; he subsequently took orders in 
the Episcopal Church, and returned to America as a missionary in 1702 ; 


274 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

ally been imbued with English ideas regarding the neces- 
sity of priestly ordination ; that without such, none could 
administer either ordinance," 

Our Koster, however, was a Lutheran, and had entirely 
different conception respecting priestly ordination. He 
believed that in cases of emergency, where no ordained 
priest was to be found, any Christian was justified and had 
the right, when it was required of him, to baptize and 
administer the Holy Eucharist. 

To remove the above aspersion and refute the charges 
of the Quakers, Koster resolved to publicly baptize such 
of the Keithians as were born within the Quaker fold, and 
had therefore not been baptized. The Keithians, in con- 
sidering this matter, concluded to conform to the Scripture 
text as nearly as possible, and asked that the ordinance be 
administered in the Apostolic manner, by immersion, to 
such of their number as presented themselves. 

The place selected for this public profession of faith was 
the river Delaware, just above the city. 282 However, as 
the time approached, there were only a few men who 
remained steadfast and were willing to offer themselves 
as living examples of their convictions in the face of the 
ridicule of their Quaker relatives and neighbors. 

returning to England in 1704 he was offered the rectory and charge of 
Edburton in Sussex, which he thankfully accepted, although the situa- 
tion was one of comparative seclusion. He left no opportunity pass to 
enter the lists against the Quakers. He served his cure until about 1711, 
when his bodily strength began to fail and he became bedridden. He 
died on the 27th of March, 1716, and was buried within the chancel of 
the church at Edburton. Strange to say his remains, like those of his 
two co-workers in Pennsylvania, Evans and Club, rest in an unmarked 
grave. Even the precise spot cannot at the present time be traced. 
There is a stone of Sussex marble within the chancel at Edburton which 
it is supposed was placed there to protect his grave. 

282 The city of Philadelphia then extended only from South or Cedar 
Street to Vine Street on the north. The district above Vine Street was 
known as Liberty Lands. 

Public Baptism by Koster. 275 

The spot selected was the sandy beach, just above the 
" Penny Pothouse " landing. This was a little north of 
the present Vine Street, which was then the extreme 
northern boundary of the city. Just above the inn there 
was a ship-yard upon the shore, and several sheds offered 
shelter for the uses of both priest and postulant. 

When the day and hour arrived, according to Rathelf, 
" the Quakers were present in large numbers, long before 
the appointed hour, to see if any of the seceders would 
remain steadfast ; what they would do and have to say ; 
and which of the leading Keithians would fail to appear 
at the last moment." 

There were also many friends and adherents of the candi- 
dates present, together with numbers of avowed church- 
men — Swedes, Germans, and a few of Koster's former com- 

The day proved mild and serene. The populace upon 
the beach in their various costumes ; the broad expanse of 
water in the foreground, with the building brig upon the 
stocks ; the primeval oaks and pines for a background, — 
all tended to form a pleasing picture. The chief interest, 
however, centered in the figure of the enthusiastic German 
evangelist, as he stood upon some elevation, surrounded by 
his postulants. Tall and erect, robed in a long black gown, 
and with a fearless and flashing eye, he opened the services 
in the name of the Trinity, and made a stirring supplica- 
tion in English showing the necessity for baptism, and 
giving his reasons why he at that time felt justified in 
administering the Holy Ordinance after the manner of the 
Apostles and early Christians. After his address was 
finished, he demanded a public profession of faith from each 
of the nine candidates. 

He then, to make the ceremony still more impressive, 

276 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

after the manner of the Lutheran Church, and according 
to the Prayer Book of Edward VI, pronounced the exor- 
cism of " the Devil and the seductive spirit of Quakerism " 
\der Teufel und Qu'acker Irrgeisi\. This was delivered 
with all the power of the German evangelist : 

"I command thee, unclean spirit, in the name of the 
Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, that thou come 
out, and depart from these thy servants, whom our L,ord 
Jesus Christ hath vouchsafed to call to His Holy Baptism, to 
be made members of His body, and of His holy congre- 
gation. Therefore, thou cursed spirit, remember thy sen- 
tence ; remember thy judgement ; remember the day to be 
at hand wherein thou shalt burn in fire everlasting, prepared 
for thee and thy angels, and presume not hereafter to ex- 
ercise any tyranny towards these persons whom Christ 
hath bought with His precious blood, and by His Holy 
Baptism calleth to be of His flock." 

When this impressive exorcism was concluded, the party 
to be baptized, with Koster at their head, formed a proces- 
sion, and walked down to the river's edge and into the 
stream, until they were about waist-deep in the water. 
After a short invocation they were immersed one after the 
other in the name of the Holy Trinity, and were finally 
dismissed with the command in Matthew xxviii, 19 : " Go 
ye therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing 
them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Ghost." » 

Thus ended the first public administration of the Script- 
ural ordinance of Baptism within the Province of Penn- 
sylvania. Koster himself declares that he never afterwards 
administered it in America. 

The Keithians were now more anxious than ever to have 
Koster as their regular pastor. But this he refused, on 

283 Text according to the Greek original. 

The Sabbatarian Congregation. 277 

account of their tendencies toward the Sabbatarian and 
Anabaptist doctrines. They then selected their teachers 
from among the number baptized by the German evangelist, 
who, however, administered the Holy Communion to such 
as demanded it. 284 

The only names that have come down to us as having 
been among this party of converts are : 
William Davis, Thomas Rutter, Thomas 
Peart and Thomas Bowyer. The other 
five are unknown. This 
small party formed 
- the nucleus for two 
Sabbatarian congre- 
ions, viz., the church 
at Oxford m which chose 
William Davis for pastor; and the First Church of Philadel- 
phia, which chose Thomas Rutter. The latter congregation 
kept charge of the Keithian meeting-house ^ which had 
been erected some years previous on Second Street, a little 
north of where Christ Church was afterwards built. Ed- 
wards, in his " Materials," referring to this church states : 
" Another society of Keithian Quakers who kept together 
(after Keith's departure) was that of Philadelphia, where 
they builded a meeting-house in 1692. * * * Nine persons 
united in communion on June 12, 1698, having Thomas 
Rutter to their minister. They increased and continued 

284 Rathelf page 501. 

285 See page 164, ibid. 

286 The only direct official record relating to this building that has come 
down to us is the correspondence of the Rev. Thomas Clayton in connec- 
tion with his attempt to bring back the Keithians into the fold of the 
Church, and at the same time to recover the land and buildings held by 
them for the uses of Christ Church. A copy of this correspondence may 
be found among Morgan Edwards' "Materials." 

278 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

together for nine years. But some removing to the country 
(Thomas Rutter 287 among the number) and the unbaptized 
Keithians falling off, the society in a manner broke up in 
1707 ; for then the few that remained invited the regular 
Baptists to join them, and were incorporated with them." 

The course of Koster, together with the publication of 
his pamphlet on the Burlington controversy, excited the 
ire of Pastorius, who sided with the Orthodox Friends, and 
lost no time in denouncing the German enthusiast as well 
as his converts. 

These public denunciations brought forth another pam- 
phlet by Koster, in which Pastorius was severely handled. 
This pamphlet was issued early in the year 1697, and was 
published in English and German under the following 
title : 

" Advice for all Professors and Writers. By Henry Bern- 
hard Koster." 

" Ein Bericht an alle Bekenner und Schrifftsteller. Von 
Henrich Bernhard Koster, 1697." 

This controversial work, printed by William Bradford in 
New York, was not only the first high-German book written 
and printed in America, but also the first work that was 
issued in America in two languages. 

According to Pastorius' " Four Boasting Disputers re- 
buked," p. 2-3, this pamphlet in the high-Dutch tongue 
was printed for circulation in Germany. As a matter of 

287 Thomas Rutter remained in Philadelphia and vicinity until 1716, 
•when he removed to the vicinity of Pottstown, where he built a forge and 
commenced the manufacture of iron, the first that was made in Pennsyl- 
vania. His lands were outside of the present limits of Pottstown, and 
his works are supposed by some to be identical with the old Pool Forge, 
on the Manatawney, about three miles above Pottstown, though it might 
have stood at the confluence of the Schuylkill and Manatawney, where 
traces of an old forge formerly existed. Thomas Rutter, after his eventful 
career, died in 1729. 

First German Book Printed hi America. 279 

fact, such copies of the German edition as were not used 
among the Germans in Philadelphia and Germantown were 
circulated in Germany and Holland, while the English 
edition was distributed broadcast throughout the Province 
and the adjoining colonies. 

In this pamphlet Koster boldly challenges every opposing 
writer and professor, with the proviso " that none who will 
not be accounted by them as a vagabond Egyptian, and his 
answer as a railing pamphlet, must write again, unless he 
hath first appeared upon the publick Theatre and Stage of 
the Church and of the world unto a dispute at Philadel- 
phia, etc." 288 

288 The following fragmentary quotations are all we have of this inter- 
esting pamphlet. They were used by Pastorius in his so-called refutation : 

Page 1. — "Brethren in America," "Poor dark devil (meaning Pasto- 
rius) without a body." 

Page 2. — " That the root of Anti-christianity, that is to say, the Deneyal 
of Jesus in the flesh, is to be found among the Quakers." 

Page 3. — "The Councils, and Clergies, and Universities of Babylon." 
" They tell how they entered the 22d day of September, 1696, into the 
yearly Meeting at Burlington, and there lifted up their Voices like Trum- 
pets, and broke our Friends' Voices in the Air." 

Page 4. — "The Babylonian Churches." 

" That the Quakers deny Jesus to be properly the Son of God." 

"That the Quakers say Christ had offered that which is not himself, 
but only a Garment," etc. 

"That the Quakers deny God in his most high Spirits and Godheads 
power to be the Father of Christ's body and Mary the Mother." 

Page 5. — " That many of the Quakers in preaching and writing revile 
the Baptism and Supper of Christ, &c. Desiring us to show them by 
what second degree and message of Christ and his Apostles the union of 
the Spirit with the outward creatures, or water, bread, wine and the like, 
has been abrogated." 

Page 7. — "The Babylonian Beasts." 

" Quakerian Spirits." 

" The true church of Philadelphia or Brotherly love," etc. 

Page 8. — "The four chief Quarters of Babylon." 

" That the body of Christ is absent from the Saints on earth." 

[There is no doubt that many extravagant utterances of the early 

280 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

This was evidently intended by Koster to draw out such 
of his opponents as had already been engaged in the con- 
troversy, and induce them to put their answers in writing. 
In this scheme he was partially successful, as a number of 
members of the Yearly Meeting, smarting under the con- 
tinued attacks of the Keithians, and aggravated by the 
charges hurled at them by Koster in his last pamphlet, 
induced Pastorius to prepare a counter-pamphlet. A fac- 
simile of title is here reproduced, it reads : 

" Henry Bernhard Koster, William Davis, || Thomas Rut- 
ter & Thomas Bowyer, || Four || Boasting Disputers || of 
this World briefly H REBUKED || And Answered according 
to their Folly, || which they themselves have manifested in 
a || late Pamphlet, entitled, Advice for all Pro- \\fessors and 
Writers. || Colophon : — Francis Daniel Pastorius. || Printed 
and Sold by William Bradford at the || Bible in New York, 
1697." 289 

That this work was issued with the full knowledge and 
consent of the Orthodox Friends, is shown by the follow- 
ing verbatim extract from the minutes of the Ministering 
Friends. The original is among the archives of the Phila- 
delphia Yearly Meeting : 

" Att a Meeting of Ministering ffriends held att Burling- 
ton at y e House of Sarnl Jennings y e 5 of ye 4 Mo. 1697. 

" Where after some time spent in a Silent retire mt before 
ye Lord & divers good Testimonies from friends did in a 
Weighty & Orderly manner proceed to business, where ye 

Friends betrayed a tendency, always present among them, to deny his- 
torical Christianity. Thus we read that Dennis Hollister, a Bristol Bap- 
tist, said at a church meeting, after he had become a Quaker, that the 
Bible was the plague of England. — Records of the Broadmead Church, 
p. 44, London, 1847. From the original MS. of Soc, xvii.~\ 

289 A photographic./ac-szW& of this unique book, made by the present 
writer, is in the library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

A Unique Imprint. 281 

Henry Btmhxtd Kj/fer, W ilium 0<ft/is t 

Thorn <rt R*ttcrii Thomas Boryer t 


Boafting Difputers 

Of this World briefly 


And A n fa e red according ro their Folly, 
which they ihemfelm have manifefted in a 
late Pamphlet, entitled, Advice for allPrOz 
feffon and Writers. 


Jt*ntti Dan n I P<t Jioi 7 us. 

PrinCed and Sold by WtHtan Bradford m the 
Bible in New,Tori t i 0*97, 

Title of Pastorius' " Rbbukk." 


282 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

first thing that occurr'd was a small Manuscript from Fran : 
Dan 11 Pastoras presented to this meeting in Answer to a vile 
Pamphlet under the Names of H. B. C, W. D., T. R, T. 
B. wck said answer was by him Submitted to Judgemt of 
ye sd Meeting to be made Public or otherwise as they 
should judge meet ; who upon a Serious perusal of it did 
Judge it Servicable to be printed, & accordingly Thos. 
Ducket & Nicho : Walln are to acquaint him wth it, only 
ye Meeting desires he would Explain those two ffrds that 
Concerning some comming into ye Meeting & Smoaking 
Tobbacco there to ye disturbing of ffriends, 290 the s d two 
ffriends are also to let him know y t friends will defray 
y e Charge of y e Press on y e acc tt aforesaid." [Verbatim 
extract from minutes of Ministering Friends]. 

The following quotation from this " Rebuke" will convey 
an idea of the tenor of the work : 

" They tell how they entered the 22d day of September, 
1696, into our yearly Meeting at Burlington, and there 
lifted up their Voices like trumpets, and broke our friends' 
voices in the air, &c. 

" That at such a time and place (we being Assembled not 

to quarrel with any Brawlers, but to worship the living 

God in Spirit and in Truth, waiting for the enjoyment 

of his Comfortable presence) H. B. Koster, with some 

not much unlike unto himself, came into our Meeting- 

House, and there as Trumpets of an uncertain sound, were 

blown by the Prince of the Power of the Air, who ruleth 

and operateth in the Children of Unbelief, we do not 

"Neither is the Impudency of these our Adversaries a 

290 This matter seems to have been eliminated, as it does not appear in 
the book. 

An Outcome of the Controversy. 283 

New thing unto us ; For several others before them, acted 
likewise by him, who made bold to appear in the midst 
of the Sons of God when they came to present themselves 
before the Lord, Job 1-6, entered into Friends Meeting 
Houses, and by their ill-behaviour and disorderly inter- 
ruptings, attempted to disturb the People religiously therein 

" With these troublesome men of Belial, H. B. K., W. D., 
T. R., T. B., and the rest of their Fraternity, in whose 
behalf they have signed their Pamphlet, may some cut 
their own shame as (among us) they will. We, measurably 
quickened with Christ, are set down in a safe and heavenly 
hiding place, viz : — his powerfull Name, having that satis- 
factory assurance, that there the Enemy and his wicked 
instruments cannot approach nor hurt us, Praises to the 
Lord our God forever." 

An immediate outcome of this controversy was that a 
number of German Quakers petitioned Pastorious in his 
official capacity, as the head of the settlement of German 
Township, to suppress or disperse the whole community of 
Mystics and Pietists within the bounds of his bailwick. 
Pastorius, however, skillfully evaded this dilemma by stating 
that he would refer the whole matter for adjucation to the 
Proprietor on his arrival, which was then shortly expected. 
He also admonished the petitioners in the meantime to 
exercise patience, forbearance, and with meekness to main- 
tain unity. 291 

He gave vent to his own feelings in a piece of poetry 
founded on 1 Cor. xi, 16 : " But if any man seemeth to be 
contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches 
of God." 

Ephrata MSS. 

284 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Die Fehler meiner Briider 
Sind Mir zwar ganz zuwieder 
Doch wegen eines worts 
Ihr zeugniss zu vernichten 
Und freventlich zu richten 
Find Ich nicht meines Orts. 

[The errors of my Brethern 

Are to me indeed wholly repugnant. 

However, for a single word 

Their testimony to destroy, 

And wickedly to judge, 

I do not find within my duty. J 

It was during this period of intense religious excitement 
that Koster wrote his " De Resurrectione Imperii" noticed 
at length in a previous chapter (pp. 88-92). One of the 
favorite methods of the German enthusiast was to close his 
exhortations with a quotation from the celebrated revival 
hymn of Nicholai : " Wachet auf: rufft uns die Stimme 
der Wachter, sehr hoch auf der Zinne" already mentioned 
on page 92 of this work. 292 

Another important result of this peculiar religious condi- 
tion of the Province was to form a closer union among the 
thirty odd English churchmen in the city and vicinity. 293 

The leading spirit among this embryo congregation was 
Colonel Robert Quarry who, with the encouragement re- 
ceived from Governor Francis Nicholson of Maryland, in 
the latter part of the year 1696, commenced the erection 
of a substantial brick building 294 for church purposes upon 

892 There is a beautiful translation of this hymn by Miss Winkworth, in 
universal use : " Awake ! Awake ! for the night is flying." 
293 The names attached' to this memorable petition were, — 

Francis Jones, Jasper Yeates, 

Jarvis Bywater, Thos Briscoll, 

Fard'do Dowarthy, Enoch Hubord, 
Thos Walter, Thomas Craven, 

Anth'y Blany, Edwd Smout, 

Joshua Carpenter, Sam. Holt, 
Edw. Bury, Jeremiah Price, 

Jeremiah Hunt, John Sibley, 
Robert Gilham, John Gibbs, 

294 Col. Quarry to Gov. Nicholson, 
Church (Pennsylvania), p. 6-7. 

Willm Grant, 
Darby Greene, 
George Fisher, 
Thos Curtis, 
Robt Quarry, 
Rob' Snead, 
Addam Birch, 
John White, 
John Moore, 

Sami Peres, 
Thomas Harris, 
John Harrison, 
John Willson, 
Charles Sober, 
Wm Dyre, 
Thos Stapleford, 
Geo. Thompson, 
John Herris. 

Historical collections of the Colonial 

Rev. Thomas Bray. 285 

the lot on Second Street, which had been secured by Joshua 
Carpenter late in the previous year. 

Reports of these disturbances and the unsettled condi- 
tion of religious affairs in the great Quaker Province soon 
spread over the adjoining colonies in an aggravated form, 
and became known in England, where they attracted the 
attention of the Metropolitan of Canterbury, and of the 
Bishop of London. 

The subject was at once referred to the Rev. Thomas 
Bray, 295 who had but lately been appointed commissary, and 
had been especially charged by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury to prepare a report upon the state of the Church 
in the various colonies. It was at his instance, and upon 
the representations of Bishop Compton of London, that 
eventually Rev. Thomas Clayton was appointed a stipend 
of ^"50 a year, and ordered to prepare for a journey to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived some time during the first 
half of the year 1698. 

295 The Rev. Thomas Bray, D. D., was a native of Marston, Shropshire, 
educated at Hart-Hall, Oxford. He was patronized by Lord Digby and 
by Bishop Compton, by whom he was sent out as commissary to settle 
the church affairs of Maryland and Virginia. He behaved in this employ- 
ment with all that zeal and disinterestedness which characterizes the true 
Christian, he instituted libraries in several parts of America for the 
information of the missionaries employed in preaching the Gospel, and 
every method was pursued to render the conversion of negroes and pagans 
to the Gospel easy and certain. 

Upon his return to London he published several papers relating to the 
state of the Church in America. The most important of which were the 
" Memorial of the state of the Church in America." "The acts of his 
visitation in Maryland." "A circular letter to the Clergy in that 
Province. ' ' 

The publication of these papers caused much excitement among the 
Quakers in London, and an attempt was made to answer and refute the 
statements of Dr. Bray in a quarto of some fifty pages. This was entitled, 
"Remarks on Dr. Bray's Memorial, &c, London, 1701." A copy of 
which may be found in the Philadelphia Library. 

286 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In the meantime the congregation in Philadelphia was 
occasionally served by Koster, and in his absence, for at 
least a part of the time, 
a Mr. I. Arrowsmith 
taught the church 
been started by the 
When the new cler 
Pennsylvania he, 
superiors, at once 
for the purpose 
him an ex 
the situ 



ter, who 

med Tho 

ton, 298 was 

take the task. 


of the English con 

meagre, and consis 

members. 299 But 

Dr. Henry Compton, 
Lord Bishop of London, 

prayers were read by 
a schoolmaster who 
school which had 
congregation. 296 
gyman arrived in 
at the desire of his 
sought out Koster 
of obtaining from 
act knowledge of 
ation. To 
to the Ger- 
count. 297 
was na- 
mas Clay, 
o under- 
lie settled in 
gregation was very 
ted of hardly twenty 
they kept on in- 

creasing. Our Herr Koster went about with the pastor and 
instructed him in the refutation of the teachings of the 

Beside the money subscribed by individuals or corporations, Dr. Bray 
contributed the whole of his small fortune to the support of his liberal 
plans, better gratified in the promotion of public happiness than in the 
possession of private wealth. To his great exertions many of the societies 
in London owe their institution ; especially that for the Reformation of 
Poor Proselytes, that for the Reformation of Manners, and last, but not 
least, that for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

This good man, whose life was devoted to benevolent purposes and who 
deservedly received the thanks of both King and Parliament, died in 1730, 
aged seventy-three years. 

Dedication of Christ Church. 287 

Quakers. Clayton was a young man, and willingly and 
cheerfully took the advice of a man who had often dealt 
with such people ; and thus one by one the Keithians were 
drawn back into the fold of the Church. " 

Thus it will be seen that the German evangelist, in addi- 
tion to instituting the Orthodox Lutheran services among 
the Germans, was instrumental in starting two English 
Sabbatarian congregations, as well as being prominent, if 
not the chief factor, in establishing the oldest Episcopal 
one within the State. Thanks to the efforts of Henrich 
Bernhard Koster, the German Pietist, the Rev. Thomas 
Clayton, upon his arrival in Pennsylvania, found a sub- 
stantial church-building almost ready for consecration and 
the well-organized nucleus of a congregation. 

One of the first visible results of the labors of the new 
clergyman, coached as he was by the German Theosophist, 
was the organization of a regularly constituted vestry, and 
the completion and solemn dedication to its pious uses of 
the plain brick structure on North Second Street. An old 
document states : " Though humble in its size and archi- 

296 << perry's Historical Collections," vol. ii, pp. 7 and 15. 

297 Rathelf, p. 501. 

298 R ev- Thomas Clayton, a young clergyman of the Church of England, 
was the first minister of that faith who was regularly sent out to Pennsyl- 

Shortly after Dr. Bray's appointment as commissary in 1696, the peculiar 
situation in Pennsylvania became known in England. Urgent appeals 
for clergy were also received from South Carolina at the same time. 

It was, however, not until the year 1698, that two men were selected for 
these missions, Thomas Clayton and Samuel Marshall, the latter was 
selected for Charleston. Both, as an old record states, "as pious and 
happy in their conduct as could have been found." They both started 
on their journey together. Clayton's career in Philadelphia was a short 
one, as it was terminated in the year after his arrival (1699) by the yellow 

299 Such as lived within the city limits. 

288 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

tecture, it was a goodly structure for a city then in its 

[There is no proof whatever for the statement that Christ 
Church was a wooden structure, and as small as is repre- 
sented by the same authority. The foundation for this tale, 
which has been repeated over and over again in print, is 
but the incoherent mutterings of an old negro, "Black 
Alice," who was then (1802) over a century old, and no 
doubt confused in her mind the first Keithian meeting- 
house, which was built of frame and located in the imme- 
diate vicinity, with Christ Church. Gabriel Thomas, in 
his account of 1698, says that the Church of England built 
a very fine church in Philadelphia, etc. 

Then in the old cash book of the congregation, under 
date of May 11, 1711, there is an entry or charge for 37,000 
bricks for an addition to the church, and at the same time 
a charge for " pulling down the gable-end and cleaning the 
bricks." It is hardly probable that so many thousands of 
bricks would be used in enlarging a wooden church of such 
small dimensions as quoted by Watson in his " Annals."] 

Christ Church was the name applied upon that occasion 
to both church and congregation. The name of the church 
and its associations have became historic, not only in the 
annals of our State but of the whole nation. 

Koster continued to preach and exhort in both English 
and German, but now spent much of his time in retirement 
and study upon his little farm in Plymouth, 300 where he 

800 The location of the Tabernacle of the rival Community known as 
" Irenia " or the House of Peace, is somewhat obscure, all of the German 
accounts state that it was at Plymouth, and one or two writers state par- 
ticularly that it was beyond the jurisdiction of Pastorius. It was proba- 
bly on part of Thomas Fairman's land in that vicinity. 

Pastorius in his " Rebuke " calls it " a plantation near Germantown." 
Vide p. 87, Supra. Rathelf, p. 487. 








Rev. Evan Evans. 289 

also taught children and gave spiritual instruction to adults. 
During the long winter nights he wrote several theological 
works, one of which has been noticed at length in a pre- 
vious chapter. 301 He also composed a number of hymns, 
which were printed upon his return to Europe. 302 

As the time passed the epidemic of yellow fever spread 
over the land in 1699, numbering among its victims the 
Rev. Thomas Clayton. 303 

Shortly after the death of Clayton, Evan Evans arrived 
from England. He had been sent to Pennsylvania by the 
Bishop of London, with special reference to the Welsh 
Quakers who, it was understood, had also became restive 
under the Quaker rule. Evans at once resumed charge of 
the Church affairs in the Province. 

Koster, in viewing the situation, now felt that the term 
of his usefulness among the English colonists was about 
completed, unless he absolutely joined the Sabbatarian 
movement, which embraced such of the Keithians as had 
not returned to the Church of England. This he refused 
to do, for it would have necessitated a sacrifice of his Luth- 
eran principles : he therefore conceived a desire to return 
to his native land. As one of the members of the original 
Community, who had married, intended also to return, 
Koster was persuaded to accompany him. His troubles, 
however, were not yet at an end. In December, 1699, the 
little party started for Virginia, where they were to take 
passage on a tobacco ship for England. Koster left all the 
arrangements for the voyage to his companion who, he 

301 Page 88, Supra. 

302 Some of these hymns were incorporated by Gottfried Arnold in the 
" Poetische Samlung," Ratione meditationes hermenevticea. 

303 Rev. Thomas Clayton died at Sassafras, Maryland, where he had 
gone to escape the scourge, and at the same time consult with some of the 
Maryland clergy on the state of the Church. 


290 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

states, was an "eccentric character with but little sense, 
and subject to sudden impulses." 

The vessel in which the passage was secured was an old 
one, besides being heavily laden. To make matters worse, 
the captain suffered from rheumatism in his feet and was 
often helpless. The weather was stormy, it being mid- 
winter. To crown all, Koster had given his money, the 
proceeds from the sale of his property, to his companion for 
safe-keeping, and the latter attempted to exchange the cur- 
rency for specie. But the broker, " a wicked Scotchman," 
handed him in return the amount in Spanish dollars, which 
proved to be copper silver-plated counterfeits. 

Koster was hereupon urged to remain in the country at 
least until spring. But as his companion refused to 
acquiesce, they embarked on the vessel as originally in- 
tended. The season and passage proved a stormy one, as 
was shown by the numerous wrecks that were seen upon 
the Goodwin Sands, and Koster states that he felt they also 
would go hence into eternity unless the Almighty would 
help. Fortunately the storm suddenly abated, and the old 
ship dropped her anchor safely in the Thames. They 
arrived in London at the close of January, 1700. 

It is hardly necessary for our purpose to trace at length 
Koster's long and eventful course in Europe. From Lon- 
don he journeyed to his native land by way of Holland. 
When in Amsterdam, he published an octavo against the 
Quakers under the title : 

" Aufgeschlossene Prophetia der Hebraer, oder der von 
anno 1692 an, vom Himmel aus dem Rath der Wachter 
herabsteigende Bliz und der von a, f6p?, 1700, i/oj, 1707 
an, bis an alle Ende der Himmel und Erden, darauffolg- 
ende Donner. Amsterdami, 1700. 8 vo." 

About the same time he also became interested in Oliger 

Return to Europe. 291 

Pauli, and in the following year published a pamphlet up- 
holding that visionary : 

" Der Hebreer Schechina, d. i. die personliche Einwoh- 
nung der gottlichen Herrlichkeit in dem Messia an Oliger 
Pauli. Amsterdam, iyoi. 8vo." 

From Holland he journeyed to Germany, and in the next 
year published at Lemgo the Latin thesis he had written 
in Philadelphia prior to his departure. The full title and 
description of this curious composition have been given 
in a previous chapter (page 88). 

When Koster heard that the Baron of Amazone, whom 
he had formerly known in Berlin, was now upper tutor to 
the Abbess of Hervorden, Charlotte Sophia, a born princess 
of Curland, he went there to visit his former friend. The 
Duchess who had a claim upon the ruling Duke of Curland, 
Ferdinand, asked Koster to act as her ambassador and press 
the claim. For this purpose he went to Stockholm, where 
he arrived at the end of the year 1702. Here they directed 
him to the King, who was then with his army in Poland. 
Koster found the King the following year in the camp 
before Thorn, and was so successful in his efforts that the 
Duke was compelled to pay a part of the money owed. 
Such a service deserved a reward, but the Abbess was soon 
after compelled to leave Hervorden and flee to Verden, 
where she was not in a situation to show herself grateful to 
him. Koster nevertheless remained with her several years 
in Verden, and afterwards went to Hamburg, where he 
acted as tutor for a short time, until the Danish ambassador 
to England, Baron von Schaak, who was about to leave for 
that country, took him as tutor to his sons. He was sent 
from Hamburg to Copenhagen, and thence to Schwanholm, 
where the family resided. 

Here he remained for seven years, and in 17 14 he went to 

292 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Berlin, where he took up his abode with a country curate 
named Rindfleisch. In 1724 he went to Berleburg, which 
at that time was a rallying point for religious visionaries and 
enthusiasts of all kinds. 

The Count Casimir von Sayn and Witgenstein, who 
granted them religious liberty within his domain, was so 
well pleased with Koster that he asked him to remain at 
court during his pleasure. Koster now set to work to com- 
plete his greatest work, one that he had had in hand for a 
long time, for he had worked upon it even during his 
sojourn in America. It was called : 

" Schlussel || der ersten und letzten || Hebraisch Griechisch 
Teutschen || HARMONIE : || welche nicht nur in einer\\ 
Probe von tausend Wortern || an Bedeutung und Klang eine 
nahe Verwandtschafft zeiget ; durch welches Mittel man die 
Hebr'aischen Worter eher behalten, undsichvieler\\ ur sprung- 
lichen Wahrheiten errinnern mag, &c. Henrich Bernhard 
Koster, || Jiinger der vollstandigen Rede des Logu Alpha 
und Omega. || Berleburg, zufinden bey Johann Jacob Haug. 
Anno 1724, Svo., 368 pages." 

An edition of a thousand copies was ordered to be printed 
at the expense of the Count Casimir, to whom the volume 
was dedicated, with display type in all the verbose and 
laudatory style of the period. The only known copy of 
this interesting work, the title of which is reproduced in 
facsimile, and is in the library of the writer, bears the 
curious endorsement upon the title that the author was a 
scientist of a peculiar kind ; and as no University would 
call him to a professorship, he signs himself : Professorum 
Extrac * * * Lingua Orientate Occidentalium per Uni- 
versa * * *. 

The main title of the work, " Key of the first and last 
Hebrew-Greek, German Harmony," sets forth its import, 

Roster's Greatest Work. 



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Fac-simile of Title Page (reduced), original in Library of the Writer. 

294 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

as the writer seeks to prove by one thousand examples the 
existence of a mutual relation between the three languages. 
In addition, however, he introduces a number of mystical 
charts and occult problems bearing upon the Trinity, the 
Incarnation of Christ and the Apocalypse. Regarding the 
latter, Koster touches upon an entirely new and unique 
theory, — one that he would here gladly communicate to the 
world at large, if such were possible. Upon the title page 
he calls himself " a disciple of the complete counsel [of 
the] Logos, — Alpha and Omega." 

In the main he leans toward those who receive the Apo- 
calypse as a portrayal of the destiny of the church of Christ. 
Yet in his divisions of the periods and explanation of the 
scenes described he differs from all other expounders. 

A number of hymns of a mystical character are also 
introduced in the latter part of the work, showing him, in 
addition to his other accomplishments, to have been a poet 
of no mean order. This book was thought worthy of a 
special mention in the " Bibliotheque raisonnee.^ The 
reference will be found upon page 59 of volume xviii. 304 

Rathelf, in speaking of his (Koster's) poetical powers, 305 
mentions that he held in special reverence St. Bernhard's 
hymn, — 

" Iesu dulcis memoria, 

Dans cordi vera gaudia, 

Sed super mel et omnia 

Eius dulcis praesentia." 

This he paraphased and published as a decachordon or 
hymn of ten chords, in the Latin, Hebrew, Greek, German, 

304 " Tel a ete encore Henri Bernard Koster, qui dans un autre livre 
allemand, imprime a Berlebourg en 1724, promettoit de demontrer, par 
des calculs d' arithmetique et de geometrie, les mysteres de la trinite, de 
P incarnation, etc. , jusqua'a ceux de V Apocalypse." 

305 Rathelf, page 510. 

The Mystery of the Triad. 



$mag t>em Strange!/ toofcon auc& 

ctwae 6<p Kortero fin Sfofang 
ju feben. 

£>« obere Qibeil Deg Sllpba A , btt ©rttjMfitf/ 
Die &vewimgeSOeKMgutt0ie&ef $elfonen &t$ flott* 
Itc&en gSefett&miteinan&er. 

1 * 3 

Fac-simile of Mystic Chart in Koster's " Harmonie.' 

296 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

French, English, Dutch, Sclavonic, Arabic and Persian 

The three standard Lutheran hymns : " Vom Himmel 
hoch da kom ich her;" " Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott /" 
and " Behalt uns Herr bei deinem Wort" were also para- 
phrased by him, and published in the same manner in the 
following tongues : German, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, 
Swedish, Danish, Sclavonic, English and Dutch. 

After Koster, for some unknown reason, became tired of 
Berleburg, he went successively to East Friesland and 
Holland, back to East Friesland again, and thence to Bre- 

men ; and finally, 
to Hanover, where 
son of Pastor Bus 
the languages. As 
phist became weak 
Magistrat gave 
Lutheran Orphan 
gradually feebler 
his wants were care 

Arms of the City of 

in 1735, he came 
he instructed the 
chen and others in 
the old Theoso- 
er, the Hanoverian 
him a living in the 
age. Becoming 
in body and mind 
fully provided for. 
ing the encroach- 

ments of age, he still stoutly maintained that he had solved 
the problem of life, and that he would not undergo a physi- 
cal death, — a claim which certainly seemed to gain credit 
as the lamp of his life continued to flicker until the century 
mark was almost in view. 

" This," continues his friend and biographer, Rathelf 
(1739), "is the life of our old Herr Koster, a man who is 
familiar with most of the languages of this world, and who 
not only understands them, but can speak them. To give 
an example : his custom is to repeat his daily prayers in 
the Hebrew, Greek, Bohemian and German languages, 
which he considers to be the four holy tongues." 








m C 

> s 

w m 

c Z 




Burial of Koster. 297 

However, the best proof of this is his numerous writings, 
both those printed and those still in manuscript. Besides 
the works already enumerated, the following title is known : 

" De Uitlegging der 22 lettres des heiligan Hebrewischen, 
en der 24. letters des heiligen Griekschen, en des daarmede 
overeenkommenden Boheemischen Hoogh-en Nederduitschen 
Alphabeets?' 1 Printed at Amsterdam in octavo. 

Koster, notwithstanding his physical infirmities, con- 
tinued to teach languages and to expound his mystical 
deductions until the end of his eventful life. 

For a short time he seems to have been an inmate of the 
Breitenhaupt institution in the ancient Hanoverian city of 
Nordheim : a charitable rCj^^tt^ home which had been 
founded by the celebra «PSlKy*^ ted Senior Breitenhaupt, 
with whom we became ^g3^§T acquainted in the earlier 
chapters of this narra /(^^^2^^@^ tive. 306 He finally re- 
turned to Hanover, |«^^S^^^C where he ended his 
days in the year 1749, ^^^S^^^ at ^he ripe old age of 
eighty-seven years. 307 i^^^^^B^ Tradition tells us that 
the old Mystic was buried ^||p?as was then the custom, by 
torchlight, according Arms of the An . to the Lutheran ritual, 
within the precincts ci noIiSe™ of of the old God's acre 
that formerly surrounded the Aegidien Kirche in Hanover. 

Resting far away from the scenes of his early struggles 
and triumphs in the western world, though ridiculed by 
contemporary writers 308 and forgotten by his kin in the 
Fatherland, his memory still lives in the history of the 
Pennsylvania Germans. 

Hermit Spring and Hermit L,ane, within the bounds of 

806 p a gg 54> f OQt note 5g ( ft fa 

807 " ZuverVassige Nachrichten von Jungstverstorbenen Gelehrten." 
Schmersalil, Zelle, 1751. 

308 Adelvrag, " Geschichte der menschlichen Narrheit," vol. vii, p. 86, 
el seq. 


Zg8 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

one of the finest natural parks in the world, still refer to 
the band of mystic philosophers who settled here, of whom 
the subject of our sketch, Henrich Bernhard Koster, was 
once a leader. The congregation of Christ Church in 
Philadelphia, in the establishment of which he was so 
prominent a factor, even at the present writing is celebrating 
its bi-centennial. 

Pfrtl. 8r»J-6. 

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jDerOas 2(Ipba if? imS 3> 

2>er Deft 6d?IfifTar »>a»iOs bat / 

UnO mir jcigt Oes ^irnmel* pf»». 

Fac-Simile of one of Roster's Hymns in the " Harmonie." 




fceriTH tf Jmpffent* / MMtleybent 
be/ unb tTHtboffcnbe an betn 
Heibe 3£fu / cmgepjlamjte 
tTJitfncdjt / frwarrenO mew 
IW6 f£n^£iccene unO £tm» 
tncfoiRtaig? to ftynK<$<m 


EXT to Kel- 
pius and 
Koster, Dan- 
iel Falkner (Falck- 
ner) was the most 
prominent c h a r a c- 
ter of the Theo- 
sophical Brother- 
hood in America. 
He was not only one 
of the leading spirits 
of the movement in 

©anfel Sakfner i ®>mm tm£> 
pilgrim to Penfyivaniett in 
fflorttft America, 

From Falkner's Missive to Germany, 1694. 

Europe, under whose auspices the Chapter of Perfection 
for the New World was organized, but he was also after 
their arrival in Pennsylvania, the executive and financial 
head of the party, and upon him devolved the arduous 
task of locating the Community and providing for their 
shelter and sustenance. 

Shortly after his arrival in 1694, he thus gives his impres- 
sion of the social and religious condition of the Province. 309 

"It is a country that supports its laborers abundantly : 
there is plenty of food. What pleases me most is that one 
can be peasant, scholar, priest and nobleman all at the same 
time without interference, which of all modes of living has 

309 Sendschrieben, August 7, 1694. 

300 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

been found to be the best and most satisfactory since patri- 
archial times. To be a peasant and nothing else, is a sort 
of animal life ; to be a scholar and nothing else, such as in 
Europe, is a morbid and self-indulgent existence ; to be a 
priest and nothing else, ties life to blunders and responsi- 
bilities ; to be a nobleman and nothing else, makes godless 
and riotous. 

" The religion most generally professed in this Province 
is that of the Quakers, who have their name from quaking 
or trembling. Having in their collective body been active 
for a long time in holding up to the kings and nations of 
Europe the signal of contrition, they now must themselves 
passively confirm the truth of this signal on account of the 
pride and foolish arrogant ignorance of their members." 

After making mention of the Keithian schism, he con- 
tinues : " Here, then, there is an opening for a great har- 
vest, which the Dord opens for us wider and wider, giving 
us strength to make his Philadelphic Word a foundation on 
which Jerusalem can descend from above. 

" Ye European Churchwomen, consider, unless you put 
off your soiled garments of religion you cannot enter into 
the Philadelphia which the Lord awakens anew out of a 
little pebble and a paltry mustard seed, rather outside of 
your European Babylon than within it, as the future will 

Our knowledge of Daniel Falkner has thus far been 
mainly based upon certain defamatory entries and epistles 
made by Daniel Francis Pastorius, who was his bitter 

That the founder of Germantown may have had some 
cause for his enemity towards some of the Theosophical en- 
thusiasts who established themselves upon the borders of 
his bailwick may be assumed, as upon the very day of their 

Character of Daniel Falkner. 301 

arrival they commenced regular Church services in opposi- 
tion to the gatherings patterned after the Quaker meetings 
and presided over by Pastorius. 

Then followed the bitter controversy between Koster and 
the Friends, wherein Pastorius acted as champion for the 
latter. Now, even before the wounds had healed that were 
inflicted upon him by the bold and impetuous Koster, Falk- 
ner returns to America, and without any preliminary notice 
to Pastorius supercedes him as agent for the Frankfort 
Company, and asks him to account unto him for his 

The old strife between Pastorius and the Mystics on the 
Wissahickon was now renewed with all its acrimony on the 
part of the former, and as Kelpius refused to be drawn 
into the controversy, Pastorius aimed the darts of his fiery 
temper at Daniel Falkner who, however, like his fellow- 
mystic Koster, was equal to his opponent. 

That the Saxon Theosophist was by far the abler poli- 
tician and diplomat of the two, and that Pastorius was out- 
generaled by his opponent, has already been fully set forth 
in these pages, and will be still further illustrated in the 
following sketch. 

It will also be shown that Daniel Falkner was not quite 
so dissolute a character as Pastorius would make him appear. 
The facts here given are based upon various official docu- 
ments and Church records, most of which have been undis- 
turbed for more than a century, and were unearthed by the 
writer only after a long and tiresome search upon both 

" Daniel Falkner, Citizen and Pilgrim in Pennsylvania 
in North America. The fellow-struggler Compassionate 
and expectant of the body of Jesus. A transplanted fellow- 
servant, awaiting the Arch-shepherd and King of Heaven 

302 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

with ardent longing." Thus the pious pilgrim signs him- 
self during his visit to Europe. 

The two Falkner brothers, Daniel and Justus, were 
Saxons from Langen-Reinsdorf (formerly known as Lan- 
gen-Rehnsdorf, and Langeramsdorf), near Crimmitschau, 
Diocese of Zwickau, situated in that part of Saxony for- 
merly known as the Markgravate of Meissen, and they 
were scions of an old Lutheran family. Their ancestors 
on both sides had been ordained Lutheran ministers. 

Their grandfather Christian Falkner, (died November 
5, 1658), as well as his son Daniel Falkner (died April 7, 
1674), father of the subjects of our sketch, were both pas- 
tors of Dangen-Reinsdorf. The latter left four children, 
viz.: Paul Christian, born February 2, 1662 ; Daniel, born 
November 25, 1666 ; a third child of which we have no 
record; and Justus, born November 22, 1672. 

All the sons were educated with the same object in view, 
and were eventually ordained to the holy ministry. 310 It is, 
however, an open question whether the subject of our 
sketch was ordained prior to his depar- 
ture to America in 1693 or during his 
visit to Germany in 1698-1700. But 
it is more likely that it was during the 
latter period. 

Daniel Falkner's connection with 
the Pietistical movement in Germany 
dates from its introduction into the 
ancient city of Erfurth, where he was 
a licentiate, and presumably attended 
or taught at the University, and we find him not only second- 
ing Diaconus Augustus H. Francke in the formation of the 

310 According to the Berkenmeyer papers there can be no doubt what- 
ever as to Daniel Falkner's regular ordination. 

Arms of Erfurth. 

The Excommunication by K'dster. 


local Collegium Pie talis, but also a believer in, aud sym- 
pathizer with, Anna Maria Schuckart, alias " the Erfurth 
Prophetess." This woman was the ecstatic servant of Licen- 
tiate Johann Gottfried Schmaltz (not "Lieutenant," as erron- 
eously stated on p. 21 supra), who was also proscribed as a 
Pietist. She attraeted much attention by her ex- 
travagant utterances while in ; 
dition. Among other prophe- 
cies, she foretold the future 
greatness of Prancke and 
the success of the Ameri- 
can enterprise. 

She becomes of import- 
ance in our narrative from 
the fact that Kelpius, in 
his Diary, mentions the 
excommunication by Kos- 
ter of both Falkner and 
the Erfurth Prophetess 
upon the very day that the 
" Sara Maria " passed into 
the Capes of Virginia. 
This entry in the Kelpius 
Diary has always been 
somewhat of a conundrum to students of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man history, and has led at least one writer to suppose that 
the woman was among the passengers on the ship. There is 
nothing, however, to give color to this assumption, or that 
she ever left Germany. 

Spener, in a letter to Francke dated May 8, 1693, writes 
that Falkner had confessed to him that he awakened the 
religious ecstasy in Anna Maria Schuckart through an 

The old University at Erfurth. 

Cramer, Beitrage, p. 302. 

304 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Intensa imaginatio in divine matters. 311 Here we may find 
the solution of the conundrum in Kelpius' Diary. 

There can be but little question that Falkner, during the 
voyage, repeated this confession or statement, and when it 
came to the knowledge of the austere Koster, who acted as 
the chaplain or spiritual director of the party, the latter 
publicly read the ban of excommunication to Falkner who 
was present, and in absentio over the Erfurth Prophetess in 

[There were a number of woman who became identified 
with the Mystical and Pietistic movements of that day. 
Mention has already been made in the course of this work 
of Jane L,eade, Johanna von Merlau, and Rosamunde von 
Asseburg (p. 61 supra). 312 Francke mentions three maid- 
servants in connection with his work at Erfurth who were 
subject to trances, ecstasies and visions. He designates 
them as "beautiful examples of God's mercy." 313 They 
were Katharine Reinecke, servant to Oberkommissar Pra- 
torius in Halberstadt ; Magdalena Elrichs, servant to Pas- 
tor Sprogel in Quedlinburg ; and Anna Maria Schuckart, 
servant to Licentiate Schmaltz in Erfurth. 

The last-named prophesied in 1691 that the city of 
Erfurth would suffer great misfortune for the banishment of 
Francke. She further claimed to have the power to dis- 
tinguish devout from wicked persons by the mere sense of 

312 Rosamunda Juliane von der Asseburg, born 1672, was the most cele- 
brated of the ecstatic women of that period. Her alleged visions of 
Christ and the Deity were credited by a number of leading divines, 
notably Dr. Peterson and his followers. 

It is a curious fact that she was a descendant of the Countess von Asse- 
burg, whose picture is shown in the Cathedral at Magdeburg, and who, 
according to the old legend, returned to life after her burial during an 
attempt at grave robbery by the sexton. 

313 Cramer, Beitrage, p. 162 ; Sachsse, Ursprung, etc., p. 241. 

Anna Maria Schuckart. 


After Francke's expulsion 
followed him to Halle, and 
writes : " As I prayed with 
extasies, and in this condition 
in the regular cadence of the 
elegant action of her hands ; 
than anything I had thus far 
short time before I 
about such of her fail 
were known to me, > 
well from me." Upon 
sion he writes : "With 
more wonderful things 
at Erf urth. Upon dif ' 
in the presence of 

from Erfurth m the woman 

in a letter to Spener 315 he 

them, Anna Maria fell into 

recited many lovely verses 

strophe, and with a right 

which moved me more 

heard or seen. But a 

spoken to her privately 

ings {gebrechen) as 

which she received 

a subsequent occa- 

Anna Maria still 

have happened than 

ferent occasions here, 

many witnesses, she 

blood from her fore- 

and hands, 

so that it 


from her. 

The blood 

was not only 

seen upon 

her, but was 


noticed to 

exude from 

her skin like 


As various 

persons were 

present who 

Street View in Old Erfurth. 


306 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

expressed some doubt as to the actual circumstances {be- 
schaffenheif), they were now convinced by their own evi- 
dence. Yesterday she sang a hymn continuously for two 
hours, during which time a number of peculiar matters 
took place." 

In the year 1692 a book was published laudatory of these 
three ecstatic women, under the signature of Francke, 
" Eigentliche Nachricht von Begeisterten Magden, 1692." 
A year later, after Francke became connected with the new 
University at Halle, he repudiated this work together with 
any endorsement of the ecstatic visionaries.] 

When Daniel Falkner returned from Europe it was with- 
out doubt his intention to resume his interest and activity 
in the Theosophical Community which had been established 
by his instrumentality. In addition to the power of 
attorney, empowering him to act for the Frankfort Com- 
pany and Benjamin Furly, as before mentioned, Falkner 
brought a deed of gift for 4000 acres of land from Catherina 
Elizabeth Schutz, widow of Jacob van der Walle, who was 
one of the original purchasers of the German tract. 

This indenture, dated the first of March, 1700, sets forth 
that she hereby gives her share of land, consisting of 4000 
acres, unto some pious families and persons (by which no 
doubt the Community is intended) who are already in Penn- 
sylvania, or intend to go thither this year, as likewise unto 
such as shall follow them in time to come ; among whom 
Daniel Falkner, who hath settled there already, and Mr. 
Arnold Stork, who dwells at present at Duisburg, but will 

314 Vide, Acta des Magistrate zu Erfurth. Acta der Stadt Archiv, Erfurth, 
Abtheilung X. A I., No. 13. TJntersuchung gegen die, den Pietistnus 
anhengenden Personen abt. X. A. I., No. 15. Francke returned to Er- 
furth, June 17, 1695, to attend the trial of Christina Hirshhausin. Records 
examined by writer August, 1894. 

315 Cramer, Beitrage, 263. 

A Charitable Bequest. 307 

shortly transport himself, shall be constituted and appointed 
as attorneys, as well for themselves and their families, to 
take part thereof as also according to their good pleasure 
and conscience to cause to participate other pious families, 
especially the widows among the same, viz., the widow 
Ziinmermann, 316 and other two widows with their children 
being of Duisburg, etc. 

It also contains the following provision : " Forasmuch as 
I also understand that George Miiller of Friedrichstadt is 
resolved to transport himself with his family unto Penn- 
sylvania, my will is that he with his family shall be one 
participant of this donation." This deed, according to the 
records, was presented in open court, on the 16th day of 
the 12th month, 1702-3. 

/^ nOS*& dj£iJ& &jfejUver£i> the first effort, so 

^'fr-tJu^frreftnoo tf far as known > lookin g 

p. *f J (^C__^y toward the establish- 

<^T*fiCii )4H&£ *Hl/{*t*'/cS. ment of a trust for the 
/7 ' - s^a aid of indigent widows in 

ya/lti£Q Jtib&JSIUY Pennsylvania. Just what 

„ n benefit, if any, the intended 

From an old Deed in the Penny- ' J 1 

packer collection. beneficiaries derived from the 

gift cannot be told. That the charitable scheme miscarried, 
however, was no fault of the subject of this sketch. When, 
towards the end of August, 1700, Daniel Falkner arrived 
in Germantown, together with his brother Justus and his 
companions (among whom were Johann Jawert and Arnold 
Stork), the former at once, in the name of the Frankfort 
Company, demanded from Pastorius an account of his 
stewardship and a delivery of the company's property. 

316 The widow of Magister John Jacob Zimmermann, vide page 47, 

308 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

It was only after a considerable demurrer upon the part 
of Pastorius, nominally on account of Kelpius' refusal to act, 
that the transfer was made to Falkner and Jawert. This 
property consisted of the land, houses, crops in and above 
ground, horses, cattle, household goods, farming utensils, 
and other property, besides arrears in rent and other good 
debts due and payable to the said company, amounting to 
over two hundred and thirty pounds sterling. 317 Falkner 
at once took vigorous hold of the tangled affairs of the 
company and attempted to straighten them out. He also 

Autograph of Pastorius. 

took a lively part in the civil government, all of which 
tended to sever the fraternal ties that once bound him to his 
former companions. 

It has been repeatedly stated that Falkner's power of 
attorney from Furly was void, as a similar document had 
been given to Reynier Jansen, which antedated the former's. 
The truth is that the Jansen authority had been revoked 
by Furly, but by an oversight the fact was not mentioned 
in Falkner's document. This, however, was subsequently 
rectified. In. August, 1703, a new letter was sent by Furly 
to the Falkner brothers, and in the accompanying letter 
of explanation we read : 

s " Pennypacker's Colonial Cases; Pastorius MSS ; Penna. Papers; 
Archives S. P. G ; London Letter Book, xii, folio 206. 

Furly to Falkner. 309 

" That my last letter of Attorney sent you, is owned, at 
last, as sufficient tho not signed by 2 there willing, tho the 
things were too generally therein mentioned, nor my letter 
of Attorney to Renier Jansen were not therein revoked. 
* * * I told you finally that I would have sent you a Letter 
of Attorney, in the manner of the Governours to Me, but 
that I had no skill, nor time to do it. But should take care 
to have it done in England Authentikely and now having 
received from England a copy of a Letter of Attorney so 
ample to all intents and purposes as possible. 

" In which all care is taken to obviate all objections, & 
to give you all power, as 1, all former letters of Attorneys 
are revoked, in so far as they have not been executed & 
confirmed in so far as anything by Virtue thereof has been 
legally done, etc. " 318 

s^J^r*^- <a^A» 


Fac-simile of Heading and Signature of the Original Letter. 

1 Letter in full, " Pennsylvania Magazine," vol. x, pp. 474-5. 

310 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

It will be seen from the above document that all the 
charges made by Pastorius and others, in reference to the 
invalidity of Falkner's right to act for Benjamin Furly, 

are without any foundation. Pastorius intimates that after 
Falkner's accession to wealth and power he entered upon 
a life of dissipation. As many of Falkner's acts, together 

Falkner as a Citizen. 311 

with his efforts to recover the company's property, are 
matters of record, it is well to receive these statements with 
some allowance. 

The immediate cause for the final rupture between Falk- 
ner and his former companions in no manner reflects upon 
the former. It happened within a year or two after his 
return to America, when he renounced his profession of 
celibacy, married, and evidently settled down to become a 
farmer and a useful citizen. 319 There seems to be no record 
of his marriage or who his wife was. The first positive 
information upon this episode in his career is the memo- 
randum found in Pastorius' writing, among the Frankfort 
papers, which states that " his own wife desired others to 
look for him in the woods, where it was thought he might 
have killed himself, he being above a week from home and 
nobody knowing where to find him." 

So much for Pastorius. In our sketch of the Community, 
the civil career of Daniel Falkner was traced down to the 
year 1704, when the last mention of his name appears in 
connection with the local affairs of Germantown. That 
he still remained in the Province and pressed the claims of 
his principals in Europe, for whom he acted as attorney, is 
shown by the official records of the land office. 

In a previous chapter extracts were given from the 
records to show how energetic Falkner was in settling the 
tangled affairs of the Frankfort Land Company, which had 
evidently been overlooked or neglected by Pastorius. The 
Furly claims were also vigorously pushed, as is shown by 
the old minute book " G," where we find several entries 
bearing upon the subject. 

319 According to the court records, October 14th, 1704, he was fined 6s. 
for having bad fences. 

312 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Early in the year 1705, Daniel Falkner, together with 
Jawert, who in the mean time had also married, made 
another effort to recover the land company's property. To 
counteract the continual charges by Pastorius that the 
power of attorney given to Falkner was void, on account 
of the refusal of Kelpius to act (as the document called for 
three persons to act jointly and not severally), the two 
remaining persons, upon legal advice, on March 29, 1705, 
substituted one George Lowther, a Philadelphia attorney, 
in the place of Kelpius. 

On the 2 2nd of the 8th month, 1705, Daniel Falkner 
went before the " Board of Property," 320 and " by order of 
Benjamin Furly, Informs that by the said Benjamin's letter 
he finds the Prop'ry had Promised him 2 lotts in the City 
Philad'a. for his 2 sons, Jno. and Arent Furly, and gave 
him an Expectation that he had wrote to the Sec'ry about 
it, y'rfor by his Petition, Requests the said lotts, but the 
Sec'ry nor any Other Person haveing Rec'd any Orders 
about them 'tis referred till such Orders arrive." 

That the substitution of L,owther as the third attorney 
did not meet with entire success is shown by Pastorius' 
sworn report to the land company in Germany, 321 where 
he states that in November, 1705, Jawert, who by this time 
had located permanently on the Bohemia Manor in Mary- 
land, returned to Germantown, and upon the ninth of that 
month affixed a public proclamation against the Court- 
house door, 322 by which he notified all persons not to pay 
any rent or other debt unto the said Daniel Falkner on the 
company's account. 323 

Notwithstanding the above manifesto, George Lowther, 

320 Penna. Archives, second series, vol. xix, p. 465. 

321 Pennsylvania Papers, S. P. G., l^ondon, Book 12, folio 206. 

822 Another account states it was the meeting house of the Friends. 

Johann Jawert. 


four months later, March 26, 1706, notified all tenants to 
meet him at the house of Joseph Coulson, on Friday, April 


5th, and make settlement of the debts due the company. 

323 An explanation of this action may be found in the fact that Jawert 
had become a member of the Society of Friends, and then joined forces 
with Pastorius against Falkner, who adhered strictly to his Lutheran 


314 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Under such circumstances, the lot of the German tenants 
was not a happy one ; neither was the position of Falkner 
a sinecure. 

The continuous opposition of Pastorius to Falkner's 
administration and the challenging of his authority to act, 
culminated about this time in a letter, inspired by Pastorius, 
from the Bailiff and Burgesses of the town, asking the 
company to dismiss Falkner and restore Pastorius to his 
former position. This missive failed to accomplish its pur- 
pose. For the next year or two, as Pastorius himself states, 
matters were quiet ; Falkner doing the best he could under 
the adverse circumstances. 

In the meantime a new condition arose to complicate 
still more the affairs of the land company. The property 
belonging to this organization during the past years had 
steadily increased in value. The unsettled condition of its 
affairs in the Province, for which Pastorius was mainly 
responsible, attracted the attention of various persons who 
wished to possess themselves of this now valuable franchise. 
A conspiracy was the result, the chief actors in which were 
Johann Heinrich Sprogel, David L,loyd, 324 and Thomas 
Clark, the last acting as attorney for Sprogel. 

In the investigation of this celebrated case the finding of 
the Provincial Council, March 1, 1708-9, was that "it 
appeared that David LJoyd was principal agent and con- 
triver of the whole, and it was affirmed that he had for his 
pay a thousand acres of Benjamin Furly's land, which he, 
the said Benjamin, was so weak as to intrust Sprogel with 
the disposal of." 326 

Sprogel, 326 who was the son of the well-known theolo- 

824 For biographical sketch of David Lloyd, see " Penna. Magazine, ' ' vol. 
v, pp. 187-8. 
325 Minutes of Prov. Council, Col. Rec. ii, p. 432. 

Perfidity of Sprogel. 315 

gian of the same name, appears in anything but an enviable 
light. From certain correspondence between Benjamin 
Furly and others which has lately come to light, it appears 
that Sprogel was a schemer of the first order, and anything 

Autograph of John Henry Sprogel. 

but a man of honor, character or principle. In fact, Furly 
accuses him not only of forgery, but of larceny as well. 327 
Sprogel came to America either with the Falkner brothers 
or shortly afterwards, as his name appears upon the public 
records as early as 18th n mo., 1702. 328 

The climax of the conspiracy for which Daniel Falkner 
has thus far been blamed occurred on the 13th of January, 
1708-9. 329 According to Pastorius, 330 "the said Falkner 
appeared in an adjourned court held for the County of 

326 John Henry Sprogel, was born February 12, 1679. His father, an 
eminent author and clergyman of the same name, was teacher of the semi- 
nary at Quedlinburg. His mother, Susanna Margaretta, was a daughter 
of the celebrated composer of music Michael Wagner, and the Church 
historian Godfried Arnold , who wrote the ' 'Kirchen and Ketzer Histories, ' ' 
married his sister. Sprogel was naturalized in 1705, and for a time 
figured as a shipping merchant and became quite a land owner, as in 
addition to the Frankfort Company lands he acquired several large tracts 
on the other side of the river. He died at his home at the mouth of Spro- 
gel's Run at Manatawney, which was a part of the land to the present suit, 
wherein he had subsidized all the lawyers who were then in the Pro- 
vince, viz.: David Lloyd, George Lowther, Thomas Clark and Thomas 

The borough of Pottstown is now upon a part of this land. 

S27 Furiy'g letters in the collection of the Penna. Historical Society. 

328 Minute Book G. 

329 A full account of this case will be found in the report of Colonial 
Cases, by Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

330 Archives of S. P. G., London, Letter-book xii, p. 206. 

316 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, where it is said he swore that the Frankfort 
Company was many hundred pounds in his debt, and that 
he therfore must sell their land to Ditto Sprogel ; to whom 
the said court immediately granted an ejectment. When 
as neither Johannes Jawert nor the aforsaid Pastorius had 
the least knowledge of it, and the tenants in possession 
never were summond to any court. 

"The 24th of January, 1708-9, the sheriff, by virtue of 
a writt signed Joseph Growden, Esq., delivered unto the 
said Sprogel possession of the said company's house & land 
in Germantown and Atturned unto him the said Sprogell 
some of the Ten'ts in the German Township. The greatest 
part then refusing to acknowledge him for their Land Lord, 
who never the Less were afterwards successively persuaded 
so to do. 

"Thereupon the said Jawert and Pastorius, Petitioned 
the Hona'ble Govern'r Charles Gookin Esq. and Councill, 
Anno 1709 for to assign a Lawyer, in Order to have the 
wrong redressed, for as much as the said Sprogel had feed 
most of them, if not all & However Thomas Clark 
affirming before the Hona'ble Board, That when he did 
Rise in the above said Court, he was promised 40 shillings 
But never had the same paid to him, he was to do the Com- 
pany's business. Now in what manner he acted the said 
Johannes Jawert who gave him a Tenn pounds Fee, Can tell 
best and Judge Growdon Then owned at the said Board that 
the court had been surprised by the Lawyers." SS1 

Now the true facts of the case are that Sprogel, by virtue 
of forged letters, he together with David Lloyd imposed 
upon Falkner, actually had him imprisoned in the common 
goal, and released him only upon conveying the Frankfort 

331 Minutes Prov. Council, March I, 1708-9, Col. Rec. ii, 430. 

Captain Vining's Report. 317 

claims to them, as is shown by his own declaration to the 
representative of the Governor. 332 

Some years later the survivors of the old Frankfort Com- 
pany, owing to the unsatisfactory condition of their affairs 
in Pennsylvania and the lack of any returns from their 
investments there, offered to give all of their lands in Penn- 
sylvania to the Venerable Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 333 which had been formed in Lon- 
don. This offer, it appears, was accepted and an attempt 
was made by the society to recover the same. 

In connection with the investigation that followed, a 
report was made by Captain Vining, who was deputed to 
look up the matter and report the true facts of the case to 
Governor Gookin. In this report he states : ss * 

" I have waited on Francis Daniel Pastorius, Severall 
times but he's Apprehensive of his own ill Administration, 
and others have forbid him whose Circumstances are as bad 
as his, I have herewith sent an Exemplification of 22377 
acres in Mannatanny with the survey of it from the sur- 
veyor General's office, also an exemplification (here follows 
a list of the Company's property) But by Dan'l Falkner 
was this day informed that Pastorius sold all that (land) 
but gave no titles, the said Faulkner further saith that he 
sold 335 the 22377 acres of land to Sprogell by force being 

332 Records S. P. G. 

333 The credit for the discovery of these valuable documents, stored in 
the archives of the London Society, is due to the Rev. Roswell Randall 
Hoes, Chaplain U. S. N. Rev. Mr. Hoes, who is considered one of the 
most thorough investigators and geneologists of the early Dutch settlers, 
is best known by his publication of the Baptismal and Marriage Registers 
of the Old Dutch Church of Kingston, Ulster County, N. Y., formerly 
named Wiltwyck and familiarly called Esopus. New York, 1891. 

334 Archives S. P. G. Letter-book xiii, Penna. Letters, folio 281. 

335 This should read surrendered, as Falkner received no consideration 
whatever for the transfer of the property. 

318 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

sued and in Goal, and many years after Jawert and Kelpius 
had renoun'd acting and that he knew himself weak and 
of no power to sell but was poor and forced to do it by 
David Lloyd and Tho' Clark, Sprogell's Attorney he Adds 
that ioo acres of Liberty lands was laid out Between the 
Two Ferrys Rocks and benjamins, w'ch he sold to Dr. 
Sober also 120 acres do Land near Derby which he sold to 
John Ball which he now lives on but observe that in all the 
sales of Land he sold it was by his own power of and no 
joint power of Jawert, Kelpius, and the Falkner the records 
do not afford a copy of the power of Attorney by which 
these men acted, or at least I cannot come at them however 
Mr. Pastorius assures me that he often saw the power 
granted to Jawert, Kelpius and Falkner and that they were 
to act jointly together, but severally not at all. The same 
did this Daniel Falkner confess to me this day but is poor 
and believe could be got for a small gain to discover the 
whole plott and in the presence of Edward Farmer Esq. 
promised he would." 

From the above it will be seen that Falkner profited little 
or nothing by his attorneyship, and that in the end he was 
a victim of Sprogel's machinations ; further, that whatever 
loss resulted to the parent company was due to Sprogel, 
who remained in possession of the property. 

Sprogel, in the year 17 13, sold 1000 acres of this land to 
Rev. Evan Evans, then rector of Christ Church in Phila- 
delphia, and who was the most active clergyman within the 
Province. Six hundred acres, deeded July 10, n of above 
year, were to be known as Rhyd y Carw (the Deer's Trail). 
The remaining 400 acres adjoining the above, conveyed 
July 29, 30, 1713, were named by Evans " Trefeglwys," or 
Churchtown. The consideration being ^"180 lawful silver 
money of America, in addition to the usual quit rent. The 

Falkner Swamp. 319 

latter tract is in Caernarvon Township, Lancaster County. 
Here an Episcopal preaching station was established by 
Evans, which is still known as Christ Church, Church- 
town. 336 

The Frankfort Company, in view of the new evidence 
that has come to light, certainly seems to have been unfor- 
tunate in the selection of its official representatives in 
America. Daniel Falkner seems to be the only one of the 
three who retired poor at the expiration of his stewardship. 

The title of the Frankfort Land Company to the Mana- 
tawney tract of 22000 acres, confirmed October 25, 1701, 
is supposed to have been settled by Germans as early as 
1700, emigrants who came over with Daniel Falkner upon 
his return. The development of this tract, which still 
partly bears his name " Falkner's Swamp," 33tr occupied 
much of the time and energy of the German Mystic, and as a 
result he gradually lost his interest in Germantown civil 
affairs, as well as in the Community he had been instru- 
mental in establishing upon the Wissahickon. 

The earliest direct evidence of this congregation known 
to the writer, is a Swedish account of a visit made to 
Manatawney by Pastor Sandel in company with Daniel 
Falkner in the autumn of 1704, wherein it is stated that 

336 Vide, Historical Collections of American Church, vol ii, p. 73. 

337 According to Henry S. Dotterer, the boundaries of Falkner Swamp 
may be given in a. general way as follows : on the north are the South 
Mountains, on the south are the Stone Hills, on the west the Fox Hills, 
and on the east the ridge rising from the left bank of Society Run. 
Swamp Creek, having as its tributaries Society Run, Spack Run, Minis- 
ter Creek (the old Pfarrer's Bach), Schlegel's Run and Goshenhoppen 
Run, flows in a winding course through the Valley. The first official 
name given to any portion of the Swamp Creek Valley of Falkner's 
Swamp was Hanover Township. Afterwards Frederick Township was set 
up, and later Douglass Township, and still later Hanover was cut up into 
New Hanover and Upper Hanover. 

320 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the former assisted Falkner at the Church services on 
Sunday, October 15th. 337 One of the first things he did in 

Autograph of Rev. Andreas Sandel. 

the new settlement was to organize a congregation, build a 
church, and hold services according to the Lutheran ritual. 

This humble structure, a mere rude log-cabin, without 
any attempt at ornamentation or architectural beauty, with 
its sparse congregation and enthusiastic preacher, has the 
distinction of being the first regular German Lutheran 
Church and organized congregation in the Western World. 
It served the congregation until 172 1, when a more pre- 
tentious building was erected, also of logs. In 1719 the 
church was endowed with 50 acres of land for church and 
school purposes by Sprogel, who succeeded Falkner to the 

[The circumstances connected with this interesting 
gift are as follows : m In the latter year John Henry Spro- 
gel requested Henry Pannebecker to lay out and survey 
fifty acres for the purpose, which survey was completed 
April 17, 1719, and George Boone, to prepare a deed, but 
through some neglect this important paper was never exe- 
cuted. The Lutherans entered into possession, raised a 
contribution among themselves, built a church and a school- 
house, and had them completely finished in 1721. About 
the same year, becoming more numerous and the congre- 

337 Corroborative evidence appears in Sandel's Diary. 

338 Henry S. Dotterer in the " Perkiomen Region, Past and Present," 
vol. i, pp. 4-5. 

The Falkner Swamp Congregation. 321 

gation being to large for the building, they raised another 
contribution and erected a larger church and school-house 
"far preferable to the former." In 1746 they awoke to a 
knowledge of the fact that Sprogel was dead, and that 
" owing to the Sloath and Neglect of the Elders and Church 
wardens" they had no title except it was shown by Spro- 
gel's conveyance of other lands described as adjoining 
those of the church. Henry Pannebecker, Valentine Gei- 
ger, George Jerger, Johanna Christiana Sprogel, widow of 
John Henry Sprogel, Jr., John Frederick Richards and 
Anna Elizabeth Hoppin, sister of Spogel and a widow, 
February 10, 1746, united in a certificate of these facts, and 
appearing before John Potts, one of his Majesty's justices, 
declared they were "Real Truth." Upon this paper the 
title depends. J 

It may be well to state here incidentally that Justus 
Falkner was not ordained at Wicacoa as pastor of this 
church, nor did he ever serve or preach here after his 
ordination. How long Daniel Falkner continued his 
interest in either this tract or the church is not known to 
a certainty, but it could not have been long after he was 
dispossessed of the property by Sprogel, as is recited at 
length elsewhere in this sketch. 

[The next German preacher of whom we have any 
record as ministering to the Falkner Swamp congregation 
is Gerhard Henkel 339 who served the congregation for 
several years after his arrival in 17 17. 340 From March, 1720, 
to October, 1723, the church was served by Rev. Samuel 
Hesselius, the Swedish pastor at Wicacoa, after which time 
the congregation was served by various preachers at irregu- 

339 It is a question whether Gerhard Henkel was ever ordained. Vide, 
Rev. J. W. Mann, "Annotations Hallische Nachrichten," vol. i. 

340 " Halleische Nachrichten," p. 831. 


322 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

lar intervals until they united with the congregations at 
Trappe and Philadelphia in an urgent call to Europe, 3 * 1 
which was responded to by the Rev. Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg in 1742.] 

Daniel Falkner, now thoroughly disheartened and bereft 
of all his property by the conspiracy of Sprogel and Lloyd 
and the continuous opposition of Pastorius and his followers, 
and seeing that the Brotherhood, after the death of Kelpius, 
was in a state of disintegration, determined, at the first 
opportunity, to bid farewell to the scenes of his struggles 
and disappointments. He did not have long to wait, as 
his brother Justus asked his assistance in ministering to 
the Germans who were scattered over a large territory in 
East Jersey, and had started several congregations on the 
Raritan and its tributaries. The records of this are to be 
found upon the old register of the New York congregation, 
where they were entered by Dominie Justus Falkner (1703- 
1723), as a part of his notitia parochialis. 

According to an extended investigation lately published 342 
relative to the German Lutherans in New Jersey, it appears 
that the earliest known local record of any act of service 
by a German Lutheran pastor in that colony was a bap- 
tism held August 1, 1714, at the house of " Ari van Guinea" 
a Christian negro on the Raritan, upon which occasion was 
baptized a child, born March 25, of John Peter Applemann 
and his wife Anna Magdalena. 

Unfortunately the chronicler neglects to give the entry 
verbatim, or even to name the pastor who performed the 
sacred function, or where the original record is to be found. 
Which of the two Falkner brothers officiated upon this 

341 "The Old Trappe Church," Kretschmaun, 1893, p. 5. 
3,2 "The Early Germans in New Jersey," by Theo. Freylinghausen 

Ari van Guinea. 


occasion is an open question. It was most probably Daniel, 
as Dominie Justus would have entered the fact upon his 
own register in New York. 

Then again Ari and his wife Jora, both negroes, were 
originally from New York, and in the entry of the baptism 
of their child in 1705, Dominie Falkner calls them both 
Christian members of his congregation. 3 ' 13 After their 
removal to the Raritan Valley, they remained true and 
steadfast to their Christian profession according to the 
Lutheran doctrine, which is further instanced by the facts 
of their humble home being selected for the administration 
of the sacred ordinance, and that the name of their son, 
"Ari van Guinea, Jr.," subsequently appears upon Falk- 
ner's subscription list as a contributor towards the re-building 
of the Lutheran Church in New York. 

To return to the subject of our sketch, it was shortly 

after the interview men 
ing that we find Dan 
ed as the regular 
more congrega 
ley of the Raritan, 
permanently set 
sey, where two of 
eventually married 
lie married Wilhelin 

tioned by Captain Vin- 

Falkner install- 

pastor of two or 

tions in the val- 

and his family 

tied in New Jer- 

his daughters 

parishioners; Mol- 

Dern, a brewer, and 

the other married Jo seal of west jersey. Cannes Kasner, who 
was a farmer. Both were active men in their respective 

From now onward the history of Daniel Falkner becomes 
a part of the Lutheran Church record of New Jersey and 
New York. The congregations served by him were known 

Vide, extracts Baptismal Register,— sketch of Justus Falkner. 

324 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

as Rareton (Raritan), Im Gebirge (in the Highlands), MuhU 
stein, Uylekil, Remrepugh, (Wallkill) or Ramapo^ (Rem- 
merspach), Hanover, and Racheway. 

[Racheway, now Rockaway, originally Rahawaich, the 
Indian name of a tributary of the Raritan in Hunterdon 
County. It was upon the east bank of this river, two miles 
west of the present New Germantown, that the small log 
church of the Racheway congregation was built. J 

Of these stations at the time of Falkner's activity, 
according to the old records, Miihlstein must have been the 
most important Lutheran settlement at that day. The Rev. 
E. T. Corwin, D. D., of New Brunswick, who lived in the 
Miihlstein section for a quarter of a century, and spent 
much time in investigating the history of that region, states 
that the place now called Harlingen was, from 1728-1788, 
called Millstone (Miihlstein), because it was op de Mill- 
stone (over the Millstone). The Millstone River 345 is said 
to have been so named because of a hollow stone on the 
bank, in the present village of Millstone, 346 where the In- 
dians pounded their corn. The reference to the Raritan, 
according to the same eminent authority, means the country 
about New Germantown in Hunterdon and Warren Counties. 

344 Ramapo, in Bergen County, is a high hill on the river of the same 

846 The Millstone River rises near Paint Island Spring, in Upper Freehold 
Township, Monmouth County, and flows thence by a northern course of 
about five miles to the line between Monmouth and Middlesex Counties, 
thence N. W. about 14 miles through Middlesex County to the mouth of 
Stony Brook ; thence N. E. by way of Kingston into Somerset County, 
and after a course of 16 miles empties into the Raritan. It is a strong 
rapid stream, receiving the waters of an extensive country, and runs in 
many places through narrow valleys and consequently is subject to sudden 
and great overflows. 

346 The village of Millstone is in Hillsboro Township, Somerset County, 
on the left bank of the Millstone River. It is about five miles south of 

Daniel Falkner in New Jersey, 325 

According to late investigation, 347 the congregation " Im 
Gedirge," i. e., in the highlands or mountains, also called in 
the German reports the Berg Gemeine or Hill Congrega- 
tion, built a church 348 at an early day which stood about 
one mile east of Pluckamin. 349 The Rockaway Church, 
according to the same authority, was in Potterstown, 350 and 
is spoken of in a deed given for land " next to the church lot" 
by Aree van Genee,® 1 in 1741, to Matthias Scharfenstein. 

As to the Hanover Church there seems to be some doubt 
and uncertainty about its identity. Recent investigations, 
however, all seem to point to the locality of Fuchsenberg or 
Fox Hill as the one here alluded to. 352 According to the 
Halle Reports, the original log church was located on the 
northern slope of this tract of elevated country, and was 
used by those of both the Lutheran and Reformed faith. 353 

In addition to the above enumerated stations, Daniel 
Falkner for a time served all the congregations, German 
and Dutch Lutheran, between Albany and Staten Island. 
This was after the death of the Rev. Joshua Kocherthal in 
1719, and of his brother Justus in 1723. In the old Kocher- 
thal Church Register appears the following entry in his 
handwriting : 

347 Theo. Freylinghausen Chambers in "The Early Germans in New 
Jersey," Rev. J. W. Mann " Annotations Hallische Nachrichten," vol. ii, 
p. 227. 

348 This church was replaced in 1756 by a stone one built in Pluckamin, 
upon the site now occupied by the Presbyterian Church. Ibid. 

349 pi uc kamin is a town in Bedminster Township, Somerest County. 
It is pleasantly situated at the foot of Basking Ridge. It is about six 
miles northwest of Somerville. 

350 Potterstown or Pottersville is in Hunterdon County on the road lead- 
ing from Somerville to Philipsburg. 

351 Ari van Guinea, vide, p. 323, also sketch of Justus Falkner. 

362 An exhaustive argument upon this subject will be found in the pre- 
viously quoted work of Mr. Chambers. 

363 " Annotations Hallische Nachrichten," vol. ii, p. 226. 

336 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Anno 1724. ultima Die Mensis Septembr beate defunc- 
torum et Kocherthalii et Fratris partes exolvere vocatus 
Baptizavi Seqventes Daniel Falckner. Past, ad Muhlstein 
et in Montib. prope fluntem Rare ton." 

[In the year 1724, on the last day of September, called 
in the place of the saintly deceased Kocherthal, and my 
saintly brother, I, Daniel Falkner, pastor at Muhlstein and 
on the river Raritan, baptized the following.] ss * 

In this extended field of labor did the German Theoso- 
phist serve well and faithfully until the arrival from Europe 
of the Rev. W. C. Berkenmeyer, nor did his zeal and interest 
abate in the New York congregations after the arrival of 
the official successor to his deceased brother. For when 
the question was agitated for building a new and enlarged 
church in New York city, and the enterprise lagged for 
want of funds, the now aged Pietist and pastor personally 
interested himself and others by collecting money from his 
own charges in New Jersey. It was largely due to his 
influence and efforts that the task undertaken by the strug- 
gling Lutherans in New York city was successfully accom- 
plished. A record of two subscription lists from the Jersey 
congregations has fortunately been preserved, and both are 
headed by Daniel Falkner personally. Rev. Berkenmeyer, 
the pastor in charge, acknowledges the receipt of both lists 
in the church records under date of June 23, 1727. 

" On the 23d of June have I received, at Kalverak, from 
Falkner, on the second Sunday after Trinity, 1727, 385 * * * 
at Raritans. At Muhlstein they have for the building of 
the Lutheran Church caused to be subscribed." 

A fac-simile of the original entry, with the names 
attached, is here given. This interesting record was photo- 

354 List of names missing. 
335 Illegible. 

An Ancient Subscription List. 



? ? * * 5 

328 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

graphed by the present writer from the original which is 
still in possession of the New York congregation. 

Attention is here called to the fact that Rev. Berken- 
meyer, who was a great stickler for ecclesiastical ethics as 
is shown in his controversy with Van Diren, 357 never once 
questioned the validity of Daniel Falkner's ordination or 
right to perform the sacred functions. This fact is repeat- 
edly proven by his numerous entries in the church records 
as well as by his correspondence. 

When finally the Dutch Lutheran Church at the south- 
west corner of the Breit-weg and Priester Gasse 358 was 
completed and dedicated to its pious uses, on the fourth 
Sunday after Trinity (June 29, 1729), and named after the 
Holy Trinity, Daniel Falkner, the former Pietist of Erfurth, 
Theosophist on the Wissahickon, and now serving as a 
regular ordained pastor in East Jersey, was one of the most 
venerable and honored clergymen who officiated at the altar 
upon that festive occasion. Further, the warmest thanks 
were extended to Dominie Falkner at the time by Pastor 
Berkenmeyer and his congregation for the assistance the 
former had rendered to them. 

Strange, indeed, it seems that this should be the same 
man who was so persistently vilified and maligned by Pas- 
torius, and wronged by Sprogel and his co-partners. Out- 
side of the accusations in the Pastorius MSS. not a word or 
line can be found to corroborate the charges against this 
pioneer missionary, who labored in the vineyard of the 
Lord until the end of his days. 

366 In the preceding subscription list the name of Arie van Guinea, Jr., 
will be noticed. This was a son of Ari van Guinea and Jora his wife, 
mentioned elsewhere in this book, vide, p. 323, supra and sketch of Justus 

657 Zenger, 1728. 

358 Broadway and Rector Streets. 

Casper Stover. 329 

As Daniel Falkner grew older and became unable to 
serve his widely scattered congregations with that regu- 
larity which had been his custom, he requested two of the 
congregations to secure another pastor. Before long a 
candidate presented himself. He was from Pennsylvania, 
and his name was Casper Stover. He was willing to assume 
the charges, provided Falkner would ordain him to the 
ministry. This the latter refused to do, after hearing 
Stover's trial sermon. Consequently the old Theosophist 
remained in charge for about two years longer, acting not 
only as clergyman but also as physician. 

A letter written at this period represents Falkner as 
ageing rapidly ; but he was still bodily active, his eyes 
were clear and sharp, and did him good service in gathering 
herbs and simples for curative purposes. He was, however, 
somewhat eccentric, and upon that account had more or 
less trouble with some of his parishioners. The discon- 
tented ones finally appealed to Dominie Berkenmeyer, the 
senior in New York. This resulted in a personal visit to 
Rockaway on Thursday, September 9, 1731, by Berken- 
meyer, with two of his elders, viz.: Hannes Lagrangie and 
Heinrich Schleydorn. 

An interesting account of this journey is found in Berken- 
meyer's Diary. 359 It is headed : "IMMANUEL— Relation 
von der Raretauner Briefs nach Hamburg |[ aus meinen 
diario und paquet ip der Neu Yorkische Brief en || in diese 
Continuation des Loonenburgischen, Albanische || Protocolh 

It states that the trio, on September 9, 1731, went by 
water to Elizabeth Point, where they were met by mem- 
bers of one of Falkner's congregations. Three spare 
horses were furnished, and the party rode until nightfall. 

359 Archive of the Lutheran Seminary at Gettysburg, Penn. 


330 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

After a short rest, they again started at two o'clock in the 
morning and proceeded on their journey, as the cool night 
and the bright moonlight was preferable to the torrid heat 
of the sun. 

Arriving at the end, Berkenmeyer first went towards 
Falkner's house, where the visitors were met with the 
unsatisfactory statement that the pastor had left at day- 
break and had gone into the woods to gather herbs, also 
that he had gone on a fishing excursion with his son-in-law. 
A servant girl, however, was sent out into the woods to 
search for Falkner, and, as she did not return for some time, 
Elder Schleydorn also went in search of him. 

The search proving unsuccessful, Falkner's daughter 
offered to go, but just as she was about to start, her father 
and his son-in-law were seen approaching leisurely from 
the woods, whither they had gone in search of medi- 
cinal herbs, which were supposed to be gathered while the 
dew was yet on them. Falkner greeted his visitors cordi- 
ally, and as his morning's occupation was uppermost in his 
mind, he called their attention to some differences between 
similar herbs in America and Europe. Botany and cura- 
tive herbs had but little interest for the three strangers, so 
they at once broached the subject of their visit. To their 
joy the old Theosophist, without hesitation, offered to re- 
sign any of his charges as soon as a successor should arrive, 
if such an act upon his part would lead to permanent 

From the hospitable home of Dominie Falkner the trio 
journeyed to Rockaway (Whitehouse), where the new 
church building 360 was being made ready for service. 
They arrived at eight o'clock in the evening (Friday, Sep- 
tember 10, 1731), and found their intended host, John Bal- 

360 At Potterstown. 

A Church Dedication in New Jersey. 331 

thazar Pickel, busily engaged in arranging the pulpit and 
seats for the morrow. 

On the next day (Saturday, September 11), preparatory 
communion services 361 were held, and the church was 
solemnly dedicated to its pious uses according to the Ortho- 
dox Lutheran ritual. Upon the following day, Sunday, 
the Holy Communion was administered to about thirty 
persons, at which service both Rev. Berkenmeyer and 
Daniel Falkner officiated. 

On Monday, September 13, 1731, a congregational meet- 
ing was held at the house of Peter Kasner, Im Gebirge 
[in the hills or highlands] at which, in reply to an address 
by Dominie Berkenmeyer, the venerable Falkner told the 
strangers " How much pleasure it had afforded his people 
as well as himself to have been able to assist them in the 
building of their new church in the city." 

He further stated " that he acknowledged that city to be 
their modern Athens, whence their help and succor must 
come in the future. For this reason he had prayed con- 
tinually and fervently, during both his sainted brother's 
lifetime and Kocherthal's, that they would not neglect the 
isolated German congregations in the Jerseys. In conclu- 
sion he thanked the Reverend Senior and his deputies for 
their trouble and offers of assistance in settling any con- 
gregational differences that existed or should arise at any 
future time. As to his own personality, he declared that, 
although he was without means, he was perfectly willing 
to resign any or all of his charges so that the congregations 
should be served better and more regularly. He, however, 
cautioned them that his charges were precarious, as the 
congregations were apt to make promises, but they failed 
to keep their obligations, and there were no means at hand 

36i Vor-beichte. 

332 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

to ensure sustenance to any man who should come to them 
from some distant land." 

The outcome of this meeting was that calls to L,ondon 
and Hamburg were issued and transmitted to Europe. 
Both of these documents were signed by Daniel Falkner as 
Pastor loci. Before dismissing the Council, Dominie Berk- 
enmeyer made an address, in which he extended hearty 
thanks to Pastor Falkner for his love and charity towards 
the people under him. He then proceeded to admonish the 
assembled church officers and members to extend all due 
reverence and courtesy within their power to Pastor Falk- 
ner for his consideration towards them. An agreement 
was also drawn up on this occasion and signed by all pres- 
ent. A facsimile of it is here reproduced from the original 
draft in the Berkenmeyer Diary. 

It was well toward the end of the year 1734 before the 
Rev. John August Wolff arrived from Europe in response 
to the two urgent calls sent out at the above meeting. 
During this interim of three years Pastor Falkner continued 
as best he could to serve his numerous and scattered con- 
gregations. The selection of Pastor Wolff proved a most 
unfortunate one, and it was not long before direct charges 
were made and proven against the new pastor, who was 
thereupon debarred from officiating by the church officials. 

During these troubles we again find the old Pietist active 
in supplying the congregations, and raising his voice in the 
interests of religion and morality as against the conduct of 
Wolff. Several letters written by Falkner to Dominie 
Berkenmeyer and Pastor Knoll upon this subject are still 
in existence. 

The last trace which the present writer could find of the 
now aged and venerable Daniel Falkner, whose years were 
extended beyond the scriptural limit of three score and 

The New Jersey Council, 


334 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

ten, is about the year 1741. He was then living in retire- 
ment with his daughter in the vicinity of the present New 
Germantown, in Hunterdon County. 

Just when he was called from the Church militant to 
join the Church triumphant is not ascertained. Careful 
research has failed to disclose records which would give 
information as to either his death or burial. There can be 
but little doubt that he died in full communion with the 
church of his forefathers in the hope of a blessed resurrec- 
tion, as did most of his former brethern of the Chapter of 
Perfection who established themselves upon the banks of 
the Wissahickon. 

Fortunate, indeed, was the discovery in the Berkenmeyer 
Diaries, Trinity Church records and Furly correspondence, 
of the references to Daniel Falkner, as they afford us a true 
insight into the life and character of this Pietist, Theoso- 
phist and student, who was so active in the early days of 
Pennsylvania's history, and whom hitherto we had known 
only as a dissolute character from the scurrilities of Pas- 
torius. There is no evidence whatever to show that Daniel 
Falkner ever revisited Pennsylvania, or took any interest 
in the affairs of either the land company or such of his 
former companions as remained on the Ridge. Nor is 
there any evidence to show that he profited even to the 
value of a single shilling by his attorneyship. 

Perhaps at some future day additional records may be 
found in connection with the Frankfort Company which 
will give still further insight into the life of this pious pil- 
grim : " a fellow-struggler, compassionate and expectant of 
the Body of Christ awaiting the Arch-Shepherd and King 
of Heaven with ardent longing " no longer, but now a par- 
taker of the rewards due to the faithful servant in the 
realms of bliss. 


{+1 BBUG, who for a short 
*J27 ti me succeeded Kelpius 
^ as Magister of the now 
greatly diminished Theosophi- 
cal Brotherhood, was a native 
of L-emgo, a town of some 
importance in Lippe-Detmold, 
where he was born in 1668. 
He was one of the original pro- 
arms of chur-braunschweig, 1694. moters of the Chapter of Per- 
fection and the scheme of emigration to America. In all 
contemporary accounts his name is mentioned as one of the 
principal characters of the Brotherhood. Seelig was a theo- 
logian as well as a scholar, and prior to his connection with 
the Pietistical movement was a licentiate or candidate for 
orders, who was licensed to preach and teach theology. 
Seelig was noted for his examplary piety and austere man- 
ner, and next to Kelpius was, so far as our knowledge goes, 
the most gentle and lovely character among the Mystic 

He resisted all offers to return to the world and its temp- 
tations with the same determination as his Magister. 
Wealth and power had no charm for this devout Mystic. 
Of all the members of the Fraternity, he was the nearest 

336 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

to Kelpius, who was wont to speak of him as his " dear 
Seelig " {lieber Seelig). 

Even the honor accorded him by the remaining Theoso- 
phists as Magister after the death of Kelpius was too great 
for him. He practiced the humility that he professed, and 
said he would rather live the life of an humble recluse, clad 
in coarse woolen homespun in his cheerless anchorite cell, 
than be clothed with any show of worldly authority or 
power ; a condition which he held to be inconsistent with 
his profession. 

So after a short time Seelig renounced his right of suc- 
cession as Magister in favor of Conrad Matthai, clad him- 
self in pilgrim garb, and retired to one of the small log 
cabins that were on the tract, where he spent his time in 
mystical speculations and devout meditations, in which the 
spiritual bridegroom bore an important part. 

The pious ascetic, however, did not live in idleness, but 
tilled a garden for his support, taught school, instructed 
adults in religion, and, as he was an expert scrivener, did 
much of the early conveyancing about Germantown. As 
a matter of fact it is said that many of the older German- 
town deeds are in his handwriting. 

L,ike nearly all German studiosi of that period he had 
been instructed in a handicraft in his youth. In his case 
it was one that proved itself of great value not only to the 
old recluse but also to the community at large. This was 
the bookbinder's art, and he had brought a full complement 
of tools with him to this country. All the Jansen imprints 
were bound by him, as were also the earliest editions of the 
Sauer press. Prominent among the latter was the edition 
of the Zionitischer Weyrauchs Hugel, oder Myrrhen Berg, 
a hymn book of over 800 pages, printed by Sauer for the 
Ephrata Community. 

Rev. Muhlenberg's Tribute. 337 

There is an Ephrata tradition, which is undoubtedly cor- 
rect, that Seelig afterwards instructed several of the Zionitic 
Brotherhood 362 in his art, and thus introduced book-binding 
among them ; so that Ephrata for a time became the most 
extensive bindery in America. Further, it is more than 
probable that Seelig had some knowledge of the printer's 
art, and was one of those who induced Reynier Jansen to 
assume the responsibility of the Friend's press, 363 and after- 
wards assisted him in its management. 

Not the least of Seelig's labors was the giving of instruct- 
tion, religious and elementary, to the young of both sexes. 
That his efforts in this line bore good fruit is attested by 
the tribute accorded him by the Patriarch Muhlenberg, 3M 
who in his reports to Halle writes : 365 " Several years ago 
an inquiry was made of me from Germany in reference to 
certain candidatii theologies who came to this country some 
considerable time before my arrival. In the first years of 
my sojourn here I met one of them, Herr Seelig, who lived 
in the above-mentioned vicinity (Roxborough) eight miles 
from the city, 366 after the manner of an anchorite, and 
instructed the children of the vicinity. 

" To this old and venerable candidatus our fellow-sister 367 
went to school in her tender youth, and received through 
his instructions gentle impressions of true piety." 

362 A branch of the Ephrata Community. 

363 Vide p. 105, supra. 

364 The Rev. Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, the first Lutheran minis- 
ter sent out from Halle. He is usually called the Patriarch to distinguish 
him from his three sons who were all ordained in the ministry. 

365 XIV Continuation, folio 1256. 

366 This distance was computed from the old Court House at Second and 
Market Streets, up Second Street and Germantown Road to Germantown 
was five miles ; thence to Roxborough, as the roads then went, three 
miles; total eight miles. 

967 A member of his congregation. Vide " Merkwitrdige Exempel" 
No. i, 1769. 


338 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

On account of Seelig's austere mode of life and the 
coarse pilgrim habit worn upon all occasions, he became 
known among the inhabitants as " der Heilige Johannes? 
As the devout recluse became older, and the inroads of age 
were making themselves felt, it appears that he left the 
cabin near the Wissahickon and took up his abode in a 
somewhat similar structure on the farm of William Lever- 
ing, which was either especially built for him or else placed 
at his disposal. Trustworthy traditions in the Levering 
family, 308 which have been handed down for generations, 
inform us that this cabin was in the valley back of the 
present Leverington Cemetery in Roxborough, and was 
near the home of William Levering. 369 

What the precise relations were that existed between the 
mystic recluse and William Levering is not known at the 
present day, except that they were those of intimate friend- 
ship. The same traditions tell us that " Seelig, while living 
on the Levering farm, predicted men's lives, when requested, 
after the manner of the astrologers of the middle ages." 

When the old recluse verged on threescore and ten, he 
became so feeble that he was frequently confined to his 
cabin. During this period he was frequently visited by 
the early Moravian evangelists, Bohnisch, Spangenberg, 
Nitschmann and Neisser. He was well known to the 
Count Zinzendorf, who paid him several visits. Seelig was 

sub <■ Genealogical Account of the Levering Family," page 19. 

sea William Levering was the son of Wigart, the emigrant. He came 
to Pennsylvania with his father in 1685, when he was eight years old ; 
the family removed from Germantown to Roxborough in 1692 ; their 
plantation or farm adjoined that of the Kelpius Community. The Lever- 
ing family subsequently intermarried, with the Righters, who bought the 
former tract after the disbandment of the Community. Wigert Levering, 
the emigrant, died February 2, 1744-45, at the age of ninty-seven years ; 
his son, William, died in the fall of 1746, in his seventieth year. 

Death of Seelig. 339 

one of the two " Hermits" whom the Count could not per- 
suade to join forces with him in his evangelistic movement. 

There is a tradition connected with Seelig, somewhat 
similar to that of Kelpius. During his last sickness, when 
he felt that his end was approaching, he expressed the 
desire to William Levering that his staff (stad), a peculiar 
cane which he had always carried, should be cast into the 
Schuylkill immediately upon his death. This request was 
complied with, and as the rod touched the water it exploded 
with a loud report. His death is thus noted in the Levering 
family Bible : "John Sealy, hermit, died April 26, 1745, 
aged 77 years." 

In the Ephrata Manuscripts it is stated that he was buried 
on the farm. But whether on the Levering farm 370 or beside 
Kelpius and others, who rested under the shadow of the 
Tabernacle in the orchard on the then Righter plantation, 
cannot be determined. 

From the old record we further learn that it was at the 
close of a bright spring-like day that the small cortege 
wended its way from the humble cabin in the Levering 
valley bearing the remains of the devout recluse to the 
grave. The mourners were sincere, for Seelig, like Kelpius, 
had been singularly beloved and respected. 

Prominent among the number were such as once belonged 
to the Community on the Wissahickon. The only names, 
however, that have come down to us of the latter are Con- 
rad Matthai, who conducted the services, and his two assist- 
ants — Daniel Geissler, 371 former Famulus to Kelpius, and 
Christopher Witt, now " Practitioner of Physic " in Ger- 
mantown. As the last rays of the sun gilded the horizon, 

870 There was a private burying ground upon the Levering farm at that 
s " Daniel Geissler died a few months after Seelig. 

34° The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the relics of the old Theosophist were lowered into the 
grave, the mystic incantation thrice repeated, while the 
released dove coursed in wide circles through the air until 
lost to view in the distance. 

The last will and testament of Johann Gottfried Seelig 
bears date September 17, 1735, and in it he is described as 
"John Sehlee of Roxborough, in the County of Philadel- 
phia, Gentlemen." He bequeathed the whole of his estate 
to his "ffriend William Levering Sen r of Roxborough," 
and appointed him executor. The will is witnessed by 
Matthew Holgate, John Baldt and John Gruber. 

The inventory of his estate contains the following items : 
25 shirts, 4 coats, 2 jackets, 2 hats, 2 pairs of shoes and 
slippers, 7 pairs of linen drawers, 3 planes, 2 saws, 1 glue- 
pot, 54 glass bottles, 5 book-binder's presses, 1 Saddle and 
bridle, 1 scale, gold and silver weights, 5 Bibles, 14 books, 
10 works of Jacob Bohme, 120 Latin, Dutch and Greek 


jUStusr Tcdd£n.e.r~ 


| born Nov. 22, 1672, 
^■^ was the fourth son of 
Pastor Daniel Falkner, 372 the 
Lutheran pastor at Langen- 
reinsdorf, Crimmitschau, 
Zwickau*, Saxony. 

He was the younger 
brother of Daniel Falkner, 
arms of chur-sachsen a. d. 1694. who came to America with 
Kelpius and Koster, accompanied him upon his return to 
Pennsylvania in the year 1700, and, together with Jawert, 
Storch, Sprogel and others, reinforced the Community on 
the Wissahickon. When Justus Falkner left Europe he 
was yet in his diaconate, and a candidate for orders (Can- 
didat Theologize). Subsequently he had the proud distinc- 
tion of being the first person to be ordained to the holy 
ministry within the bounds of the Province of Penn, if not 
in the New World. From that time until his death in 1723 
he served as pastor of the oldest Lutheran congregation in 
America. 373 

The earliest record of Justus Falkner, found by the 
present writer, is recorded in the oldest register of the ven- 

372 Vide page 302, supra. 

3,3 The Dutch Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity in New York City. 

342 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Justus Falkner as a Student, from 
an old sketch at halle. 

Justus Falkner as Student. 343 

erable University at Halle, Germany, which bears the fol- 
lowing title, viz : 

" Catologus derer Studiosorum, so auf hiesiger FRIED- 
RICHS, Universit'at, immatriculiret worden. Nach Ord- 
nung des Alphabets Eingenchtet. De Anno MDCXCIII." 

The first entry upon the sixth page reads : 

;i FALCKNER, Justy, Langeramsdorf, Miss." 
" P. R. Thomasius, 1693, 20 Jan." 

The above entry shows that Justus Falkner was one of 
the students at Leipzig who followed Thomasius to Halle 
upon the latter's expulsion from that city. 

It has been stated that the reason why Justus Falkner 
was not ordained in Germany was that the young deacon, 
upon completing his theological course, felt that the re- 
sponsibility of the ministerial office in the German Church 
of that time was too great for him to undertake. This 

statement is evidently based upon 
rniiv Diva 
dissertatio GRADUAus, the Latin note in Biorck's " Dis- 

PLANTATIONE sertatio Gradualis de Plantatione 

ECCLESLE SVECANjE Ecclesiae svecance in America," 

AMERICA* * n w hi c h h e sta tes : 

<&»«• " This man deserted his home 

Suffrag/nte jimpl. Senate Philofoph. in 

%» urn Mn... so as to escape the burden of the 

riRO yimpi«fm> Myc oukmm. Pastorate, yet now he submitted 

Mag. ANDREA to be brought to himself by Rud- 

Bk & Poiit troe Reg. & or* mann, Biorck and Sandel, on 

taA T Q Mtc"fxxV a '- November 24, 1703-" 

Tobias E Biorck. With the exception of the above 

Americano -Dalki arlus. 

L note, the present writer has found 

nothing whatever to substantiate 

this presumption. In fact, the contrary seems to have been 

the case, and that he took an active interest in the ministry 

after his course at the University was completed. 

344 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

That he was in close touch with Rev. Francke, under 
whom he had studied the Oriental languages at the Uni- 
versity, 374 and who was now one of the recognized religious 
leaders in Europe, is shown by the fact that several of his 
hymns were incorporated by Francke in his revised hymn 
book : " Geistreiches Gesang Buck," Halle, 1697. 

The most noted of Falkner's hymns is the one com- 
mencing with the line: " Auf! ihr Christen, Christi glie- 
der," on page 430 of the original edition. 375 This hymn 
is a stirring, vigorous composition of eleven stanzas of six 
lines each. It was set to the melody " Meine Hoffnung 
stehet veste" and was well calculated to raise the religious 
fervor of the worshippers. 

On a manuscript copy of this hymn, Falkner notes two 
references to the Scriptures as his theme, or the foundation 
of its composition, viz.: Eph. vi, 10; 1 John v, 4- 376 

Originally it was designated, " An encouragement to 
conflict in the Christian warfare," and was retained by 
Freylinhausen in his Gesang Buch of 1704, but it was sub- 
sequently relegated to the Anhang or appendix. 377 

From the very outset the hymn came into extended use 
in both Europe and America. It became a favorite revival 
hymn with the so-called Separatists, or dissenters from the 
orthodox church, and was incorporated into their hymn 
books ; a prominent instance being the Davidsche Psalter- 

374 Rev. A. H. Francke was not called to the theological chair of the 
University until 1699, some time after Justus Falkner had left the institu- 

3,5 Copy in archive of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem. 

376 Finally my brethern, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his 
might (Eph. vi, 10). 

For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world, and this is the 
\ictory that overcometh the world, even our faith (1 John v, 4). 

377 " Geistreicher Lieder," Halle, 1731. Hymn No. 634, page 769. Copy 
in possession of the writer. 

" Auf ihr Christen?'' 


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Fac-Simile of Hymn in the Zionitischer Weyrauchs Hugel. 


346 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Spiel der Kinder Zions, Berlenburg, 1718. This was the 
first distinct hymnal published for the use of the Separatists. 

In America it was incorporated in the celebrated Zioni- 
tischer Weyrauchs Hit-gel, of the Ephrata Community (Sauer, 
1738, hymn 395, page 444) ; also in Der Kleine Davidische 
Psalterspiel der kinder Zions 
(Sauer, hymn 38, page 41), and 
a number of other early Ameri- 
can hymn books. It is also to be 
found in the Manuscript Hym- 
nal of the Zionitic Brotherhood, 
which is known as the Para- 
diesische Nadits Tropffen, 1734 
(hymn 11, p. 6). 378 This hymn, 
after a lapse of two centuries, is 
still used by nearly all the Pro- 
testant denominations in Ger- 
many, and is retained in their 
hymnology in America as well, 
the latest instance being its re- 
tention by the Lutheran Church of the United States in 
their new German Kirchen Buck, wherein it is hymn 331. 
Especial attention is called to it in Stip's Unverfalschter 
Liedersegen (Berlin, 1851). 

Julian, in his Dictionary of Hymnology, mentions the 
following translations into the English language : " Rise, 
ye children of Salvation " (omitting stanza four) in Mrs. 
Bevans' "Songs of Eternal L,ife," 1858, page 10. Three 
centos 379 have come into use, the translations of stanzas, 
one, three and nine, in Dr. Pagenstecher's collection, 1864 ; 

378 Collection of Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

379 Cento, a composition formed by verses or passages from different 
authors disposed in a new order. 



9Bwmnm aUtrfm litbtifyi unb wo&I W«&tit» 

btf ■Hwbtltt:: £un|l wUttiltltS 

31au$<3Str<f .111 fri&cn. 


.Srt aBerlep Siebefl * 213iircf ungen Der in (SOTS 

flcftfiligKii ©«len, roct$< fi* in wefep anb maiKbalw 

Qtiflhtt}m utiD litblutjcn Wtbtrn ant fltbilOu. , 

21 is barimira __ 

2>er htste Xttff 311 ttm %b ttibmafyl bta gro|> 

fen f£0ttee auf unhrftbseMidjeUJeife 

treffhd) ads gc&nicfetufl i 

Bum IDitnfl 

Ser in torn 3lf>mt> <■ ?dn&rf(im SBeft^cil aid 

bin Bern Unttrgang txr ©onnti: ctnttften tfir<t» 

6>Odti>, unb in ihr<r Erinunfuung auf ble 

' ^i«<rna(fmflt3ufun|Tibifl£iauiigainS 

ana Hufct gegebcn. 

GtrinanioiPB . (JJttKUtfi &<9 Gfinflouf) ©outc. 

Falkner's Hymns. 347 

of stanzas one, five, nine and eleven in the English Pres- 
byterian Psalms and Hymns, 1867 ; and the Temple Hymn 
Book, 1867 ; and stanzas one, five and eleven in Laudes 
Domini, N. Y., 1884. 

Another is : " If our all on Him we venture," a transla- 
tion of stanza three, as stanza two of hymn No. 1064 in 
the supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book of 
1 80 1. 380 Another celebrated hymn attributed to Justus 

O Herr der Herrlichkeit, 

O Glantz der Seligkeit, 

Du Licht vom Lichte, 

Der Miiden siisser Saft, 

Des grossen Vater's Kraft, 

Sein Angesichte. 

This hymn is also to be found in Sauer's Psalterspiel 
(361) and in the Weyrauchs Hiigel (475, p. 540). 

It was toward the close of the young student's academic 
term at Halle that his elder brother Daniel returned to his 
native land as an emissary from America, and it was not a 
very difficult matter for him to induce his younger brother 
to accompany him ou a mission having for its main object 
the spreading of the Gospel in the " L,and of Darkness" 

The next official record of the subject of our sketch we 
find at Rotterdam in Holland, dated April, 1700, where the 
two brothers accept from Benjamin Furly a power of attor- 
ney to act in his stead in America. 

As has been before stated, the two brothers, with a num- 
ber of companions, arrived at Germantown in August, 
1700. Shortly afterwards we find him taking a more or 
less active part in the civic affairs of the German Township, 

380 Hymn No. 509, edition of 1886. 

381 Some credit this hymn to Dr. Petersen. 

348 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

and serving a term as Burgess. Although we have no 
direct record of the facts, he without doubt actively sec- 
onded his brother in organizing and ministering to the 
German settlers on the Manatawney tract. 

According to the old minute-book "G," before quoted, 
he appears as joint-attorney with his brother for Benjamin 
Furly of Rotterdam, and was so acknowledged by William 
Penn during his second visit to the Province (1699-1701). 382 
In a subsequent entry, on the 19th of nth month, 1701, 
Daniel and Justus Falkner appear as attorneys for the 
Frankfort Land Company, and produce a patent for some 
city property. 383 Upon the 18th of the 12th month, 1701, 
both brothers again figure before the Land Commissioners 
in the interests of Benjamin Furly. At different times 
after the above entry they continue to press the claims of 
their clients. 

On the 30th of the 6th month, 1703, Justus Falkner 
appears alone before the Commissioners, and as attorney of 
Furly produces a " return of 1000 acres in Chest'r County, 
"said to be in Pursuance of our Warr't dat. 16, 12 Mo., 
" 1701, and the Same Land appearing to be an Encroachm't 
" upon the Welch Tract within their Settlements, and 
" already granted to David Lloyd and Is. Norris, the same 
"is Rejected and disapproved of, and thereupon 'Tis 
" Ordered that the Same be Certifyed by Indorsement On 
" the said Return under Ye Comm'rs hands, which is accord- 
ingly Done." 

It is evident from the above official minute that the loss 
of this parcel of land to Furly was not through any fault 
of the Falkner brothers, as has been frequently stated by 
Pastorius. The charge by the latter that they sold the 

382 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, xix, 243-44. 

383 Ibid, 249-50. 

Ministry in Pennsylvania. 349 

above land for their own use and benefit is also hereby 
shown to be without any foundation. 

The above entry is the last notice of Justus Falkner upon 
the official records of Pennsylvania. This attempt to 
recover the land for its rightful owner was evidently the 
beginning of the differences with Daniel Lloyd and Isaac 
Norris, which ended five years later in the Sprogel con- 
spiracy and the dispossession of Daniel Falkner. 

That Justus Falkner, during his sojourn in Pennsylvania, 
was a man without reproach and one of exemplary piety, 
may be judged from his subsequent career and the fact that 
his name is not even mentioned by the splenetic Pastorius, 
who so persistantly vilified the elder brother. Just what 
part Justus bore in the organization of the Lutheran con- 
gregation at Falkner's Swamp (New Hannover, Mont- 
gomery County, Penna.), the first German Lutheran con- 
gregation organized in America, or how often he was wont 
to visit the church or minister to his fellow-countrymen, 
cannot be told to a certainity ; nor can his sojourn among 
the Mystics on the Wissahickon be traced in detail. His 
intercourse, however, with Kelpius, Seelig, and the Swedish 
pastors, Rudman, Biorck, Sandel and Auren, is known to 
have been frequent and intimate. 

An important historical error can now be postively cor- 
rected, viz.: "That Justus Falkner was ordained for the 
purpose of serving the German congregation at Falkner's 
Swamp on the Manatawney tract." It appears from his 
own memorandum that with the exception of a possible 
farewell sermon, he never served the Manatawney congrega- 
tion nor any other one in Pennsylvania after his ordination. 

We now come to what is to us historically the most inter- 
esting episode in the career of the Saxon Pietist and Penn- 
sylvania Theosophist, and one in which he was the central 

350 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

figure, and that is the first regular Lutheran ordination in the 
Western Hemisphere. The circumstances connected with 
the ordination of Justus Falkner at Wicacoa are as follows : 

Andreas Rudman, the Swedish pastor at Wicacoa, had 
received repeated calls for help from the distressed Luth- 
erans in New York, who had been without any clergyman 
to minister to their wants for some length of time. Conse- 
quently, after the arrival of Rev. Andreas Sandel, March 
10, 1 701-2, Magister Rudman gave their forlorn condition 
his earnest consideration, and finding their case as bad as 
had been represented concluded personally to take charge 
of the extended mission. 

In pursuance of this resolve he, on July 5, 1702, installed 
Sandel as rector of Wicacoa, and on the 19th of the same 
month he preached his valedictory sermon. At the con- 
clusion of the sermon, he embraced the opportunity of 
making public Auren's Sabbatarian doctrine and implored 
his parishioners to be upon their guard and remain true to 
the Lutheran faith. A confessional service and the Eucharist 
closed the impressive occasion. 384 

Early on the next day, July 20th, Rudman started for New 
York, accompanied by^^ss^sagw Mr. Thomas, a school- 
master at Christ ^%&£^§€?MISj&k Church, who was in 

deacon's orders, 
for England to 
tion. A number 
Pastor Sandel, 
Rambo and Eric 
panied them part 
Rudman, upon his 

and intended to sail 
receive ordina- 
of Swedes, led by 
Matz Keen, Peter 
Keen, also accom- 
of the way. 
arrival in New York, at 

once commenced to seal of east jersey, gather up and organize 
the Lutherans (Ger man, Dutch and Swe- 

dish) who were scattered over the large territory, which, in 

MSS. diary of Andreas Sandel. 

Dominie Rudman in New York. 351 

addition to the embryo city and the valley of the Hudson, 
included Long Island and East Jersey as far west as the 
Delaware River. 385 

After Rudrnan was well established in his new field of 
labor, he sent to Pennsylvania for his wife and young 
family, and all went well until the summer of the following 
year, when the yellow fever broke out in the citadel and 
town. In the latter part of August Dominie Rudman and 
his family were prostrated by the terrible scourge, and upon 
the death of his second son, Anders, he wrote to Philadel- 
phia for aid, stating that both he and his daughter were 
stricken with the disorder. 386 

In response to this urgent appeal, Revs. Biorck and San- 
del at once made arrangements to go to his assistance ; but 
so slow were the imperfect means of communication at that 
time, it was not until September 13th that a start was 
made from Philadelphia to relieve the stricken pastor. 
The party arrived in New York on the afternoon of the 
1 6th, where they found Dominie Rudman recovering, but 
his daughter still severely ill. 387 

Dominie Rudman never entirely recovered from this 
attack, and being of a frail constitution he realized, after 
another year's trial, that on account of the rigor of the 
climate he could not continue in charge during another 
winter. In this extremity, not wishing to leave the field 
uncovered, he bethought himself of the Falkner brothers, 
and finding that Daniel had married and was occupied with 

385 Phillipsburg, opposite Eastern, was the most westward station. 

386 Sandel's Diary. 

387 Sandel, in his diary, notes : " Sept. 17, 1702, we went looking about 
the town that day and saw the English Church and also the Dutch 
[Reformed ?] both of them edifices of beauty. 

Sept. 20. "To-day we went calling on all who profess the Lutheran 
creed ; there are very few here. ' ' 

352 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

An Ordination at Gloria Dei. 353 

the civic affairs of the German Township, he invited the 
younger brother, October 27th, 1703, to come to New York 
and preach a trial sermon. This was followed three days 
later by a formal call from the congregation to serve them 
as pastor. 

Justus Falkner acknowledged both letters under date of 
November 3, 1703, accepting the call, but refused to preach 
a trial sermon. As the people supported him in this refusal, 
Dominie Rudman forthwith severed his connection with 
the New York congregation and returned to Philadelphia, 
where he acted as suffragan to the Archbishop of Upsala, 
assisted by Rev. Eric Biorck of Christiana, 388 and Andreas 
Sandel of Wicacoa. 

On Wednesday, November 24, 1703, he ordained the 
deacon {Candidal Theologies), Justus Falkner, to the holy 
priesthood, according to the ritual of the Swedish Orthodox 
Lutheran Church. The ceremony took place within the 
consecrated precincts of " Gloria Dei " (Old Swedes) at 

It was a solemn ceremony which was enacted upon that 
bleak November day within the bare walls of the Swedish 
church on the banks of the Delaware. The sacred struc- 
ture, as yet bare and unfinished, lacked both tower and 
side projections. The interior, with its rough walls and 
exposed roof, earthen floors and hard benches, well matched 
the unadorned altar within the recess in the east, separated 
by a rude railing from the body of the church, and its 
primitive surroundings. 

Upon this occasion no pealing organ, with a multitude 
of stops and pedals, vestured choir, or elaborate music 
made melody for the service. No long procession of robed 

388 Wilmington, Delaware. 


354 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

clergy, with mitred bishop surrounded by acolytes and led 
by the Cross-bearer, were present to add dignity to the scene 
and impress the beholder with awe. 

The ceremony of ordination, although simple and devoid 
of all pomp and glitter, was none the less solemn and im- 
pressive. This was greatly due to a number of the Theo- 
sophical Brethern from the Ridge, under the leadership of 
Magister Johannes Kelpius, who had come down from the 
Wissahickon to give eclat to the elevation of one of their 
number as Presbyter in the Lutheran Church. 

The Theosophical Brotherhood, partly clad in the habit 
of the German University student, others in the rough 
pilgrim garb of unbleached homespun, occupied the front 
benches, while the rear of the church was filled with a 
number of Swedes and a sprinkling of English Churchmen 
and Dissenters. It is said that even a few Quakers and 
Indians were attracted to the church, and enhanced the 
picturesqueness of the scene. 

The service was opened with a voluntary on the little 
organ 389 in the gallery by Jonas the organist, 390 supple- 

389 f hj s i s the earliest reference to a church organ in any Protestant 
church in America. It is not known to a certainty just where or when 
they obtained it. If it had been sent over from Sweden, that fact would un- 
doubtedly have appeared upon the records. There is a strong probability 
that this instrument was brought over by Kelpius and his party in 1694, 
and that it was originally set up in the Tabernacle on the Wissahickon. 

The present writer has seen a letter by Kelpius in which reference is 
made to an organ, but all trace of this paper now seems to be lost. 
There is also an account that Dr. Witt and others of the Community 
built an organ at Gerinantown or Wissahickon at an early day. Among 
the musical instruments brought over by the Brotherhood was a virginal 
(a keyed instrument, something like a pianoforte). This afterwards 
reverted to the widow of Magister Zimmermann, and appears in the 
inventory of her effects. 

The first church organ introduced into Christ Church, Philadelphia, 
was obtained in 1728 from Ludovic Christian Sprogell, who was one of 
the survivors of the Brotherhood on the Ridge. 

Rudman as Suffragan. 355 

mented with instrumental music by the Mystics on the 
viol, hautboy, 391 trumpets (Posaunen) and kettle-drums 
(Pauken). in After this they intoned the Anthem : 

Veni Creator Spiritus, 
Mentes tuorum visita, 
Imple superna gratia, 
Quae tu creasti pectora, etc. 

While this was being sung, a little procession of six 
persons entered the church by the west portal. First came 
two churchwardens, then the candidate for ordination, with 
Rev. Andreas Sandel as sponser 393 by his side ; lastly, Revs. 
Erick Biorck and Andreas Rudman, the latter as suffragan 
or vice-bishop. 394 

As the little procession reached the chancel rail, the two 
wardens (Eldeste) stood on either side of the railing, while 
the suffragan and the two priests entered within the chancel 
and ranged themselves in front and at either side of the 
altar, upon which were placed a crucifix and lighted tapers. 
The suffragan was robed in a girdled surplice, with chasu- 
ble 395 and stole, while the two assistants wore the black 
clerical robe 396 (Schwarze Taler). The candidate, wearing 
the collegiate gown of the German University, knelt before 
the rail, upon which a chasuble 397 {chor-kemd) had been 
previously placed. 

390 The earliest mention of Jonas the organist is in Sandel's diary, under 
date July 20, 1702, as one of the number that accompanied Pastor Rud- 
man part of the way on his journey to New York. 

391 Hautboy, a wind instrument, somewhat like a flute or clarionette. 

392 Vide Kelpius Diary, Falkner, Sendschreiben and "Pennsylvania 
Magazine," vol. xi, page 434. 

393 Sandel also acted as secretary of the Consistorium on this occasion. 

394 Vide "Hallesche Nachrichten," new ed., pp. 441, 478; also W. C. 
Berkenmeyer vs. Van Dieren, J. Peter Zenger, New York, 1728. 

395 This garment was not strictly a chasuble, but a white lace garment 
similar to the Roman surplice. 

396 Similar to the one still worn by the Lutheran clergy. 

356 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The anthem being ended, the suffragan, standing in front 
of the altar facing the congregation, opened the services 
proper with an invitation to prayer. Then turning to the 
east, while all kneeled, he repeated the following invocation. 

[" Almighty and everlasting God, the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who himself has commanded us that we shall 
pray for laborers in thy harvest, we pray thy unsearchable 
mercy that thou wouldst send us right-minded teachers, 
and give thy holy and wholesome Word into their hearts 
and mouths, so that they without error may both correctly 
teach and perfectly execute all thy commandments, in order 
that we being taught, exhorted, comforted and strengthened 
by thy holy Word, may do that which is pleasing unto thee 
and useful to us. 

" Grant us, O Lord, thy Holy Spirit, that thy Word may 
always remain among us ; that it may increase and bear 
fruit, and that thy servant may with befitting courage 
preach thy Word, so that thy holy Christian Church 398 
may be edified thereby, and may serve thee in steadfast 
faith, and forever continue in the knowledge of thee. 
Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."] 

The suffragan then arose and turned to the congregation, 
after which Rev. Sandel, acting as consistorial secretary, 
advanced to the chancel rail and read out the name of the 
candidate and the charge to which he was called. 

The suffragan, then addressing the kneeling candidate, 
said : " Inasmuch as you, Justus Falkner, are called to the 
Holy office of the Ministry, and in order that you with us, 
and we with you, may rightly understand the sacredness of 
this calling, then let us hear the promise and the exhortation 

397 Also known as a " Mess-hemd," a short white garment worn over 
the black robe when officiating at the altar. 

398 literally, congregation, 

The Invocation. 357 

of the Word of God." At this point, Rev. Biorck stepped 
forward and read out the following parts of Scripture : 

Matt, xxviii, 18-20; St. John ii, 15-17, xx, 21-23; Matt, 
x, 32-33 ; 2 Cor. v, 17-20 ; Jeremiah xv, 19 ; Matt, v, 13-16; 
1 Tim. iv, 7-8, 12-14, 16 ; 2 Tim. ii, 15-16, 22-25 ; I Peter 
v, 2-4. 

When this reading was concluded, Vice-Bishop Rudman 
advanced and said : " May God give you grace that you 
may faithfully gtiard these sayings in your heart. May 
they be a guide for your conversation, and remind you of 
your responsibility. May it increase your watchfulness, 
uphold your zeal, and now and forever consecrate you to the 
service of Heaven. 

" The Church of Jesus Christ expects of you that, being 
sensible of the weight of the ministerial office, you your- 
self shall consider the important duties which this office 
lays upon your shoulders. The Church of Jesus Christ 
expects of you that, in believing prayers in the name of 
Jesus Christ, you implore God for grace and power worthily 
to exercise it. The Church of Jesus Christ expects of you 
that you fight a good and faithful fight, lay hold of eternal 
life and make a good confession. Confess therefore your 
faith before God and this congregation." 

Sandel, as secretary, now advanced and slowly read the 
Apostolic Creed, each word being carefully repeated by the 
candidate before the next following one was uttered by the 
secretary. 399 When this important feature of the ritual was 
concluded the suffragan said : 

" May the L,ord God grant unto you grace to stand fast 
in this faith to the end, and to strengthen those who are 
your brethern in the faith." 

399 f^ original states that the confession was spelled out letter for letter, 
word for word. 

358 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Advancing to the kneeling candidate, the suffragan asked 
the following questions : 

" Do you, Justus Falkner, declare yourself willing to 
undertake this holy ministerial office in the name of the 
holy Trinity ? " 

To which the candidate answered a clear " Yes." 

"Will you solemnly promise that this office. shall be 
worthily and rightly administered in all its parts, to the 
glory of God and the salvation of souls ? " 

Again the same clear response " Yes." 

" Will you always continue in the pure Word of God, 
flee all false and heretical teaching, preach Jesus Christ 
according to the Word of God, and administer the Holy 
Sacraments according to his institution ? " 

Response, " I will." 

" Will you so regulate your life that it may be an example 
to the faithful, and shall scandalize no one? " 

The kneeling man again answered in the affirmative. 

The suffragan continuing, said : 

"You acknowledge therefore your obligations. You 
have declared it to be your purpose to fulfill them. Con- 
firm it now with your oath of office." 

The obligation was then administered upon the Holy 
Evangels by the acting secretary. 400 

After which the suffragan continued : 

" May the Almighty God strengthen you and help you to 
keep all this, and according to the power given to me in 
God's stead by the Church, I hereby confer upon you the 
ministerial dignity in the name of God the Father and the 
Son and the Holy Ghost. Amen." 

The candidate here again kneeled, while the Brother- 

400 Text of obligation is missing. 

The Consecration. 359 

hood intoned, to the soft strains of instrumental music, 

the hymn : 

" Veni Sancto Spirit, 
Reple tuorum corda fidelium." 

During the singing of this hymn, the suffragan, assisted 
by the two clergymen, invested the candidate with the 
chasuble jgnd stole. When this ceremony was completed 
and the hymn sung, the suffragan repeated the Lord's 
Prayer, while he imparted the Apostolic succession m by 
the laying on of hands. He then returned to the altar, and 
said, " Let us pray." Then, turning once more to the east, 
he read the following invocation : 

" O everlasting merciful God ; dear heavenly Father, who 
through thy beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, hast said 
unto us, the harvest is plenteous but the laborers are few ; 
pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send forth 
laborers into his harvest, and who by these words hast made 
us understand that we cannot procure rightminded and 
faithful teachers except only of thy merciful hand : we 
pray thee therefore of our whole heart that thou wouldst 
mercifully look upon this thy servant who is now ordained 
to thy service and to the holy office of thy Ministry, and 
give him thy Holy Spirit, so that he may go forth under 
watching and be strengthened by thy Word, and be able to 
stand fast in the fight for thy kingdom, and to execute thy 
work, teach and reprove men with all humility and learning ; 
in order that thy Holy Gospel may continue among us pure 
and unadulterated, and bear for us the fruits of salvation 
and of eternal life. Through thy Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen." 

Here the sufragan, turning to the kneeling postulant, 
said : " Bow down your heart to God and receive the 

This was according to the Swedish ritual. 

360 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

After this was given the impressive liturgy was at an 
end. The Theosophists then intoned the 115th Psalm: 
" Non Nobis Dominie" during which the little procession 
reformed and as the last verse was sung slowly left the 
church, and the solemn and impressive ceremonial which 
marked the first regular ordination of a Protestant clergy- 
man in America was at an end. 

The reader may ask : Did the newly ordained pastor keep 
his sacred ordination vows ? This the sequel of our sketch 
will show. It may, however, be permitted here to say 
without anticipation that no more active, disinterested or 
pious clergyman ever labored among the Germans and 
Dutch during the trying Colonial period than this same 
Justus Falkner. 

On the next day, after the certificate of ordination had 
been engrossed in due form by Johann Seelig, it was laid 
upon the altar before which the ordination had taken place, 
and there was signed by the three officiating clergymen. 

Signatures of the Three Officiating Clergymen. 

It was dated November 25, 1703, and bore the signature of 
Andreas Rudman as vice-bishop. 402 

402 Rudman and Sandel. 




The Old " Kercken-boeck" 361 

Thus the new dominie was sent out to minister in the 
adjoining Provinces ; and to the Orthodox Lutheran Church 
in Pennsylvania is due the honor of having ordained and 
sent out the first man, a native of Saxony, for missionary 
purposes in the Western World ; who was to labor, not 
among those of his own kith and kin, but among people 
who used a tongue foreign to his own. 

Pastor Justus Falkner at once made preparations to enter 
upon his new field of labor. He arrived in New York 
city on Thursday, the second of December, or just eight 
days after his ordination. After preaching on the third and 
fourth Sundays in Advent, he was accepted as their regular 
pastor by the oldest Lutheran congregation in America. 

The first record made by him in the Kercken-Boeck, 
or church register, shortly after his arrival sets forth the 
facts of his call in Dutch, with a short prayer in classical 

[In the name of Jesus. In the year of Christ, 1703, on 
the second of December, I, Justus Falckner, born in Saxony, 
Germany, at Langen-Reinsdorff, in the district of Zwickau, 
came to Philadelphia, thence to New York, after previous 
invitation. On the third Sunday after Advent I delivered 
two sermons in the Lutheran Church here. I did the same 
on the fourth Sunday after Advent. Thereupon I was 
received by the Consistorium of the Christian Protestant 
Lutheran Congregation as their regular pastor and teacher. J 

Then followes the invocation : 

" Deus Ter Optimus Maximo qui intrusit me hanc in 
messem, adsit speciali sua gratia mihi operaio abjecto et ad- 
modum infirmo, sine qua pereundum mihi est sub mole tenta- 
tionum, quae me saepius obrunt. In Te, Domine, speravi, 
non sinas me confundil Redde me ad vocationem meam 
aptum ; non cucurri, sed misisti, intrusisti; interim quic- 


362 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Douiinie Falkner. 363 

quid in me inscio corrupta admiscuerit natura remitte ; da 
veniam humiliter deprecanti, per Dominum nostrum, imo 
meumjesum Christum. Amen." 

[God, the Father of all mercy, and Lord of great majesty, 
who hast sent me into this harvest, be with me, thy lowly 
and ever-feeble laborer, with thy special grace, without 
which I should perish under the burden of temptation 
which often overcomes me with its might. In thee, O 
Lord, have I trusted ; let me not be confounded. Strengthen 
me in my calling. I did not seek it, but thou hast sent me, 
yea, placed me in the office. Meanwhile wouldst thou grant 
remission for whatsoever, without my knowledge, a corrupt 
nature has introduced within me, and forgive and pardon 
me upon my humble supplication, through our Lord, yea, 
my Jesus Christ. Amen. ] 

A. facsimile of this interesting entry is also reproduced ; 
it was photographed from the original by the present writer. 

Official Signature of Dominie Falkner. 

The time when Pastor Falkner arrived in New York was 
far from being a propitious one, as the settlers were in con- 
stant fear of attack by both sea and land. 403 

The Hudson Valley from one end to the other was men- 
anced by the enemy. All residents were forced to be con- 
stantly prepared to defend their life and property by water 
as well as land. 

403 This was during the war of the Spanish succession, in which England 
was engaged against France. 

364 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Two members of the church council, Church Warden 
{Eldeste) Jan Hendrick and Vestryman {Vorsteher) Pieter 
van Woglom, with whom the new pastor made his home, 
were military officers. The former was a major of infantry, 
a highly respected man, who well appreciated the serious 
aspect of the general situation. 

In addition to the above, Church Warden Andreas van 
Boskerk ; Vorsteher and Overseer {kirch-meister) Laur van 
Boskerk ; the sacristans Hanns L,a Grangie and Joh. Viet, 
with Samuel Beekman, ^ ^^^^ reader and sexton, all 
were liable to mili^|S|££p^j|j|3fe^ tary duty when the 
occasion required ^^^^^.^^^^^^^ \\xt\r services. 

At the other ^f^^^^^^^^m, endof his exten- 
ded territory, H.l 1^ .--^^^^^^%^a "Jfl church affairs 
were, if anything, |M\ ^^^^^^^Ty 1 / /I at a st ^ l° wer 
ebb. Pastor Falk^A\^^^^^^TWsWner, upon his 

first visit to Al ^O^^^^^^^^y^ ban y> found the 
congregation there^^^^^S^!!^^virtually disban- 
ded. A small and di ^**^^^^^ ! ^ lapidated house was 
called by courtesy a SEAL OF New church, and the mem- 

J J York, a.d. 1703. 

bership scattered with out officers or organ- 

ization. It was not until June, 1705, that he succeeded in 
effecting a permanent organization. 

As for any regular stipend in either place, none was in 
prospect. Church finances were at so low an ebb that 
bare promises were not even made looking towards the 
pastor's sustenance. A reliable account that has come 
down to our time informs us that the situation for a time 
was even worse in New York than elsewhere. 

Dominie Falkner must indeed have been a courageous 
man as well as a pious one to enter upon this extended 
field, which he eventually enlarged by serving all the Ger- 
mans along the Hudson and in East Jersey, from the 

The Situation in New York. 365 

Hackensack in Bergan County to the valley of the Raritan, 
•without any prospect of renumeration. Another fact to be 
taken into consideration, and one that proves more than 
anything else how earnest, faithful and diligent he was, is 
that he came here an entire stranger, among people whose 
tongue was somewhat different from his own, and in the 
face of the direct opposition of the resident Reformed 
clergy and laity, who where then numerically in the 
majority, and received their sustenance from the Amster- 
dam Classis. 

One of the first things done by our pious evangelist was 
to issue a call for a meeting at the house of his landlord, of 
the " Protestant Christian Congregation m adhering to the 
unaltered Augsburg Confession," m to take into considera- 
tion the dire necessities of the church. At this meeting, 
after some desultory discussion, it was resolved to send out 
circular letters asking for assistance. These letters were 
signed by Falkner and the church officers. Three were 
sent to the Swedish Lutheran brethern in the South. 406 A 
fourth circular was addressed personally to Magister Rud- 
man, asking his intercession in their behalf with the Ger- 
mans and English in Pennsylvania. Still later a similar 
circular, with special reference to the ruinous condition of 
the church, was sent to the Dutch Lutherans on the Island 
of St. Thomas in the West Indies. 

Subsequently a sum of money was received in response 
to this last appeal, but unfortunately with the proviso that 
it was to be used only towards building a new church. 407 

m Christliche Protestantischen Gemeinde, der ungeanderten Augsburg- 
ischen Confession zugethan. 

405 Vide page 66, supra. 

406 On the Delaware river, viz., at Wicacoa, Christiana and Penn's Neck 
in New Jersey. 

366 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Here a new complication arose : the money was badly- 
needed for congregational purposes, and so was a new 
church building, but during the prevailing financial strin- 
gency there was no way of suplementing the amount 
received so as to make it available. 

In this dilemma another congregational meeting was 
convened by Dominie Falkner at the house of Reader 
Beekman, where it was resolved that the old building 
should be made tenantable with moneys to be collected by 
the church-wardens, while the St. Thomas funds were to 
remain intact and be kept as the nucleus of a building 
fund for a future church. 408 

The Dutch Reformed congregation in New York was in 
far better shape, and at first it seems strange that no assist- 
ance was offered by them to the Lutherans. At this time 
there was considerable friction in the colony between the 
Dutch Lutheran and Reformed congregations. The es- 

407 The first Lutheran church in New York was built outside of the Cit- 
adel about where Bowling Green now is. When New York came once 
more into the possession of the Dutch, this building was razed for military 
reasons, in lieu of which a lot was given the congregation at what is now 
the S. W. Cor. Broadway and Rector Street. The first church upon this 
site served the congregation until 1729, when a new building was erected, 
partly by the efforts of Daniel Falkner. 

July 6, 1784, the congregation having substituted the German for the 
Dutch tongue, united with the German Lutheran Church, known as the 
Swamp congregation, and assumed the name "The Corporation of the 
United German Lutheran Churches of New York, ' ' the services were trans- 
ferred to the church at Frankfort and William Streets. About 1826 the 
united congregation moved to Walker Street near Broadway. 

By a special act of the legislature, passed March 29, 1866, the name 
was changed to " The German Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Mat- 
thew." A spacious church was secured at the N. E. Cor. of Broome and 
Elizabeth Streets, where the congregation now worship. 

408 The second church was not built until some years after Justus Falk- 
ner's death, and then only by the personal efforts of his brother Daniel. 
Vide page 326-7, supra. 

The First Lutheran Text Book. 367 

trangement was partly caused by the orthodoxy of the 
Lutheran pastor and his close adherence to the unaltered 
Augsburg Confession. 409 Discussions were indulged in, not 
only by the rival pastors, but by the individual members 
as well, and heated arguments often resulted. 

To place his people in a position the better to uphold 
their faith and controvert the arguments of the Reformed, 
Dominie Falkner prepared a little book in the colloquial 
style of the period, in which he attempted to fortify his 
readers by quotations from the Scriptures against what he 
designated " Calvinistic errors." 

This book, published by William Bradford, was in the 
low Dutch language, and was the first Orthodox Lutheran 
text-book published in America. Falkner was the second 
Lutheran clergyman to avail himself of the Bradford press ; 
his predecessor having been Heinrich Bernhard Koster, 
in 1695. 410 

The title of this work reads as follows : 

" Fundamental Instruction || upon || certain chief || promi- 
nent articles of the || Veritable, undefiled, Beatifical || Chris- 
tian Doctrine, || founded upon the basis of the Apostles and 
Prophets of which || Jesus Christus || is the corner-stone, |1 
expounded in plain, but edifying || Questions and Answers. 
|| By || Justus Falckner, Saxo || Germanus, Minister of the 
Christian || Protestant so-called Lutheran || Congregation at 
N. York and Albany. || Printed in New York by W. Brad- 
fordt, || 1708. 

A facsimile of this title page is also reproduced. The 
original is in the collection of the Pennsylvania Historical 

In the preface, which is also in Dutch, the compiler 

409 Vide foot-note, page 66. 

410 Page 266, supra. 

368 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 



Sekere Voornamc Hoofd-ftacVen, dor 
Waren, Loutcra, Sal jjoul&endon, 

Chriftelycken Leere, 

Gcgrondet op den Grondc van dc Apo- 
flelen co Prophctea, daer 

Jefus C^tftus 


1 S, 

Angcwefea in cenvoudige, dog ftigtlyc&v 

Vragen en Jntwoordeif % 



GermanuSy Minifter dcr Chnftclyckcn 

Prsteftaatfea Gcnaemten Lneherichcn 

Gcmctatetc N Ttrk en Alb an en % 


Pfil. |i 9 V. 1O4. (God) a Woort match? n% 
KUeek\ dserimhmti ickaUe valfcht Wtfei, 

G«druckt t* Nicavr-York by W. Bradford^ 

1 708 _____ 

«—— — — — — * " 

Title of First Lutheran Text-Book Printed in America. 

Falkner's Orthodoxy. 369 

commits himself absolutely to the symbolism of the Luth- 
eran Church, the confession of the Fathers ; " which confes- 
sion," he continues, " and faith by the grace of God, and 
the conviction of his Word and Spirit, lives also in me, 
and shall remain there until my blissful end." 

He further states that it is to be distinctly understood 
that the contents of this book are to be taken in strict con- 
formity with the teachings, confession and faith of the 
Lutheran Church, to which his parents and grandparents 
belonged. He continues : "Both my grandfathers, paternal 
and maternal, as well as my father, were found worthy by 
the grace of God to serve in the holy priesthood of his 
aggressive church." 

The body of the book consists, as before stated, of a 
series of questions and answers. The last two pages are 
taken up with hymns. The first, of three stanzas of ten 
lines each, is a Dutch translation of Luther's hymn, " Wir 
glauben all an einem Golt." This is followed by a hymn to 
be sung before the sermon, which has four stanzas of four 
lines each. The last one is a hymn of two stanzas of 
twelve lines each. These are evidently of his own com- 
position and without doubt are the first original hymns 
published in the Western Hemisphere. 411 

The whole book is remarkable for its orthodoxy, and it 
attracted the attention of leading divines in Germany. 
The celebrated Loscher, in his " Continuations " for 1726, 
designates this text-book as a " Compendium Doctrinae 
Anti- Calvinianum. 

It certainly is greatly to the credit of Dominie Falkner, 
with his widespread field of labor, that he should have 
found time to compile the above book. How earnestly he 

411 No traces of these hymns are to be found in the older Lutheran 
hymnals accessible to the writer. 


37° The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, 

QBUt jpn btrfaetnt tn utet* faaem : 
OOref Dan tn 't nitfifirn tan ins,. ^ fer 
Vngrrft on* arnfi*rfjrtotuto Uttu 

3* *F«?l «r ©if 5, on« tn toarrfcfB !rr*f a 
wtos Btraarrs ntonfet en tons brtrjot : 
iLaet 't toaotft Bob* B'odjrn *Fl>rrt insarn» 
Cn V*P ons Barn na uto brrniarn» x 

4, $e rr* onf ' <©ofit boben al betmttt* 
jln Bjir l^rtfoanrn s'cprnbarrt j 
I3Hp biMenta $rtt'!*rfc t'fatijen, 
SforBwt Soft litis onfe b«b< ! Star* 

TTtfcer CPoBtBfn trout* mtt ffnMB* tirrfrri 
JPL Cn fty t* . B?n fopffn ©reft wrt rrr» 
JDit ons Be toarrJjirpBt Irrtr ; 
«£n gtt ff ftr* ffanfit. Ijett, nn, fp«r $ttk 
H?at ons uto ©SIOojBf nirt ?# tfn f pat, 

9*cr gnntfrb tot tft Brfcrrtr, 
fl> (Sot, uto c/fttrti* Dare am brtof *, 
S>atfjrm tori ftbicfc rof tttrn pijs, 

31 onfc tow cn farm ; 
IBS at tynt'ttn marl), fiat frtyrtornBt: 
•Eat trooft'rm *at!j, Bar ftrff be^rmfi 5 * 
<fa toanfi'Im Uttt fftatrn. 

*♦ Cn ftuutons tort'fferr $t »efi'f)lfe 
®Hf torrrn nirt %at frrt funftf 
. fBafltctm oiife SDaBtf. 
Curbt, f'loof, birrrf, toctoefftfrM'ttfttBt! 
flrtr ons ato Crrff, titans tifreto feotftfe 
. SDat toil 1j?p nirt nhffagnt, 
Wf *>c* tfftBt %» Baltfyt ftrf, 
3Di noofe torr'l* sock troata/lf rft total 
i flD»t ffp ons nttt -fcrrMinfir : 
©? fieri Uf t fyn Carm^mitfferftH^ 
Iftt jm tart Bow fie faVU^eiS% 
m* &\$ met tfnwtt* ««» Mft 

Fac-simile of the First Original Hymn Printed in America. 

Extent of the Missionary Field. 371 

felt for the charges under his care is shown by the fact that 
he invited his elder brother Daniel to leave Pennsylvania 
and take charge of the scattered German and Dutch con- 
gregations in East Jersey. 

Although the chief centers of his activity were Albany 
and New York, we find this untiring missionary establishing 
preaching stations at various widely distant points in the 
Hudson Valley. Geographically speaking, his charge was 
divided into two parts : one south, the other north of the 
Highlands of the Hudson. Falkner was wont to serve the 
former in the summer season, and the latter during the 
winter months. During the summer, in addition to his city 
charge, he served the congregations at Hackensack, Raritan, 
Remmerspach, Piscataway, Elizabethtown and Phillipsburg. 

In the north his activity extended from Albany to 
Loonenburg (Athens), Klickenberg, Four Mile Point, Cox- 
sackie, Kinderhook and Calverack. Wherever Dutch Luth- 
erans settled there Dominie Falkner was found plying his 
sacred calling. To the above must be added the German 
congregations founded after the large immigration had set in 
during the early years of Queen Anne's reign, which were 
served in their native tongue by the zealous evangelist. 

This latter duty became especially onerous during the 
absence of the German Pastor, Rev. Josua Kocherthal, and 
his subsequent death in 17 19, when the German Lutheran 
congregations at Quassaik, Rosenthal, Schawanggunk, 
Langen Rack, Newtown, Tarbush, Queensbury, Rhinebeck 
and Schoharie were all visited by Falkner at more or less 
regular intervals. 

Among the papers relating to the Palatines, published in 
vol. iii. of the "Documentary History of New York," is 
found the following notice : " Litra B. In the Books by 

372 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

our Church, 412 Fol. 28, is to be found that our then minister 
Justus Falkenier has baptized Ao 17 10 Ye 19th April in 
the house of one of the Trustees, of which Time he has 
continued to serve the People there every year without any 
Profit of the Glebe." 

That these stations were not merely small hamlets or 
isolated farm-houses, is shown by the entries in his register, 
as he frequently upon the same occasion baptized five, six, 
eight, nine or ten children. A personal account of his 
ministrations has fortunately been preserved to us in Biorck's 
Dissertatic Gradualis, before mentioned, published in 
Sweden, 1731. 

Biorck there states : " The care of these churches [the 
Dutch Lutheran Churches in New York] was therefore 
[after the illness of Dominie Rudman] committed to 
Magister Justus Falkner, a German, and the planting of 
them brought forth, after some time, so plentiful a harvest 
that seven churches successively ordained in the same way 
might be enumerated, as Falkner intimates in a letter to 
Magister Sandel, dated New York, September 28, 1715. 

" In the Jerseys, there I visit three small Lutheran con- 
" gregations m living a great distance one from the other, all 
" these three consist of about one hundred communicants, 
" the most poor people and poor settlers. 

" In the Province of New York I serve four small Luth- 
" eran congregations, & all these four consist in all of about 
"one hundred constant communicants, besides strangers 
" going & coming in the city of N. York, so that in all I 
" have seven congregations, whom to serve I must yearly 
" travel about twelve hundred English miles." 

412 On Quassaik Creek in Ulster County. 

413 These congregations were in Bergen County along the Hudson, and 
evidently do not include those on the Raritan, which were ministered to 
by his brother Daniel. 

The Old Church Register. 373 

Biorck then adds, "Thus these men were punctual 
enough in meeting, although scattered far and wide. 
Moreover : 

" Mr. Kocherthal resideth as yet for the most time in one 
place on Hudson's River, but visiteth two places on the 
other side of the river, where particular Lutheran congre- 
gations meet. He has been as yet but once with those 
Lutheran Palatines that live in the Mohacks' country. 

" We have brought forward these things so much out of 
our way, in order to make it clear that the splendor of the 
Gospel had already shone in such various places of America. " 

To reach these widely separated stations was a serious 
question. No regular conveyances existed ; the only means 
of intercourse was either by canoe on the watercourses or on 
horseback through the almost trackless forest, unprotected 
from the elements and exposed to the dangers from wild 
beasts and a treacherous savage. Still, even these dangers 
failed to deter this pioneer missionary from his path of duty. 

Great as was this widespread field of his ministrations, 
we have records, that he, in addition, found time to extend 
his labors and spread the Gospel among the negro slaves 
in the colony, as well as the Indians who still remained in 
the vicinity. 

The old church records and registers of the venerable 
Trinity Lutheran Church (now St. Matthew's at the corner 
of Broome and Elizabeth Streets) give us the best insight 
into the piety and untiring energy of Justus Falkner. 

It is indeed fortunate that these records have been pre- 
served to the present generation. They were saved from 
destruction during the great conflagration in 1776 by the 
heroism of the pastor, who rescued them from the burning 
parsonage at the peril of his life ; after which they were 
securely placed in the cellar of the new church, and were 

374 Th* Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

forgotten until found by chance a few years ago ; and now, 
by the courtesy of the Reverend John Henry Seiker, the 
pastor of the church, they have been placed at the disposal 
of the present writer. 

Dominie Falkner evidently considered the Church Book 
of the New York congregation as his official register, and 
copied his ministerial acts upon its pages, irrespective of 
where they were administered. 

This interesting relic had been procured some time pre- 
vious to the arrival of Dominie Falkner, as is shown by a 
memorandum or two in Pastor Rudmann's handwriting. 
No effort seems to have been made by the latter to keep a 
separate record of his ministerial acts in New York, and 
they were without doubt entered upon the records of the 
Wicacoa church, which was his official station. 

It was consequently left to Justus Falkner to open the 
church register of the Trinity Lutheran congregation in 
New York. This book is the oldest systematic Lutheran 
record in America, and is in the unmistakable handwriting 
of the pastor. 

On the first page it states that " this is the Church Regis- 
ter {Kercken-Boeck) of the Christian Apostolic Protestant 
Lutheran Congregation, according to the unaltered Confes- 
sion of Augsburg, in New York, and the other thereto 
belonging places in America." 

Then follows a brief list of contents : 

" An inventory of books and papers belonging to the Church, folio 3. 

"Baptismal Record {Doop Register), folio 79a. 

" Register of such persons as partook for the first time with our Chris- 
tian Apostolic Protestant Lutheran Congregation of the Holy Sacrament, 
folio 87*. 

"Register of such as have been dismissed by the congregation, folio 

Title Page of the Register. 


376 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Register of such as were married by the pastors of said congregation, 
folio 145. 

" Burial Register, folio 185. 

"Register of Church Officers, folio 316. 

"Justus Falckner, Saxo-Germano nf. Eccla. Orthodox Lutheran Belvic 
Nov-Eboraci in America, Pastor." 

To the historian the most interesting item on the above 
page is the reference to an inventory of church papers, then 
(1704) in possession of the corporation. They consisted 
of several bundles or packages of documents, and were 
labelled "Church papers," Packet I, II, etc., respectively. 
These documents have long since disappeared ; the only 
record of them which has came down to us being Falkner's 
inventory in the Kercken-Boeck. 

Among the itemized list, Packet No. 11 would be of 
exceeding interest if it were still in existence, as it con- 
tained, among other documents, the following : 
Item No. 5. — The congregational call of Justus Falkner. 
" 6. — Rudmann's letter to Falkner, and Falkner's 

reply and acceptance. 
" 8. — A personal report from Falkner to Rudmann. 
" p. — The engrossed certificate of ordination granted 
to Justus Falkner, and signed by the three 
Swedish pastors on the Delaware. This 
document was deposited by Justus Falkner 
with the congregation upon his acceptance 
of the charge. 
The body of the book is divided, as the table of contents 
indicates, into six divisions. Reference has already been 
made to Dominie Falkner's first entry and votum. 

The first ministerial act recorded was a baptism admin- 
istered in the barn of Cornelius van Boskerk at Hacken- 
sack in East Jersey, on Monday, February 27, 1704. 
Upon this occasion were baptized three children after a 

The Doop Register. 377 

full morning service. On April 17th, following, which was 
Easter Monday, Falkner baptized a daughter of Pieter A. 
van Boskerk in the church at New York. These four 
baptisms were entered upon the register at the same time 
in the Low Dutch language, with the following votum : 
" O Lord ! Lord, let this child, together with the three 


fy <.a.Hrin.b /»>***- Stxm Ihvh ZjaA urtns ixvn (fJaJiJi& tortJq e«. fiynM /f.lw. 
Mn. uk«.k*i. cAimn, cA&t&r t vn cMarocj^U.Uanfen. . 

Fac-simile of Earliest Baptismal Record. 

above written Hackensack Children, be and remain en- 
grossed upon the book of life, through Jesus Christ. Amen." 
Almost every one of Falkner's entries closes with a short 
prayer or votum for the future welfare of the person men- 


378 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

tioned ; showing the deep interest this devout shepherd 
took in the spiritual welfare of his flock, irrespective of 
their nationality or social position. Dutch, English, Ger- 
man, negro and Indian all lost their individuality with 
this pious evangelist, whose only aim and object it was to 
extend the Church of Christ in the wilds of America, 
according to the precepts of the Augsburg Confession. 

The following short prayers follow the respective baptisms 
during the first year of his ministration : 

" O God, let this child be and remain a child of salvation 
through Christ. Amen." 

" Lord, let this child also remain forever within thy ever- 
lasting grace and favor, through Christ. Amen." 

" O God, let this child be included and remain in thy 
eternal favor, through Christ." 

" O Lord, we commend this child unto thee, for both 
temporal and eternal welfare, through Christ. O My God, 
may this child be and remain a member of thy kingdom 
of grace and glory, through Christ. Amen." 

The baptism of children of English parents was usually 
recorded in the English language. 

" Baptized d. 10 Octobr, 1704 in ye House of Mr. William 
Chambers, Richard, son of Mr. William Chambers en his 
wife Sarah, born d. 10 ditto. 

" Bless, O Lord, this child also with everlasting happi- 
ness, through Christ Jesus. Amen. 

" Anno 1707, the 1, Juni [literal transcript], being Whit- 
sunday, baptized, in our Lutheran Church at Albany, 
Elizabeth, young daughter of Lieutenant Richard Brewer 
& Catherine his wife, born the 11 of March of this year. 
Godfather was Lieut: Henry Holland, God mother Madam 
Elisabeth Weems and Mrs. Margareta Kollnis. 

" Grant, O Lord, that this Childt never cast away the grace 

Falkner's Entries. 379 

which thou has Schworn, yea given by the Covenant of 
Baptism trough Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Among the many interesting items in the baptismal regis- 
ter is the following : 

In the year 1705 were baptized a daughter of Are of 
Guinea, a negro, and his wife Jora, both Christian mem- 

X7 o 4. 

^ o3wkn nduyj*>€aytoi9c vfetf&n£*i- 
/ k OMvhL COM cA.frULWu& -Kxtf-brvio 

Record of First Communicants. 

bers of the congregation. 414 Falkner concludes with this 
votum : 

" Lord, merciful God, who lookest not upon the person, 
but from whom different creatures that fear thee and do 
right find favor, let this child be clothed in the white robe 
of innocence and righteousness, and so remain through the 
grace of Christ, the Saviour of all mankind. Amen." 

Vide, pp. 323, Supra. 

380 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

One of the most impressive incidents during Dominie 
Falkner's pastorate in New York occurred on Easter Sun- 
day, 1708. It was a clear, bright April day with the har- 
bingers of spring singing in the air, and the warm sun 
calling all vegetation once more to put on its garb of ver- 
dure ; indeed a typical Paschal day, when all nature seemed 
to rejoice. 

The church was decorated with budding boughs and 
spring flowers. The Paschal candles burned brightly on 
either side of the crucifix upon the altar, all indicative of 
the glorious resurrection to be celebrated. 

It was, however, a gala day in the church independent of 
its being one of the most joyous festivals. The full order of 
morning service {Haupt-gottesdeinsi) was completed, to the 
reading of the last collect, when a baptism somewhat out 
of the ordinary course was administered. The candidate 
was a Carolina Indian, who was a slave held by Peter 

When the former first expressed a wish to become a 
Christian, it became a question whether if he were admitted 
to the Church he could still be held in bondage and treated 
as a slave. The master naturally objected, in the fear that 
he might lose his servant. The Indian, however, settled 
the question by stating that he was willing to remain in 
servitude in this world, provided he was assured that he 
would be free and equal in the skies beyond. 

Dominie Falkner, when he heard of the circumstances, 
examined the Indian, found him sincere, and concluded to 
accept him, and instructed him in the catechism and the 
tenets of the faith. 

Upon the Sunday in question, after the holy Eucharist 
had been celebrated, the Indian slave, after having been 
duly prepared, was called up before the altar and publicly 

An Indian Baptism. 381 

catechised in presence of the congregation by the pastor 
and wardens. He was then asked by Dominie Falkner 
whether he solemnly promised before the omnipotent Lord 
and this Christian congregation that he would, after he 
was received into the Church, continue to serve his worldly 
master and mistress as faithfully and truly as if he were yet 
in his benighted state. 

Upon the Indian giving his solemn promise that he 
would, Dominie Falkner proceeded to baptize him, after he 
had driven out the spirit of evil with the ancient exorcism 
according to the Lutheran ritual : " Darum, du vermale- 
deyter Teufel, erkenne dein urtheil, &c." 

The name given to the new convert was "Thomas 
Christian." The ceremony closed with the invocation by 
the Dominie : " That the Lord would henceforth cause 
this unbelieving Thomas to become a believing Christian. " 
The morning service closed with the benediction. 

History is silent as to the fate of this poor Indian slave 
who thus voluntarily embraced the Christian faith. Pre- 
sumably he continued to serve his master and mistress, 
according to his solemn promise, with the same fidelity 
as before. Whether his bonds were ever relaxed, or 
whether his subsequent treatment was worse we do not 

A somewhat similiar ceremony was performed at Albany 
four years after the above. The convert in this instance 
was a negro slave. The entry in the old register reads : 

"Anno 17 1 2, January 27, baptized at Loonenburg in 
Albany, Pieter Christian, a Negro and slave of Jan van 
Loons of Loonenburg, about thirty years of age. He has 
promised among other things that he will hereafter, as well 
as he has done before, faithfully serve his master and mis- 
tress as servant. 

382 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Grant, O God, that this black and hard Negro-heart be 
and remain a Christian heart, and may he be numbered 
among those who are clothed with white raiment before 
the throne of the Lamb, through the merits of the Lamb 
of God who bore the sins of the world. Amen." 

Under date of 28, February 17 10, Dominie Falkner 
records the baptism of Louisa Abigail, daughter of Pastor 
Josua Kocherthal and his wife Sibylla Charlotta. 

Among the many curious entries in the Baptismal record, 
the following is interesting as it illustrates the orthodoxy 
of the Dominie. It appears that during his absence two 
members of his church called upon the English Episcopal 
minister, Rev. John Sharpe, to baptize their children. 
This fact evidently pained him deeply, as will be seen from 
the appended votum : 

"Nov. 30, 171 2. During my absence Mr. John Sharpe 415 
baptized the young daughter of Christian Streit, named 
Maria Magdalena, born in New York, &c. 

" December 28, 1712. Also baptized by Mr. Sharpe, the 
young daughter of Johann Phillip Tays, named Christine 
Elizabeth, born in New York, &c. 

" Lord, Lord God ! Merciful, gracious and forbearing, of 
great mercy and consideration, which thou showest unto 

416 The Rev. John Sharpe, a clergyman of character and ability, was one 
of the early clergy upon the rolls of the Society for the Propogation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts. His chief station under the Society was in 
East Jersey. Prior to this he appears to have been stationed in Maryland, 
probably under orders of the Bishop of Iyondon. (Nichols to Stubs.— 
Perry's Historical Collections, vol. iv, pp. 54, 349). But little is known of 
this clergyman. Upon the rolls of the Venerable Society he is entered 
as having been sent out in 1704, after which his career, so far as the Society 
goes, seems to be a blank, for immediately after his name and date is 
entered ' ' resigned. ' ' According to the above entry by Dominie Falkner, 
he was still performing religious rites as late as 1712. Another account 
names him as a chaplain at New York. 

Marriage of Dominie Falkner. 


us in a thousand ways by forgiving us our offences, tres- 
passes and sin, let not one of the above standing names be 
blotted out from thy book [on ac- 
count of having been baptized by 
a minister of a different faith], but 
let them be therein written and re- 
main there through Jesus Christ, thy 
beloved Son, Amen." 416 

In the marriage record the follow- 
ing personal announcement is per- 
haps the most interesting : 

Under date May 26, 17 17. " On 
Rogate Sunday did Reverend Wil- 
liam Vesey, commissary and preacher 
of the English church in New York, 
on a license of his Excellency Robert 
;jj < Hunter, at the time Governor of 
**jSS a this Province, Me, Justus Falkner, 
i pastor of the Protestant Lutheran 
Q congregation, in my house in little 
Queen street in New York, marry 
s and consecrate in the bonds of holy 
\ matrimony with the honerable vir- 
fc gin, Gerritge Hardick, born in the 
Province of New York, County 

" I leave you not, you bless me 
then. Amen." 

Three children blessed this union : 

416 Heere, Heere Gott, Barmhertig ende Genadig ende Lanckmaedig 
ende van groote Genade ende Trouwe, die Ghy bewyst in duysent leeden 
ende vergeeft misdaad, oventreedinge ende Soude, laat dock niet een van 
de boven staande naamen uyt u Boek uytgedelgt woordten, maar laat se 
daarin geschreewen syn en blyven door Jesum Christum, uwen lieven 
Soon. Amen. 

384 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Anna Catherina, born in New York, July 17, 1718 ; bap- 
tized in the church on July 20 ; and Sara Justa, born at 
Loonenburg, May 5, 1720 ; baptized May 8 ; married Niclas 
van Hoesan, December 22, 1738 ; Benedictus, a son, born 
April, 1723 ; baptized at Calverack, April nth. 

In the performance of the arduous duties called for by 
his widely extended field of labor, the Dominie had but 
little time for rest or the enjoyment of home life. Forced 
as he was to be away from wife and babes for weeks and 
months at a time, his lot was by no means a sinecure, and 
to make matters worse, so beloved was he that the people, 
wherever he happened to be, were loth to see him depart 
for his next station, and would exact promises for a speedy 

In their attempt to secure his services, the various con- 
gregations even went further, and provided glebe houses 
that should be ready at all times for the pastor and his 
family. This was the case at Loonenburg, Calverack, and 
other outlying points. 

That notwithstanding his arduous duties, Dominie Falk- 
ner still remained in touch with his clerical brethern on 
the Delaware is shown by correspondence with them, and 
by entries in the Diary of Pastor Andreas Sandel. The 
last one reads : 

"July 9, 1718. I sent same day by mail a packet to 
New York, enclosed to Pastor Falkner, to be forwarded by 
the first vessel bound for England." This letter has refer- 
ence to Pastor Sandel's journey to Sweden. 

Dominie Justus Falkner's married life proved of short 
duration. We know but little of his movements, except 
what can be gleaned from his official entries, which show 
that he continued to cover the whole territory of Eastern 
New York, L,ong Island and Staten Island. 

Death of Justus Falkner. 385 

The last entry found in his private diary, and copied into 
the old church register by Pastor Knoll, shows that he was 
at Phillipsburg early in September, 1723 : 

" Sept. 4, 1723. Baptized at Phillipsburg, at the upper 
mill, in the house of David Sturm, Johann Peter, born in 
the middle of June ; ibidem, Father Pieter Hentz, mother 
Maria, Witness Johann Birger." 

After this his history becomes a blank, the only docu- 
mentary notice being a memorandum made by Pastor Knoll 
in the records of the Lutheran church at Newburgh : 
" Pastor Justus Falknenier, deceased. Anno 1723." 

According to the above record, which is no doubt correct, 
Justus Falkner died at the early age of 51 years, after 
having faithfully served the various congregations under 
his charge for twenty years. 

What were the circumstances of his sudden end cannot 
be told. Whether he died alone among strangers, or amidst 
his young family, is an unanswerable question. Not even 
his burial place is know, nor whether he was buried with 
the rites of the church in consecrated ground, or in some 
unknown corner. 

However, should any record be found to shed some light 
upon the last hours of this devout shepherd in the fold of 
Christ, it will no doubt show that he died in the full per- 
formance of his duty, true to his ordination vows. 

As to his family, it is known that after the father's death 
the widow with her three young children took up their 
abode at Loonenburg, where the latter grew up in the 
Lutheran Church, and were confirmed and married according 
to its ritual. 

One of the last official acts recorded by Dominie Berken- 
meyer, prior to his death in 1744, was a baptism of asecond 
son of one of his church officers, — Benedictus Falkner, a 
grandson of his immediate predecessor. 


386 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Justus Falkner is represented by all accounts as a lovely 
winning character, a man of excellent gifts, good educa- 
tion, fine mind, devout, of decided Lutheran opinions, 
active and of great endurance. In fact, he was an ideal pas- 
tor, who entered into his office with the full knowledge 
that without God's grace nothing could be accomplished. 
As has been shown, his field of labor extended along the 
Hudson as far north as Albany and landward to Long 
Island and Raritan in New Jersey. 

His services, nominally confined to the Dutch and Ger- 
mans of the Lutheran faith, were extended to all, irrespec- 
tive of creed or color, as is proved by the mention of bap- 
tisms of both negroes and Indians from the earliest days 
of his ministry. 

Nothing could show the devout and sincere mind of 
Justus Falkner in bolder relief than the entries of his 
official acts in the church register, a votum being added in 
every case. 

From the documentary evidence come to light of late, 

and which forms the basis 
pages, it is shown how 
Pietists of Provincial 
beyond the bounds of 
extended over New 
seys. No matter 
causes may have 
the Falkner broth 
original home in 
factor time is apt 
right is evidenced 
the elder Falkner 
sion of the Pastori 

House in New York 
built a.d. 1697; °e' 
mo li shed 1828. 

of the majority of these 
the influence of the 
Pennsylvania spread 
that Province and 
York and the Jer- 
whatthe immediate 
been that induced 
ers to leave their 
America, how the 
to set all matters 
in the history of 
and the controver- 
us slanders. 

To the devout and pious Justus Falkner, who first came 

In Memoriam. 387 

to the western world as a Pietist and mystical Theosophist, 
with the avowed intention there to prepare himself for the 
coming of the Redeemer, history will ever point as one of 
the most devout and sincere missionaries and brightest 
characters in early German-American history. 

Although for years almost forgotten by the present gen- 
erations that now compose the congregations formerly 
served by him, their very existence at the present day, after 
the lapse of two centuries, and the fact of their still adhering 
to the Lutheran faith as based upon the unaltered Augsburg 
Confession, are his best monuments. They are living me- 
morials, far greater than either shafts of granite or tablets 
of bronze made by the hands of man. 

As a fitting close to this sketch may be quoted the con- 
clusion of the ritual formerly used by the Theosophical 
Brotherhood of which at one time he was a member, — 
"may god grant him a BLESSED 



Arms of the Chur-Pfaltz, 1694. 

'OR over forty years one 
of the most familiar 
figures in and about 
Germantown was a man of 
well-knit frame, who went 
about clad in a garb of coarse, 
uncolored homespun, while 
a wide-brimmed hat covered 
his head with its wealth of 
long hair and shaggy beard. 
In front of the hat there was conspicuously displayed a 
small shell, such as are found on the banks of the romantic 
Wissahickon. In his hand he always carried a long staff 
or alpenstock ; upon his feet he wore a mere sole or sandal, 
and in winter protected them with heavy woolen stockings. 
The whole appearance of this strange character was such as 
to attract the attention of any stranger who chanced to 
meet him. 

Such was Conrad Matthai, the last Magister of the Her- 
mits on the Ridge, or, as he was locally called, der alte 
Matthai. In his later years he was known by sight to 
every man, women and child in the German Township of 
Philadelphia County. He was respected by the aged and 

' Der Alte MattA'di." 


Conrad Matthai, 167S-1748, from an old Etching. 

39° The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

reputable citizen, feared by the frivolous and by the children 
and superstitiously inclined was avoided as a supernatural 

After the death of Kelpius in 1708, and upon the refusal 
of Seelig to assume the responsibilities of the leadership of 
the Theosophical Community, Conrad Matthai became 
recognized as the Magister of the Fraternity on the Wissa- 
hickon, and after the disbanding of the communal organi- 
zation, he was still recognized as the Magister or Magus of 
such as remained upon the Vicaris tract and vicinity and 
lived the life of anchorites or hermits. 

The hut on the Hermitage estate, pointed out by Phoebe 
Righter, and the remains of which, enlarged and improved, 
now serve as a tenant or farm-house, was undoubtedly the 
one inhabited by Conrad Matthai during the last forty years 
of his life. 416 

But little is known of the family or antecedents of this 
recluse Theosophist, except that he came to the Province 
in 1704, with others, to reinforce the Community and join 
the Chapter of Perfection. 

According to some accounts he is said to have been a 
Swiss gentleman, a member of a wealthy and influential 
family, who had left his native country to join the Mystics 
on the Wissahickon, and there put to a practical test the 
occult theories with which he became imbued during his 
academic career. 

Another old record examined by the writer intimates 
that Conrad Matthai was a relative of the noted Georg 
Heinrich Matthai, who was an instructor at the Harburg 
(Haarburg?) University in 1695. However, be this as it 
may, that the subject of our sketch was a student of note 
and a man of great learning is shown by the deference 
paid to him, not alone by the various religious enthusiasts 

416 Vide p. 210, supra. 

The Magus on the Wissahickon. 391 

who came to these shores, but also by the leaders of the 
different orthodox denominations within the Province. 

Upon frequent occasions his advice and judgment were 
sought in the various religious movements in which the 
first half of last century was so fertile. 

But little is known of Matthai during the years immedi- 
ately succeeding the death of Kelpius, except that the 
communal system was abolished and that of the Separatists 
or Anchorites adopted. 

The evangelistic and educational features of the old Com- 
munity, however, were retained by the different hermits, as 
was the practice of astrology and medicine. 

The first definite information of Matthai is found in the 
" Chronicon Ephretense" where he is mentioned in connec- 
tion with the arrival, in the fall of 1720, of Conrad Beissel, 
who had come to America, together with three companions, 
with the avowed intention of joining the Chapter of Per- 
fection which they thought still flourished here. Finding, 
upon their arrival, that the Community had been aban- 
doned, after a year's sojourn in the vicinity, Beissel and his 
companion Stuntz, upon the advice of Matthai, journeyed 
to the wilds of Chester County to live there a life of con- 
templation and solitude. The intercourse between Matthai 
and Beissel during the latter's sojourn at Germantown was 
intimate and close, and tended much to influence the latter's 
eventful course in after years. 

In the year 1725 the population of Germantown was in- 
creased by a little party consisting of an old woman and 
her four stalwart sons. She was the widow of Michael 
Eckerling of Strasburg, who had been one of the prime 
movers in combining the Pietistical movement with the 
secret mystical organizations of the day, and in consequence 
had suffered great persecution in his native city from both 

392 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

church and state. He was by trade a master cap-maker, 
and a man of some wealth. 417 

There is no written record as to what interest, if any, 
Matthai took in building the large Community house or 
Monastery, in 1738, on the Wissahickon, some distance up 
the stream, as a branch of the Ephrata Community ; nor is 
there anything but tradition to show that he ever visited 
the Mystic Community on the Cocalico. 

The Ephrata traditions, however, lead us to believe that 
the Swiss Magus was not an entire stranger to the camp of 
the " Solitary" at Ephrata. He certainly took an active 
interest in the Community affairs, as is shown by the tem- 
porary estrangement with Beissel, after the expulsion of 
the Eckerling brothers in 1745, where Matthai espoused 
the cause of the four brothers. 

The differences thus engendered, however, did not last, 
and were healed prior to the old Theosophist's death. The 
final reconciliation between the two leaders was effected 
during a pilgrimage from Ephrata to Philadelphia, June 
12, 1747, when the two leaders again embraced each other. 
The following account of this incident appears in the 
" Chronicon Ephretense .•" 

" On the journey he (Conrad Beissel, Father Friedsam) 
visited his old friend, Conrad Matthai, not far from German- 
town. He alone was left of a venerable society, which the 
celebrated Johann Kelpius had founded, which, after his 
death, however, was again scattered, as has been mentioned. 
At this visit, when they embraced each other, a difference 

417 In the " Chronicon Ephretense" p. 41, Israel Eckerling, the oldest 
of the brothers, and who afterwards became the Prior of the Brotherhood 
of Zion on the Cocalico, tells us how, upon the advice and council of 
Conrad Matthai, he, together with his mother and brothers, in the year 
1727 left those regions (Germantown) because those people lived in vanity, 
and he came to the Conestoga country. 

White Magic. 393 

which had existed between their spirits was removed. 
They had formerly been good friends, but after the Super- 
intendent (Beissel) had permitted himself to be instrumental 
in the new awakening in Conestoga, a separation of their 1 
spirits took place, which was healed again by this visit, as 
just mentioned. Therefore he wrote a favorable letter to 
him as soon as he returned home, and likewise exhorted 
Johannes Wiister, in Philadelphia, who was also his bene- 
factor, not to withdraw his hands from him." ils 

As has been before stated, the recluse Anchorites on the 
Ridge, according to popular tradition, in addition to their 
Theosophical speculations and religious studies, engaged 
in "white magic," such as casting nativities, exorcising 
spirits and the practice of horoscopy and devination. 

Conrad Matthai, in addition to the above, was also credited 
with maintaining communication with the unseen spirit- 
world, and with the ability of detaching at will his own 
soul or spirit from the body. Of this latter power, won- 
derful as it may seem, the following well-authenticated 
account has come down to us : 

"In the year 1740 the wife of a ship captain living in 
Philadelphia, whose husband was on a voyage to Africa, 
and from whom she had been long without tidings, over- 
whelmed with anxiety for his safety, upon the advice of a 
friend, as a last resort journeyed to the glen of the Wissa- 
hickon to consult, for council or consolation, " old Father 
Matthai." The latter received her kindly and listened to 
her fears and story. After she was through, he bade her 
remain and wait where she was for a short time, when he 
would bring her the intelligence she sought for. He then 
left her, going into the back room or closet of his cabin, 

418 Chronicon Ephratense, translation, p. 204. 


394 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

which was separated from the main room by a door having 
a small curtained sash in the upper half. 

" Long waited the sailor's wife for the Magician's return ; 
as the time passed slowly by minutes became as hours, 
and yet no movement was heard or came from the other 
room. At last her impatience became so great, thinking 
that the old hermit had perhaps passed out of another door 
and forgotten her, that she peeped through a corner of the 
sash which was not covered by the curtain, and there, to 
her surprise, beheld the hermit lying on a rude wooden 
pallet, as pale and motionless as if he were dead. 

" She then resumed her vigil. Shortly afterwards the 
door opened, and the old hermit entered, looking pale and 
wan. He told her that her husband was then in a coffee- 
house in London, that he was well and would shortly 
return. Further, for certain reasons, which he told her, 
the husband had not been able to send her any letter. With 
her fears thus greatly allayed, she left the cabin of the old 
recluse and returned to her home in the city. 

" When at last, after a lapse of three months, her hus- 
band returned to Philadelphia, she learned from him that 
the cause for his delay and unusual silence had been word 
for word as was stated to her by the old Hermit on the 

" The curiosity of the woman, now thoroughly aroused, 
determined upon a visit to Matthai with her husband. 
Upon the arrival at the cabin, the moment that the captain 
saw the old hermit (who was entirely unknown to him) he 
told his wife that he had seen this very man, upon such a 
day (it was the very day that the women had made her 
visit) in a coffee-house in London, and that he came to him 
telling him how distressed was his wife that he had not 

School at John BechteVs. 395 

" He then told him why he had not written, with the 
reasons why his return was delayed, but that he was then 
upon the eve of his departure for home, after which the 
stranger was lost sight of. 

" Another account of this strange occurrence describes 
the hermit, Conrad Matthai, a man of retired habits, who 
spoke but little ; in demeanour grave, benevolent and pious, 
with nothing against his character except that he, in com- 
mon with his associates, possessed secrets which were 
accounted not altogether lawful." 

How intimate the relations were between the old Theoso- 
phist and the various evangelists and missionaries, has been 
aready told in a previous chapter. 

In the latter years of his life the old recluse became too 
feeble to support himself by his own manual labor. In 
these days he found a firm friend in Johannes Wiister, the 
Philadelphia merchant, who lived at Germantown, and who 
befriended him until his death. 

Toward the close of his earthly sojourn, Conrad Matthai 
became very friendly with the Moravian Bretheren, and 
even in his advanced age continued to take a great interest 
in their efforts to spread the Gospel among all people, and 
bring about a union of all Christian denominations as well 
as the education of the children. So great was his interest 
in the educational problem, that upon the opening of a 
Moravian boarding-school, in John Bechtel's house, on 
March 8, 1747, the first to send greetings to the Brethren 
is old Father Conrad Matthai, "who," as Bishop Cammer- 
hoff writes, " lives a few miles from here in his hut as a 
recluse." iW 

A few months later, May 22, 1747, during the Synod 

419 Bethlehem Diaries. 

396 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

held at Germantown, Brother Martin Mack visited Mat- 
thai, at his cabin on the Ridge, accompanied by three In- 
dian converts, who were presented to the old Pietist as an 
living evidence of the Brethren's success in spreading the 
Gospel of Christ among all people. 420 

It was, indeed, a picturesque sight wherein the patriar- 
chial anchorite, with his snow-white hair and flowing beard, 
clad as he was in his rough home-spun pilgrim garb, formed 
the chief figure. The Moravian Brethren, in direct con- 
trast, with their long hair, smooth-shaven faces and plain 
brown garb, brought out the figure of the old Pietist in 
in even bolder prominence, while the three dusky Indians, 
still partly robed in their semi-barbarous costume, added 
yet more to the charm, and completed the composition, as 
it were, — the background of which was formed by the hut 
of the old recluse, with its surroundings of flowering shrubs 
and dark foliage. 

It was a happy day for the Moravian Brethren to be able 
to present their " first fruits" before the old Magister, and 
it afforded the latter no less pleasure to greet these practical 
evidences of the Moravian missionary efforts. 

Conrad Matthai received the Indian converts very kindly, 
and exhorted them to remain steadfast in their faith, and he 
finally dismissed them with his blessing, given with his 
hands uplifted and his face turned to the Orient. 

It is recorded that this interview made a lasting impres- 
sion upon the three Indian converts. 

In the fall of the same year Conrad Matthai, together 
with Brother Jaebetz (Rev. Peter Miller), Prior of the 
Ephrata Community, attended the Pennsylvania Synodal 
Conference held September 25, 1747. 

420 These Indians were from Shecomeco and were baptized by Brother 
Rauch at the Synod held at the house of John de Turck at Olney, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1742. 

Moravian Evangelists. 397 

This seems to have been the last public occasion on 
which he was present. During the following winter his 
health continued to fail, the old man getting feebler and 
feebler as the months rolled by. 

When his helpless condition became known to the Mora- 
vian Brethren, he was frequently visited by their evangel- 
ists, and upon a report of Brothers John Wade and Ludwig 
Huebner, who came from Neshaminy for the purpose of 
visiting him in the summer of 1748, Brother Richard 
Utley 221 was sent down from Bethlehem to remain with 
him and minister to his wants. 

Brother Jasper Payne and his wife, who were then in 
charge of the Moravian school at German town, also attended 
to his wants, and occasionally sent some of the children 
over to his cabin to sing for him, an act which he ever 
appreciated. As his serious condition became known at 
Ephrata, a member of the Zionitic Brotherhood was at 
once dispatched to the Wissahickon to minister to him. 

This action upon the part of the Ephrata Communitj' 
caused more or less friction between the Moravian and 
Ephrata Brethren, for each party claimed the dying Magis- 
ter as their own. This peculiar condition was aggravated 
still more by the fact that the object of their solicitation 
would neither renounce the one nor acknowledge the other 

421 Richard Utley was born in Yorkshire, England, February 22, 1720. 
He was a weaver by trade, received into the Moravian Church in 1742 ; 
came to America with the " 2d Sea Congregation;" ordained a Deacon 
by Spangenburg at Philadelphia, August 14, 1746 ; Pastor at New York 
(twice), Lancaster, Philadelphia (1749-52), Graceham (twice). In 1766 
was sent to North Carolina and served in congregations, was Warden 
at Salem, and from 1772-75 member of Prov. Helpers Conference. Died 
October 9, 1775. " He loved to preach much better than to attend to the 
duties of Warden or a member of the Conference."— J. W. Jordan. 

398 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

However, toward the latter part of August, 1748, as 
Conrad Matthai felt that his end upon earth was drawing 
near, he sent a request to Brother Payne at Germantown 
that the children at the Moravian school be sent over to 
him. When they arrived he asked them to sing for him 
some parting hymns, — a custom which was then in vogue 
among the Germans when one's end was approaching. 

The hymn which pleased him most and gave him the 

greatest comfort was the peculiar Moravian hymn of the 

period, 322 — 

"Was macht ein Kreuz-luft vogelein 
Wann's 'naus fliegt aus dem Hiittelein?" 

After the singing was over, Matthai turned toward the 
East, raised up his hands and prayed fervently ; then turn- 
ing once more to the children, he blessed them according 
to the ritual of the Mystic Brotherhood, after which he 
dismissed them. 

Two days later he departed from his humble recluse hut 
on the Wissahickon to enter into the glorious palaces of 
his Redeemer the celestial Bridegroom. 

Bishop Cammerhoff, in his diary, notes, in reference to 
the death of Matthai, that " at his ending his heart was 
filled with love and tenderness for the Lamb and His con- 
gregation (Unitas Fratrum). Though the enemies (the 
Ephrata Mystic Community) tried their utmost to turn 
him against the congregation, they did not succeed in 
diverting him." 

After the death of the old Pietist, both parties claimed 
the body for burial, and the Moravian einlader (invitor) 
went from door to door in Germantown to inform the 
people that " old Father Matthai" was dead, and when he 
was to be buried. 

1 Hymn 2251 Zugabe to the xii Anhang. 

Burial of Matth'di. 399 

Notwithstanding this somewhat unseemly rivalry between 
the two opposing orders, in the end a compromise was 
effected by which both parties officiated at the funeral. 
This happy result, it is said, was effected by Johannes 
Wiister, who bore the funeral expenses. 

In the main the wishes of the deceased were respected, 
at least in so far that his grave was dug at the feet of that 
of his former Magister, Johannes Kelpius, as he considered 
himself unworthy to repose by his side. This spot, accord- 
ing to Bishop Cammerhoff, was but a short distance from 
the hut lately inhabited by the dead Mystic. 

The interment took place on Thursday, September 1, 
1748, in the presence of a large concourse of people, promi- 
nent among whom was Dr. Christopher Witt, now the last 
survivor of the former Community, and Johannes Wiister, 
the German merchant of Philadelphia. Although the ser- 
vices commenced with an address by Brother Timotheus 
(Alexander Mack) of the Zionitic Brotherhood of Ephrata, 
the ceremonies virtually ended in a Moravian burial, the 
chief feature of which was the reading of a biographical 
sketch of the deceased, followed by a sermon by Rev. James 
Greening, who had come up from Philadelphia expressly 
for that purpose, and, as Bishop Cammerhoff writes, "por- 
trayed to all present the Lamb with His wounds and bloody 
martyr scene," after which the body was consigned to the 
mother earth amidst the singing by all present of the hymn, 
" Christi blut und gerechtigkeit.' 1 ' 1 m 

423 This hymn is still in use by the Moravian Church throughout the 
world. The English translation, hymn 302 in the new Hymnal, reads : 
" The Saviour's blood and righteousness 
My beauty is, my glorious dress ; 
Thus well arrayed, I need not fear, 
When in His presence I appear." 

400 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

The Chronicon Ephretense, commenting upon the death 
of the old Mystic, states : " Conrad Matthai, after he had 
fulfilled righteousness among men by works of love, came 
to live a life of faith, whereupon God awakened for him 
a rich merchant, by the name of Johannes Wiister, who 
served him with his possessions, and also helped to bury 
him by the side of Kelpius, although he in his humility 
had not desired to lie beside him, but only at his feet. 
May God grant him a blessed resurrection." 

Two weeks after the burial of the last of the Hermits 
who remained on the Ridge, Christopher Sauer, in his 
paper Pennsylvanische Berichte, September 16, 1748, pub- 
lished the following notice : 

" Conrad Matthai, der alte Einsiedler auf der Ritch, ist 
den isten dieses Monats begraben im 70 Yahr seines Alters." 

In the MS. minutes of the Bruder-Synode, held at Beth- 
lehem from October 12-23 to 16-27, r 748) appears the fol- 
lowing interesting entry relating to the death and burial 
of Conrad Matthai. On account of its quaintness and as 
an illustration of the peculiar religious literature in vogue 
in Pennsylvania at that period, the extract is reproduced 
verbatim. : 

" Bei gelegenheit der Kinder anstalt in Germantown allwo 
geschwister Payns mit ihren gehulfen sind wurde erzahlet 
dass unser lieber Bruder Conrad Matthai der auf der Ridge 
2wei meilen von Germantown gewohnet vor 5 wochen recht 
selig sum lieben Ldmmlein gegangen sei. 

" Zu seiner krankheit haben ihn unser e geschwister von 
Germantown desgleichen auch bruder Uttly der express 
dazu von Bethlehem aus abgeschickt worden, fleissig besucht. 
Und sonderlich sind die Kinder in der Germantown anstalt 
seines herzens lust undfreude gewesen, die ihn auch etwa 2 
tage vor seiner heimfarth noch einmal besucht, und ihm auf 



1 Count Luowig von zinzendorf. 

2 Bishop August G. Spangenberg. 

3 Bishop David Nitchmann. 

4 Bishop J. C F Cammerhoff. 

5 Bro. John martin Mack. 

6 Bro. Friederich Martin. 

7 Bro, Georq Neisser. 


A Moravian Tribute. 


besucht, und ihm auf seinem verlangen viel wunden und 
seiten-holchens-versel zum abschied gesungen haben. 

" Item, — Sein Seelchen wird sick auch einmal aus seinem 
Huttlein schwingen. 

" Da er dann seine H'dnde empor gehoben und mit einem 
hertzlichen gebet die Kinder gesegnet und ein paar tage 
darauf recht selig ins seiten-hblchen gefahren. Sein hertz 
ist bis an sein ende voller Hebe und zdrtlichkeit zum Ldmm- 
lein u zu seiner Gemeine geblieben, und alle die feinde die 
ihr duserstes an inn versucht um ihn gegen die Gemeine 
einzunekmen haben ihn nicht zu stohren vermocht. 

" Und da sein Huttlein nahe bei den alten Baron Kelpio 
zur ruhe gebracht worden so hat zuerst Alexander Mack 
dabei eine rede gehalten und hernach Bruder Greening das 
Ldmmlein und seine wunden und blutige Martyrs gestalt 
alien anwesenden vorgemahlet. Wie dann auch in den 
zeitungen etwaz davon erzehlet worden?'' 



f^^OCTOR Christopher 
jfy Witt, who died at Ger- 
mantown toward the 
close of January, 1765, at the 
advanced age of ninety years, 
was, so far as is known, the last 
survivor of all the Pietists, philo- 
sophical students and religious 
enthusiasts who, during the life- 
time of Magister Kelpius, had 
been connected with the Theo- 
sophical Community on the 

It was ordained for him to 
outlive his fellows, to soothe 
their sufferings, and in some cases to close the eyes of such 
as remained in the vicinity, or came to him from afar in 
their time of sore distress, 424 as in the instance of Isaac van 
Bebber. 425 

Arms of Penn, from the First Pro- 
vincial Currency, Printed 1723. 

424 Chronicon Ephretense, translation p. 18. 

425 This Isaac van Bebber, according to the Chronicon, was a young 
Hollander and an early companion of Beissel ; he was a nephew or rela- 
tive of the Isaac van Bebber at whose house Koster instituted the Luth- 
eran services upon his arrival in 1694. 

Christian Warmer. 


When finally it came to the time for Christopher Witt 
to leave this transitory world and rejoin his former com- 
panions, his last act was to devise the bulk of his property, 
together with the house in which he lived, to Christian 
Warmer, a grandson of the charitable tailor who had done 
so many acts of kindness to Kelpius and his fellow Pietists 
during the times of sickness and adversity. 

Christopher Witt, or DeWitt as he is sometimes called, 

was born in Wiltshire, England, in the year 1675 ; he came to 

>*o America in the year 

(i/Zl-iS&P&r rfj T?-//- i7°4.andatoncejoin- 
^ # VIS'" ed the Theosophical 

Autograph of Doctor Christopher Witt. enthusiasts On the 

Wissahickon. He was then in his twenty-ninth year, and 
in addition to being a thorough naturalist and a skillful 
physician, was well versed in the occult sciences and in 
practical astronomy. 

On account of his varied accomplishments he was per- 
haps, to the public at large, the most valuable man of the 
Mystic Community, and from the very outset his services 
as a physician were called into requisition, not only by 
the residents of the immediate vicinity, but also from out- 
lying districts, his fame extending even into the adjoining 

Shortly after the death of Kelpius and the partial dis- 
memberment of the Community, Doctor Witt, together 
with Daniel Geissler, the former famulus of the Magister, 
removed into a small house in Germantown upon the land 
of Christian Warmer. Their personal wants were care- 
fully attended to by the Warmer family, which then con- 
sisted of Christian, the emigrant, Christiana his wife, two 
sons, George and Christian, and two daughters, Christiana 
and Elizabeth. 

404 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In September of the year 17 18, Dr. Witt purchased, for 
£&o, silver currency, from John Doeden and wife, two 
tracts of land containing in the aggregate 125 acres; 101 
of which were located within the inhabited parts of the 
town, the rest being pasture land in the township. The 
witnesses to this conveyance were Matthias Zimmermann m 
and Daniel Geissler. 

On the 21st of May, 1720, Witt, as "Doctor of Physic 
and Chirurgene," deeded the whole of this purchase to 
Christian Warmer, " Taylor," the consideration being the 
same amount as above. This deed was witnessed by 
Daniel Geissler, Pieter Keyser, Phillip Christian Zimmer- 
mann and Matthis Melan. 

Christian Warmer, prior to his death in the spring of 
1728, made the following provision in his will for the two 
Theosophists : 

"And as Concerning all that my twenty-five acres of 
" Land wch I Purchased of Daniel Geissler in Germantown 427 
" sd together with all & singular the Messauage building 
" & appurtinances part in the possession of Doctor Witt, I 
" Give & Divise the same unto my Daughters Christiana 
" & Elizabeth their Heirs & assigns for ever, in equal pro- 
" portions between them to commence on & immediately 
" after the Determination of my Wifes Estate as afsd and 
"the term & Estate therein of the afsd Doctor Witt & 
" Daniel Geissler their lives being also Expired." 

That Doctor Witt still kept in close touch with the now 
scattered members of the former Community is shown by 
the Ephrata records, and by the different wills upon which 
he figures as either witness or executor. 

426 A son of Magister Zimmermann. 

427 This land was a part of the tract bought from Reynier Jansen the 
printer, October 20, 1701. "Pennsylvania Magazine," vol. iv, p. 37. 

The Widow Zimmermann. 405 

A notable instance of the latter is the case of the widow 
Zimmermann, who died in Germantown, wife of Magister 
John Jacob Zimmermann, who originally organized the 

Upon this occasion Dr. Witt came into possession of 
some of the personal belongings of the late Magister, among 
which were : 

" A sondry sort of books, 2 Bibles & some latin Boocks, 
33 in number besides the latin bocks. " 

These were valued at ^"3-16-0. 

" An old Vorginall." m 

" A little old box, with some brass things, and an old 

History and tradition are both silent as to what became 
of either the books or the old " brass things," which were no 
doubt some of the Magister's philosophical or astronomical 

It is known that the two philosophers, Witt and Geissler, 
continued to live in a house on the Warmer lot until the 
death of Daniel Geissler, which took place in the summer 
of 1745. In his will, proved August 10, 1745, he gives 
and bequeaths "all his moveables or personal property 
estate, wherewith it hath pleased the Lord to bless his 
endeavours, to one Maria Barber Schneiderin, widow, in 
Germantown. " 

During all these years Geissler attended to matters 
requiring manual labor, such as the cultivation of the 
medicinal herbs and plants for the use of the doctor in his 
profession, thus leaving the latter free to devote himself to 
his practice and study. 

After the death of his faithful companion, Dr. Witt 

428 This was without doubt the first Virginall (a kind of piano) that was 
brought into the Province. 

406 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

changed his quarters to the large mansion house m which had 
in the mean time been built by Christian Warmer the 
younger, and when the latter died in the fall of 1749, 430 
the son, like unto the father before him, left an ample 
provision in his will for the old Theosophist, who was now 
past three score and ten. 

" 9thly, I do hereby give and bequeath unto my affection- 
" ate and loving friend Christopher Witt with the full free 
" use liberty, and Priviledge of any fruits or garden Erbs 
" Growing or belonging to any part of my sd lotts, lands 
"and tenements aforesd. As also the sowing, planting 
" such trees Quick setts & Erbs as he shall think proper 
" and shall have occasion of on the same with all necessary 
" use of ye S. E. end of my Mansion house diet firewood, 
" attendence & finally all that he may or shall reasonably 
"require or have occassion for during his natural life. 
"All which my sd wife children & their Trustees shall 
"truly & faithfully fulfill & perform as aforesd." 

His wife Lydia, together with Dr. Witt, are named as 
sole executors. 

Dr. Witt was a skilled botanist, and upon his removal to 
Germantown after the death of Kelpius, he started a large 
garden for his own study and amusement, and to him pro- 
bably is due the honor of starting the first botanical gar- 
den in America. This was about twenty years prior to 
Bartram's purchase on the Schuylkill for a like purpose. 

Dr. Witt was for many years the friend and correspondent 
of the celebrated Peter Collinson of London, whose letters 
to some of the leading men in the Province all mention 
the high esteem and regard in which Dr. Witt was held by 

429 Tradition seems to point to the house still standing at the south-east 
corner of Main and High streets as the homestead of the Warmers and 
of Dr. Witt. 

430 September 12, 1749. 

John Bartram. 407 

that celebrated English naturalist and antiquarian. In 
later years there was a frequent intercourse between Dr. 
Witt and John Bartram. The following letter from the 
latter to Peter Collinson gives an interesting insight into 
the private life of the learned Theosophist : 

"June nth, 1743. 

"Friend Peter: 

"I have lately been to visit our friend Doctor Witt, 
where I spent four or five hours very agreeably — sometimes 
in his garden, where I viewed every kind of plant, I believe 
that grew therein, which afforded me a convenient oppor- 
tunity of asking him whether he ever observed any kind 
of Wild Roses in this country, that was double. He said 
he could not remember that ever he did. So being satis- 
fied with this amusement, we went into his study, which 
was furnished with books containing different kinds of 
learning; as Philosophy, Natural Magic, Divinity, nay, 
even Mystic Divinity ; all of which were the subjects of 
our discourse within doors, which alternately gave way to 
Botany, every time we walked in the garden. I could 
have wished thee the enjoyment of so much diversion, as 
to have heard our discourse, provided thee had been well 
swathed from hips to arm-pits. But it happened, a little 
of our spiritual discourse was interrupted by a material 
object within doors ; for the Doctor had lately purchased 
of a great travellar in Spain and Italy, a sample of what 
was imposed upon him for Snake Stones, which took 
me up a little time beside laughing at him to convince 
the Doctor that they were nothing but calcined old horse 

" Indeed to give the Doctor his due, he is very pleasant, 
facetious and plaint, and will exchange as many freedoms 

408 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

as most men of his years, with those he respects. His 
understanding and judgement, thee art not unacquainted 
with, having had so long and frequent intercourse with 
him by letters. 

"When we are upon the topic of astrology, magic, and 
mystic divinity, I am apt to be a little troublesome, by 
inquiring into the foundation and reasonableness of these 
notions which, thee knows, will not bear to be searched 
and examined into; though I handle these fancies with 
more tenderness with him, than I should with many others 
that are so superstitiously inclined, because I respect the 
man. He hath a considerable share of good in him. 

" The Doctor's famous I/ychnis, which thee has dignified 
so highly, is, I think, unworthy of that character. Our 
swamps and low grounds are full of them. I had so con- 
temptible an opinion of it, as not to think it worth sending, 
nor afford it room in my garden ; but I suppose, by thy 
account, your climate agreeth so well, that it is much im- 
proved. The other, which I brought from Virginia, grows 
with me about five feet high, bearing large spikes of dif- 
ferent coloured flowers, for three or four months in the 
year, exceeding beautiful. I have another wild one, finely 
speckled, and striped with red upon a white ground, and a 
red eye in the middle, the only one I ever saw. 

" Our worthy friend, Colden, wrote to me he had received 
a new edition of Linnaeus's Characteres Plantarum, lately 
printed. He advised me to desire Gronovius to send it to 
me. I should be very glad to see it. The first I saw, was 
at the Doctor's, and chiefly by it he hath attained to the 
greatest knowledge in Botany, of any I have discoursed 

John Bartram." 

Dr. Witt the Botanist. 409 

The following interesting references to Doctor Witt are 
from the Bartram papers now in the collection of the Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society : 


" London, August 16th, 1735. 
" I am glad to hear that the Medlar grows. It is the large Neapolitan 
sort, which produces a large fruit. Doctor Witt, at Germantown, wants 
it much. I sent him some at the same time ; but whether he has any 
luck, I can't tell." 

" London, September 20, 1736. 
" But on the other side of the question, I have received from my ingen- 
ious friends, J. Breintnall and Doctor Witt, very particular accounts of 
the power it has over creatures, by charming them into its very jaws." 

" London, February 3rd, 1736-7. 
" I am pleased to hear thee art acquainted with Dr. Witt, an old cor- 
respondent of mine, and has sent me many a valuable, curious plant. 
But I am afraid the old gentlemen has been too cunning for thee. Those 
fine Lady's Slippers, which make my mouth water, have slipped beside 
it. The Doctor says he would have sent them me, but that he was afraid 
they were spoiled in bringing home, for want of proper care to wet the 
roots by the way. ' ' 

" London, December 14th, 1737. 
"This we call the small mountain Ranunculus, as it really is. I had 
it formerly sent me, by Dr. Witt, but I should be glad of a few roots more. 
It is a pretty plant, and keeps a long while in flower." 

" London, January 31st, 1738. 

"The pretty white Ranunculus {Anemone thalidroides, L.) that Dr. 
Witt sent to me, some time agone, is a neat, delicate, double flower ; but 
I never knew before, it was a Snake-root. It is described by the cele- 
brated Plukenet, who has most of your country plants. He names it — 
"Ranunculus nemorosus, Aquilegioe foliis, Virginian us, Asphodeli 

" London, Aprii, 6th, 1738. 

"I have received three sorts of Jaceas from Doctor Witt. He distin- 
guishes them by Early Jacea, Elegant Jacea, and Gigantic Jacea. I wish 
thee could find them out, to send specimens of them, as they grow in 
your country." 


410 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" London, January 26th, 1738-9. 
"There is a small packet for Doctor Witt. Pray, somehow or other, 
convey it to him. Some fine Melon seed for Thomas Penn ; some Bur- 
gundy Trefoil (Medicago sativa, L. or Lucerne), for J. Logan ; and pray, 
where there is sufficient, let him have a share of the other seeds." 

" London, July 10th, 1739. 
" It differs from the great Marsh Martogon, for that will not flower till 
the middle of August, and another sort, I had formerly from Doctor Witt ; 
but that was a smaller sort, and never had but four or five flowers on a 

" London, July 10th, 1739. 
"The pretty Spiroea, that thee sent me a specimen of in the quire 
before last, that I doubted if it was of your natural growth, I have now 
a plant in flower, that Doctor Witt sent me, which shows that it is." 

" London, July 22nd, 1740. 

" Doctor Witts hollow-leafed Lavender, is, no doubt, the Side-saddle 
flower ; but what relation it has to Lavender, I must leave to him. The 
plant with Tricolor leaves, I amm well assured, is your fine Clinopodium. 
Our late severe winter has carried all mine off ; so pray send me some 
more seed, and of the Lychnis with Crosswort leaves. 

" The doctor did not carefully distinguish, or observe, the fruit he 
mentions, which I take to be no more than an excrescence raised by 
insects, like Galls and Oak-apples ; which have a pulpy substance in 
them of a beautiful complexion." 

" London, October 20th, 1740. 
"I am much obliged to thee for the account of Dr. Witt's rarities. 
Thee has unravelled the whole mystery." 

" London, September 16th, 1741. 
" Pray send some Ginseng seed ; but roots will be better. I had great 
expectation I had this rare plant, but don't find it proves so. The young 
leaves of the Prenanthes, or Doctor Witt's Snake-root, I took for it." 

" London, June 16th, 1742. 
"I have a Lychnis, from Doctor Witt, different from any yet that I 
have seen. It seems to be the King of that tribe. Its stalk is near as 
thick as my little finger (which is but small, for a man). It is now about 
two feet high, and yet no flowers appear. The stalk is most finely spotted, 
which is very distinguishing from all the rest that I have seen." 

Mechanical Ingenuity. 411 

" London, July 20th, 1759. 
" I am concerned to hear poor Dr. Witt, my old friend, is blind. A 
well-spent life, I doubt not, will give him consolation and illuminate his 
darkness. I must conclude, my dear John, against my inclination. 


"July 24th, 1744. 
" Our friend, Doctor Witt, is as well as usual." 

" May 22d, 1761. 
" Doctor Witt and Alexander went on purpose and fetched seeds and 
roots ; but both miscarried." 

"July 19th, 1761. 
" I have now a glorious appearance of Carnations from thy seed, — the 
brightest colours that ever eyes beheld. Now, what with thine, Dr. Witt's 
and others, I can challenge any garden in America for variety. Poor old 
man ! he was lately in my garden, but could not distinguish a leaf from a 

Dr. Witt, it is said, built the first stone house in German- 
town (it was next door below Andrew Keyser's house) ; he 
was also an ingenious mechanic, and during the long 
winter, when botanizing was out of question, he constructed 
the first clocks made in Pennsylvania, if not in America. 
One of these he made for his own use : it struck the 
quarters, and was quite a curiosity at that early day. 
These timepieces were made of brass and steel, they were 
set on two brackets against the wall, and ran for thirty-six 
hours, with one weight and an endless chain ; being wound 
by merely pulling the chain, which would raise the weight. 
The long pendulum, as well as the weight and chain, were 
exposed, as were also the works behind the dial ; the bell 
on which the hour was struck was placed immediately 
above the works. 

At that time these timepieces were valued at from 15 to 
25 pounds currency ; they were known as wall clocks, or 
Wand-uhren, and were the precursors of the high-case 

413 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

clocks so common in the early years of the present century, 
many of which are still preserved as heirlooms. 

With his other accomplishments Dr. Witt combined that 
of an artist and musician. He possessed a large pipe organ, 
said to have been of his own construction, and the only 
instrument of the kind in the possession of a private 
individual in America, He was also a skillful performer 
on the " virginal," a keyed instrument, of one string, jack 
and quill to each note, like a spinnet, but in shape resem- 
bling an upright piano. Notwithstanding his mechanical 
and extensive professional labors and scientific researches, 
he kept up his studies in the occult sciences as well as the 
Theosophical speculations of the old Brotherhood long 
after the state of affairs brought around by the growth of 
the new country had scattered most of his former associates, 
as well as deprived the Quaker element of its supremacy. 
He also was an adept in astronomy, having a fine large 
telescope. His reputation as an astronomer was of a high 
order, and his deductions were generally accepted as final 
by the various scientists of the day. 

A good illustration of his observations is shown by his 
description of the "great" comet of 1743, and it is by far 
the best that we have of that celestial phenomenon/ 31 His 
observation was made through his eight-foot telescope, a 
few days after the comet's appearance on Christmas night 
of that year ; it then appeared as large as the planet Jupi- 
ter. Dr. Witt says : 

" His atmosphere or tail is not long, but directing itself 
to the S. E.; his motion but slow, making to the N. W. 
He rises about % past 10 in the morning in the E. N. E., 
and passes our Meridian ^ after five p. m. in latitude 15. 

431 For a full account of the " great " comet, see " An Ephrata Legend," 
by the present writer, in Christian Culture, Lancaster, Penn., 1891, vol. 
i, No. 11. 

The Hexen-meister of Germantown. 413 

30 N.; and sets % after night in the W. N. W. His lati- 
tude with respect to the eliptic is 21 D. 30 m. His longi- 
tude from Aries 14 D. 30 m." 

The learned Doctor also practised horoscopy, and would 
as the occasion required, cast nativities according to the 
position of celestial bodies, and he was wont to use the 
hazel rod in his divination. These facts, together with his 
wrinkled features and bent figure in his later years, made 
him an object of fear and terror to the naturally supersti- 
tious Germans of the settlement, whose favorite occupation 
after dark was the telling and retelling of ghost stories. 
Whether sitting in front of the fire on the spacious hearth, 
or on the bench under the stoop in front of the house, 
spook-stories were always the favorite theme. In many of 
these legends the hexen-meister, as Dr. Witt was univer- 
sally known among the Germans, figured as the chief actor, 
The doctor, however, minded not these idle tales and 
rumors, and willingly went into any of their houses to 
alleviate their suffering, even if he saw them making three 
crosses in the air or on the door-jamb as he entered, or 
knew that while he was ministering to the ailing child, the 
anxious parent was saying a Vater Unser to keep off the 
Evil One. To make matters worse for the local gossips, 
on one occasion Dr. Witt returned from Philadelphia ac- 
companied by a slave whom he had purchased there. This 
man was a mulatto with a sharp, piercing black eye, light 
skin and curly hair, and was known as Robert. He became 
the trusty servant and companion of his master, and when- 
ever Dr. Witt went out after dark Robert invariably pre- 
ceded him with a lantern. It was not long before it would 
have been hard to say whether master or servant inspired 
the most fear with the simple-minded Germans ; some of 
whom honestly believed that Robert was really a familiar 

314 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

spirit, sent from the regions below at the request of his 
master. Robert, however, proved a reliable and trust- 
worthy servant, competent to wait on the table, curry 
horses, clean knives, boots and shoes, lay a table, shave 
and dress wigs, and carry a lantern ; and in addition to 
these multitudinous accomplishments, being of a mechanical 
turn of mind he soon mastered the science of clockmaking. 

Doctor Witt accumulated considerable property, and, as 
before stated, about the middle of the century, after the 
death of Geissler, took up his abode in the large stone 
house which had been built by Christian Warmer (2d). 
The old house, however, was not rented, but was used by 
the doctor as a workshop or laboratory, and in the course 
of time became an object of dread to all passers by after 
dark. The many gruesome tales connected with this old 
house were only equalled by those told in connection with 
the old Hexen-meister and his Teufels-bursche. The mys- 
terious sounds and lights said to have been heard and seen 
there frequently during the long winter nights, if probed, 
no doubt would have been found to emanate from Robert's 
turning-lathe, or the Doctor's brazier, as he was preparing 
some of the medicaments used in his profession. 

When the Doctor was eighty years old his eyesight failed 
him, and this in a few years resulted in total blindness. 

During the years of his affliction he was tenderly cared 
for by his slave Robert, who not only proved his devoted 
servant, but acted as his agent. 

Before his eyesight had entirely failed him, he sent for 
three friends in whom he had the fullest confidence, viz., 
Hugh Neile, Charles Witherholtz and John Knorr, 432 and 

432 John Knorr was a son-in-law of Ludwig Biedermann, one of the 
leaders of the original Community. His wife was Hannah Ludwig 
Biedermann, and her mother, Maria Margaretta Beidermann, was a 
daughter of Magister Zimmermann, who died at Rotterdam. 

Curious Burial Custom. 415 

.11 "-J-n-iJ pi^-n-ui-c lit. aiiu v.*i.v_\_ in 

in their presence he made and executed his last will and 

testament, Novem- 
ber 7, 1761. He 
could then hardly 
see to write his 
signaturk to Will. name to the docu- 

ment. He appointed Richard Johnson and Christian 
Warmer (3d) as his executors. 

But few particulars are known of the end of this old 
mystic and philosopher, or even the exact date of his 
death. It appears from some fragmentary documents that 
it was in the latter part of January, 1765, and that the last 
offices were performed for him by the third generation of 
the Warmer family. 

His remains, — wrapt in a spotless linen sheet and resting 
upon the shavings made in planing the boards, 433 in the 
plain, unvarnished deal coffin, without lining or ornament, 
made by Robert for his late master, — were buried in the 
family's private ground, situated on the top of the hill 
behind the Warmer homestead, and which is fully described 
in the next chapter. At his request his remains were 
lowered into the ground just as the winter sun sunk beneath 
the horizon. 

The old magus had outlived all of his former associates 
and friends. In the three score years that he had passed in 

433 This custom has survived until of late years and is still occasionally 
insisted upon in the burial of decendants from the early Sabbatarians in 
Pennsylvania. Poplar wood, however, is usually used in place of pine. 
The superstition about the shavings made in building a coffin is an old 
one. It was believed that in case that a shaving from a coffin would 
find its way into any house death would result in the near future. Both 
shavings and sawdust were therefore always carefully swept up by the 
cabinet-maker and placed in the coffin before he delivered it. A modern 
instance of this custom is described by the writer in the Philadelphia 
Times of August 3,' 1893. 

316 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Germantown, he had witnessed probably greater changes 
than almost any one, and the tradition may be a true one 
which tells us that the sincerest mourner at the funeral was 
the trusty slave Robert. The following obituary appeared 
in the Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 1885, February 7, 1765 : 

"L,ast week died at Germantown Dr. Christopher De 
Wit a Gentleman long and well known throughout this 
and the neighbouring provinces for his great services and 
abilities in his profession of a physician." 

Although Doctor Witt lived and died in the home of the 
Warmer family, it appears that he was not without kinship 
in this country, as he had a nephew, William Yates, 43 * living 
in Germantown. Just how great the intimacy was between 
these two men is difficult to surmise, as all that is known 
about the latter is gleamed from a deed of gift to Yates, 
and the reference to him in Witt's last will. 

From the former it appears that when Dr. Witt felt that 
he was approaching the end of his earthly career, he gave 
to his relative a stone house and tenement with a lot of 
ground containing 54^ perches, fronting on the northeast 
side of the main street. This gift, for such it was (as the 
consideration was only a nominal one) was evidently in lieu 
of all and any claims Yates might eventually make against 
the estate of his uncle. The conveyance is dated Novem- 
ber 2, 1758, and is recorded in Deed Book H, 11, page 186. 

It sets forth that, " For and inconsideration of the natural 
love and affection which the said Christopher Witt hath 
and doth bear unto and towards his said nephew William 
Yates and for his the said William Yates better and more 
comfortable subsistance in this world and for divers other 
good causes him the said Christopher Witt (as uncle) there- 

434 William Yates was a wheelwright by profession, and was a son of 
Witt's sister. 

William Yates. 417 

unto especially mooving, as in consideration of the sum of 
Five Shillings lawfull money of Pennsylvania unto him 
the said Christopher Witt well and duly in hand paid by 
his said Nephew William Yates, &c." 

A tradition that the writer has thus far not been able to 
verify intimates that the house given by Witt to Yates 
formerly stood upon the site now known as 5073 Main 
Street. It is described as having been a quaint little 
building, and subsequently for a time served as the local 

After De Witt's death, when the will was admitted to pro- 
bate, February 4th, it was found that after a bequest to " Wil- 
liam Yeats, commonly called my relative," of " One English 
shilling," he manumits his trusty servant Robert (Clay- 
more) absolutely ; further giving him the lot on which the 
old house stood, describing it as " the certain tract of land 
in the Township of Germantown, on the north side of the 
lane commonly called Keyser's and bought of Adam Holt." 
He further gives him " all tools, instruments and utensils 
belonging or appertaining to the making of Clocks, also 
the feather bed and bedstead, a bolster-pillow and other 
furniture ; also my great Clock which strikes the quarters, 
also all household goods belonging to me which shall be 
found in my old house, where I formerly lived next door 
below Andrew Keyser's alias Pistorius. That is to say 2 
chairs, a Black walnut table, Chest of drawers, a press cup- 
board, with all that is contained in the same. Also all 
other goods and effects of mine which shall be found in the 
same old house at the time of my decease." 

After thus liberally providing for his trusty servant, he 
bequeaths ^60 cash, then in the hands of one Leonard 
Frelich, to the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, an 
institution then in its infancy, " the said legacy to be for 


418 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the use of the poor in said Hospital." m After a few minor 
bequests, he leaves the rest of his estate, including the 
large house in which he lived, to his friend Christian 
Warmer (3d), the grandson of the emigrant. 436 

Thus Doctor Christopher Witt, the Rosicrucian Mystic 
of Germantown, the last of the Kelpius community, lived 
and died charitable even unto death, not only rewarding his 
trusty slave with his liberty, and his old benefactors, the 
Warmer family, with a home and fortune, but leaving a 
legacy for the alleviation of human misery for ages to 
come. Comparatively, his bequest to the Hospital will 
prove a more enduring monument to his worth and memory 
than perishable stone or corroding brass. 

435 This is said to have been one of the first legacies left to the embryo 
institution. In the Hospital records the estate of Dr. " Wilt " is credited 
with $160.00. 

436 His personal property was appraised at a total of ^"314, 5s, od. 
Among the items we find : 

Telescope, ^"1-10-0 

Maps and Pictures, l-5-o 

Organ, 40-0-0 

Virginal 1-15-0 

Belongings to apothecaries and Doctor's way, 60-0-0 

Two Clocks, 30-0-0 

One Clock, 15-0-0 

Clockmaker's tools, 3-0-0 



and his wife were not 
only solicitous for the 
bodily welfare of the indivi- 
dual members of the Theoso- 
phical Community, and ten- 
derly cared for such as were 
sick or distressed in the early 
days of the experiment on the 
Wissahickon, but they went 
even further, and set apart a 
35JT M. P^ ece °f their land in German- 
town 437 as a burial-place for 

One of the Warner Tombs on , , - , - Ar . 1 

spook hill.«» themselves and such Tneoso- 

phical Brethern as should die 
in the vicinity. This cemetery, within the very heart of 
Germantown, has for some reasons thus far escaped the 
notice of antiquarians and local historians. It is located 
upon the high ground within the square bounded by High 
and Haines Streets, and Morton and Hancock Streets, and 

437 A seemingly well-founded tradition indicates that the ground was 
originally set aside for burial purposes by Dr. Witt, who held title to the 
same for two years before he conveyed it to Warmer. See page 404 ibid. 

438 The name of the Warmer family about the middle of last century 
was Anglicized to Warner, vide signature of emigrant, page 245, supra. 

420 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Entrance to the old Warner Ground. 

is reached either by the old lane 
leading from Haines Street into 
Mechanic Street, now called Col- 
well Street, 439 or by the path be- 
tween St. Michael's Church and 
the parsonage. 

Within the narrow bounds of 
this plot rest, 
^ so far as is 
known, at 
least four 
tions of 
the War- 
mer family; 
besides the re- 
mains of Dr. 
Witt, his mu- 
latto servant 
Robert Cole- 
man, Daniel 
Geissler, the 
of Kel- 
pius, and sev- 
eral other mem- 
bers of the original 
Kelpius party who 
died in German- 

A complete list 
of the burials with- 
in this little Fried- 

Ghostly Legends. 421 

hof was still in existence a few years ago, and not only 
contained a list of all who rest within its bounds, but also 
a short synopsis of the ceremonial with which they were 
committed to the earth. 

Unfortunately for our purpose this list cannot now be 
found. The writer has during the past two years made 
untiring efforts, without avail, to trace and obtain this 
document, but although four persons have at different times 
seen and examined the list, all trace of it now seems to 
have been lost. 

This piece of ground on the hill-top in Germantown was 
originally forty feet square, stepped out and consecrated 
according to the mystic ritual. Many are the vicissitudes 
that have passed over this little plot during the past two 
centuries. For a number of years it was merely known as 
a private burial ground, such as was set apart by John 
Bechtel from his own ground upon the west side of the 
Main Street opposite Fisher's Lane ; in later years for the 
use of the Unitas Fratrum or Moravian Brethren. 

From the very day when the first body was interred 
within this enclosure on the hill, the spot was assumed to 
be haunted by the credulous German population. This 
was probably on account of the mystic ceremonies with 
which the last rites were performed. 

As the time passed and additional interments took place, 
the gossip as to uncanny sights and sounds increased, as 
did also the belief in their re-occurrence at certain intervals. 
Many were the strange tales told by the honest Germans 
as they sat upon their hearth-benches (pfen-banti) during 
the long winter nights, all about this quiet spot, now sur- 
rounded by a low stone wall. Brave indeed would even a 
strong man have been, when crossing the fields after dark, 
to have cast his eyes toward the haunted spot. 

439 As the order now stands, Colwell Street — Mechanic Street. 

422 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

An old legend is to the effect that frequently during the 
geister-stunde, or ghostly hour of midnight, shadowy forms 
were to be seen flitting about in the dim moonlight, clad in 
outlandish attire, some being robed in light, and others in 
black garb. Upon such occasions, it is stated that the 
shrivelled and bent form of old Dr. Witt could be seen 
slowly toiling up the hill-side behind his house to the 
ghostly spot where he would join the supernatural visitors, 
until the clock in the little German church steeple struck 
the hour of one, when all would vanish except the old Mys- 
tic, who would then slowly retrace his steps toward his 
house, being met at about half the distance by his faithful 
servant. It was mainly on account of these weird happen- 
ings that the spot became known as der Spook-buhel or 
Spook Hill. 

After the death of Dr. Witt, in 1765, and his burial 
within the enclosure, the fear of the uncanny spot increased. 
Tales were told which have survived even to the present 
time, how upon the night following the burial of the old 
Mystic, spectral blue flames were seen dancing around his 
grave, 440 which it is said continued for weeks. 

Another matter which increased the mystery was the 
nocturnal visits made by the dusky Robert to his late 
master's grave. The latter, however, ceased after a certain 
period, when the place was rarely visited by any one, 
except now and then by a wunder-doctor or witch-doctor, 
who went to gather lichen from the mossy tombstones, or 
certain plants plucked from a grave, to be of service in 
incantations for the cure of persons or cattle supposed to 
have been bewitched, or in some cases for the discovery of 
hidden treasures. 

After the battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777, a 

440 This seems more strange when the season of the year is considered. 

A Weird Story. 423 

number of soldiers, English as well as Hessian, are said to 
have found their last resting-place within the little cemetery 
on the hill. For many years afterwards a weird story was 
current in addition to the many tales connected with this 
gruesome spot. It was of a spectral horseman, dressed in 
the uniform of a British officer, mounted upon a grey 
horse, who upon certain nights was to be seen riding around 
the enclosure, and motioning as if rallying his men, and 
after encircling the wall a certain number of times he 
would vanish into the air. 

A few years ago there were yet some aged persons living 
in the immediate vicinity who declare that not only did 
they hear of these uncanny doings and sights from their 
parents and friends, but in days gone by saw them upon 
different occasions when passing the spot. 

Toward the close of the last century and in the early 
part of the present one, the Warmer estate was gradually 
divided into lots and sold, and as the adjoining ground 
changed ownership and the family which was immediately 
interested in its maintainance left the vicinity, the old 
graveyard became neglected and overgrown with noxious 
weeds and brambles, and it almost seemed as if the gener- 
ations of Warmers, together with the dead Mystics and 
Theosophists, buried there were left to care for themselves. 

While the ground was in this condition, the weird ghost 
stories connected with it lost nothing by being repeated 
over and over, but on the contrary multiplied among the 
naturally superstitious inhabitants, where every well-regu- 
lated household had a spook or two of its own. Conse- 
quently the place was avoided more than ever after nightfall. 
Eventually it became a mere receptacle for rubbish, and 
on account of its wretched condition the name by mutual 
consent was changed to "Mount Misery." 

424 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

In all the sales and conveyances of the surrounding 
ground care, however, was taken by some interested parties 
to preserve the old cemetery, as well as to make a provision 
for the narrow lane that formed an approach to it. 

In the conveyance recorded in Deed Book D 56, page 
231, Lydia (Powell) Warmer, widow of Christian Warmer 
(2d) and her daughter Elizabeth, December 7, 1776, convey 
to John Bringhurst a part of their land, in which they 
reserve for " themselves, their heirs and assigns forever one 
perch or sixteen foot and one-half in breath along one side 
of said premises, along Jacob Keysers lot or land in his 
possession, said reserved perch of land or breadth across 
the said lot of land to be for a road for the use and behoof 
of the said Lydia Warmer and Elizabeth Warmer and 
their Heirs and Assigns forever." This is the reservation 
for the lane leading to the cemetery. 

In his will dated September 28, 1793, Jonathan Warner, 4 * 1 
son of Christopher (who was the godson of Dr. Witt, son 
of Christian (2d), and great grandson of the emigrant), 
charges his mother Elizabeth, the widow of Dr. Chris- 
topher Warner, who had intermarried with one Eeibert, 
with the special care of " forever hereafter upholding and 
maintaining the Graveyard and Graveyard wall or fence 
adjacent to Germantown, commonly known by the name 
of Warner's Graveyard." 

Jonathan Warner, who was also a " Doctor of Physic," 
died quite young, and was unmarried. He left all his 
property to his mother, and she and his step-father were 
appointed his executors. 

The writer has been further informed by trustworthy 
persons, who have lived all their lives within sight of the 
old ground, that Dr. Christopher Witt had ordained that 

*" Vide note 438, supra. 












A Desolate Spot. 425 

the whole top of the hill adjoining the enclosure should be 
given free, for the purpose of building a meeting-house," 2 
to any Christian Protestant denomination that should 
make demand. It was also stated that this bequest was 
on record. Diligent search, however, has failed to discover 
any documentary evidence which would substantiate this 

As the years rolled by and no organization claimed the 
above privilege the ground became more neglected than 
ever ; a stone-quarry was opened just outside the southeast 
corner of the walls and encroaching upon its bounds, one 
angle of the wall fell in and was carted away for building- 
stone. It now became known as " Vinegar Hill," and was 
only used for the occasional burial of a negro. It is stated 
that the last one of that race buried there was a servant in 
the Leibert household. 

But when the little piece of consecrated ground seemed 
to be in its most neglected condition, with graves sunken, 
tombstones broken and crumbling wall, a turn was reached 
in its history. Together with the surrounding property it 
came into the possession of the Morris family, and eventu- 
ally of Miss Elizabeth C. Morris. 

In the course of events a condition of affairs arose which 
was destined to redeem this plot of consecrated ground 
from its neglected and desolate state, and to fulfill the 
alleged wishes of the old Pietist and philosopher, as 
expressed in the foregoing tradition. It came about in the 
following manner: 

A few years before the outbreak of the Civil War, a 
spirit of religious revival arose in the ancient village of 
Germantown which, at that time incorporated as a part of 

442 Wording according to an old deed examined by the Rev. J. K. Mur- 
phy, D.D. 


426 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

the consolidated city, 443 had become the most fashionable 
suburb of Philadelphia. Then the desire arose among the 
new residents from the city, as is usually the case under 
similar circumstances, to form congregations, institute new 
parishes and build churches. 

Among these new congregations was one under the leader- 
ship of the Rev. J. Pinckney Hammond, who secured a lot 
on Coulter Street near Wayne, and proceeded to build a 
church. Its corner-stone was laid with considerable cere- 
mony December 5, 1858, by Bishops Bowman and Doane, 
and it was called "the Church of the Holy Cross." 

This act upon the part of the new congregation gave 
rise to a serious complication with the adjoining parish of 
Calvary, which had erected a church in the vicinity. 444 
This trouble led to the abandonment of the location by the 
new organization, whose services were once more trans- 
ferred to the Town Hall. 

The promotors of the new enterprise in nowise dis- 
heartened at once looked about for a new location, — one 
that would be suitable, and at the same time would not 
interfere with any existing parish. This coming to the 
knowledge of Miss Elizabeth C. Morris, she extended an 
offer of that part of her land adjoining and including the 
old cemetery to Rev. Mr. Hammond, provided a church 
were erected in union with the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and to be free from pew-rents forever. 

When the parties interested went to view the proffered 
land it was found to be as desolate a spot as could well be 
imagined. Its surface covered with rubbish and overgrown 
with rank briars and weeds, it looked anything but a favor- 

443 Philadelphia city and county was consolidated in 1854. 

444 Manheim and Pulaski Avenue. The late Rev. Thomas K. Conrad, 
D.D., was the first rector. 

Si. MichaeVs Church. 427 

able spot for a church. The ground fronted on High Street, 
and was on the high ground about two squares east of the 
main street. 445 The most prominent object upon the church 
lot, which was to be 150 feet front on High Street, with 
a depth of 125 feet, was a large spreading mulberry tree 
{moms multicalus), while here and there among the growth 
of briars was to be seen a leaning or broken tomb-stone, to 
indicate that the spot was one of sepulture. The name by 
which this tract was locally known was well chosen : 
"Mount Misery." The proffered gift, however, was ac- 
cepted with its provisions by the parties interested, and 
preparations were made forthwith to erect a neat church. 

The first piece of sod was turned on the 18th day of 
April, 1859 ; on the 29th of the same month the corner- 
stone was laid by Bishop Bowman, and so diligently was the 
work prosecuted that just five months later, on September 
29th, St Michael's Day, the first service was held within 
the walls, when it was named after the day, " St. Michael's." 

In planning the church it so happened that the chancel 
extended over a part of the old cemetery, and in digging 
the trench for the foundation, traces of interments were 
found. Care was taken, however, not to disturb any of the 
graves more than could possibly be avoided. As a result 
the remains of the elder Warmer, Geissler and Dr. Witt, 
members of the original band of Pietists and mystic philoso- 
phers, now repose beneath the chancel of the church, with 
an altar erected over them at which prayers are read daily, 
anthems sung, responses chanted and the Gospel preached 
according to established forms of Christian worship, which 
their Community was so instrumental in establishing within 
the Province. 446 

445 Now known as both Main Street and Germantown Avenue. 

428 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Outside the church a part of the original enclosure can 
yet be traced by the foundations of the old wall. Within 
the bounds of the enclosure, to the south of the church, 
are still to be seen the tombstones of father and son, the 
third and fourth generations of the Warner family. The 
inscriptions are as follows : 

" Doctor Memory 

Christopher Warner Doctor 

Who departed this life Jonathan Warner 

February 17th 1783 Who departed this life 

Aged 39 years & 4 months December 24, 1793 

Aged 22 yrs & 1 month " 

446 After the consecration of St. Michael's at Germantown, September 29, 
1859, it continued under the rectorship of its founder, the Rev. Dr. Ham- 
mond, until his resignation of the parish on the 8th of August, 1861, to 
accept the position of chaplain in the U. S. Army. After an interval of 
a year, the Rev. Levi Ward Smith was called as rector, he also became 
chaplain in the army, and was assigned to duty at the Cuyler General 
Hospital, Germantown. He held both positions until he was prostrated by 
a nervous disease, and " met his death at midnight, December 23, 1863, 
aged 43. ' ' He was a good, gentle, lovable clergyman, and, strange to say, 
made an attempt to have a burial vault made at the rear of the chancel of 
the church, alongside the Warner grave-yard, for the temporary reception 
of the remains of soldiers who died under his sympathetic ministrations. 
The ground was too stony to allow the work to proceed. After another 
year of vacancy, the Rev. Edward Hyde True was called, and entered 
upon his duties December 9, 1864 ; he resigned December 31, 1867. The 
following day (New Year's Day, 1868), the present rector, the Rev. John 
K. Murphy, D.D., assumed the position, having been elected to the office 
upon Mr. True's resignation. Mr. Murphy has continued in uninter- 
rupted charge for nearly 28 years. He has had a united and prosperous 

A large lot has been secured to the east of the plot of land laid off by 
the will of Dr. Witt " for the use of any society of Christians who would 
build a meeting house upon it, " and so the sacred spot of his burial is now 
more guarded from intrusion than ever. A beautiful and commodius 
rectory thus protects it on the north, and a large and handsome stone 
parish building has been constructed to the south of it. It will thus be 
seen that the grave-yard need never be disturbed as it is completely pro- 
tected by the group of buildings now surrounding it. 

The Old Mulberry Tree. 


The elder of the two was a grandson of the emigrant, and 
was named after Dr. Witt ; the other was his son. 

There are also a few rough unlettered stones, such as it 
was the custom to place at the head and foot of graves to 
prevent any interference in the future. 

These remains of the old cemetery are overshadowed by 
the wide-spreading 
berry tree, before 

planted there by Dr. ""^^SbS*""]}^ Physic, a well-known 

cian, during the silk- 
half a century 
SjUj. ground 

branches of the mul- 
, mentioned, which was 

Philadelphia physi 
worm excite 
ago. The^~ 
not covered by ' '•' 
eel is now in 
within the 
lawn, and 
sodded and 
order. The 
a few decades 
desolate and 
ted, is now 
traction, and 

A Colonial Doorway 
in Germantown. 

the chan- 
kept in 
spot, but 
ago so 
jj" ne glee- 
one of 
_ and at- 
— I— upon the 
feared and 
quently be seen 
church strolling 

very ground once 

avoided can now fre 

worshippers of the 

over the velvety sward or sitting upon the benches under 

the shadow of the old mulberry, enjoying the beauty and 

peacefulness of the scene. 

The lands surrounding the cemetery, which but a few 
years ago were nothing but worn-out pasture fields, are now 
crossed by regular streets, lined with ornate mansions and 
costly improvements ; the church and its parsonage being 
a picturesque feature. 

430 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

While Kelpius, Seelig and Matthai rest in the place of 
their selection, now unmarked ; Koster sleeps within the 
consecrated precincts of Lutheran ground in the Father- 
land ; the Falkner brothers, in unknown graves in differ- 
ent provinces ; and while even the sepulchre of Pastorius 
remains a matter of conjecture, it was appointed by destiny 
that at least such as were gathered within this ancient Fried- 
hof on the hillside were to have erected over them, after the 
lapse of two centuries, so glorious a monument as a Christian 
temple of worship. 

It may be argued that this fact was merely accidental, 
and so it may be. The ways of good providence, however, 
are inscrutable, and the fact still remains that under the 
chancel of St. Michael's in Germantown repose the ashes 
of some of the German Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, 
whose influence in the early days of our province was so 
widespread, and whose labors were exerted in the interests 
of piety, their chief aim being once more to establish relig- 
ious services according to orthodox church forms within 
the bounds of Penn's domain. 

St. Michael's Church is a fitting monument to the 
memory of these early pioneers. May its career upon old 
" Spook-Hill " be a long and active one ; and may the 
truths taught within its sacred walls take root and bring 
forth fruit as plentifully as did the efforts of the old Pietists 
who flourished here in days gone by, and whose history, 
tradition and legends have formed the subject of these 

Manetto In diano nun. 


This picture representing an early meeting of the Quakers, 
has of late years, been claimed to represent a meeting held at 
the " Bull and Mouth " in London, at which William Penn and 
the Duke of York (afterwards James II) were said to have been 
present. There is no evidence whatever to support this theory, 
and almost conclusive proof that the picture represents a 
Quaker Meeting in Holland ; for while the costume of two prin- 
cipal figures would seem to show they were Englishmen, they 
were certainly not of the same nationality as the others present. 

From information received from the authorities at the British 
Museum, the original was a painting by Egbert Hemskirck the 
younger, ( 1645-1704) and was engraved for the Dutch market by 
J. Gole. — It was lettered : 



Subsequent to the year 1727, the well worn plate 21x15^ 
inches was bought by J. Bowles, a print seller of London, who 
had the Dutch inscription obliterated and re-lettered 




The reproduction is from one of the latter impressions in the 
collection of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Prints 
even from this condition of the plate are extremely scarce. 

According to the best European authorities the scene repre- 
sented is laid in Benjamin Furly's house in the Wynstraat in 
Rotterdam. The principal portraits are said to be those of 
William Penn, George Fox and Benjamin Furly, which would 
indicate one of the meetings mentioned in Fox's Journal, held 
between July 28 and October 20, 1677. An opinion which is 
without doubt correct. 



the friend of William 
Penn and promotor 
of the first German emigra- 
tion to America, was a native 
of Colchester, England, 
where he was born April 13, 

Royal Arms ok Holland, a.d, 1694. 1636. 447 He began life as a 

merchant there, and became identified with the early 
Quakers. Subsequent to the year 1660 he immigrated to 
Amsterdam, 448 but afterwards made Rotterdam his permanent 

447 According to a Dutch account (Unger, in " Rotterdamsch Jaar- 
boekje," 1890, p. 114), he was born at Rotterdam, of English parentage. 
There is, however, nothing to substantiate the above claim, as the learned 
writer evidently confuses Benjamin Furly with his son Benjohan. 

448 " Gerhard Croesens Quaker Historie, von deren Ursprung bis auf 
jiingsthin entstandene Trennung." Berlin, bey Johann Michael Rudiger, 
1696, p. 644. The title of the English edition reads, "The General 
History of the Quakers &c. Being written originally in Latin by 
Gerard Croese." London, 1696. 

Two editions were printed in Latin,—" Geraddi Croesi Historia Quaker- 
iana," — viz., Theodore Boom, 1695, and Amstelodamie, annoM.DC.IVC. 
Copies of all editions are now in the library of the writer, also vide pp. 
43, et seq. Supra. 


434 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

home, where he engaged in the mercantile and shipping 
business, his first establishment being in the Scheepmaker- 
shaven. m 

Although an Englishman by birth, he soon became iden- 
tified with the land of his adoption, and married " Dorothe 
Graigne," a Dutch maiden. His eldest child by this mar- 
riage was a son Benjohan, born January 6, 1681. Furly, 
by his honesty and industry, became known as one of the 
leading merchants of Rotterdam, and removed his residence 
and warehouse to the Haaringvliet^ then the chief com- 
mercial centre of the city. He, however, did not confine 
himself exclusively to his commercial life and to the accumu- 

srS? lation of wealth, 

K&r* ' ^ j but continued his 
^^v^*^ 7 '" ~ ~&JP *2~-^ interest in literary 
& & pursuits, and, as 

Croese intimates, 451 " to thoroughly perfect himself in the 
various branches of learning," he cultivated the society of the 
leading critics and scholars of the period, and subsequently 
became a patron of letters. 

His house became the rendezvous of such learned men as 
Leclerc, Limborch, Algernon Sidney, Edward Clarke and 
Locke, and his library, with its wealth of manuscripts and 
rare imprints, was one of more than local reputation, being 
frequently quoted and consulted by litterateurs from different 
parts of Europe, two notable instances of which were the 

449 From the records at Rotterdam it appears that down to 1672 he lived 
in the Scheepmakershaven ; from 1672 to 1693 on the north side of the 
Wynstraat ; 1693-1709 on the Wynhaven, whence in 1709 he removed to 
the large house wherein he died on the Haaringvliet, and which is still 
standing. Present number 48. 

460 The "Haaringvliet" is one of the numerous basins or canals that 
form the harbor of Rotterdam. 

451 " Quaker Historia," p. 645. 

Zeal for Quakerism. 435 

visits of Ludolph Kiister and Zacharias von Uffenbach, 
accounts of which have been preserved. Benjamin Furly 
also took an active interest in the religious questions of the 
day, taking the side of the Separatists, as opposed to the 
established churches, and his home in Rotterdam upon 
frequent occasions was the scene of devotional meetings at 
which George Fox, Keith, William Penn and others were 
prominent participators. 

At an early age he became convinced of the Quaker doc- 
trine, and became one of the most active champions of that 
Society upon the Continent. He was a prolific author, 
writing with equal facility in English, German, Dutch and 

His zeal in the doctrine he had embraced is attested by 
the publication of his numerous controversial writings, 
together with those of Fox and Penn, which were trans- 
lated by him and printed at his expense. 

Furly afterwards became the chief agent of William Penn 
on the Continent for the sale of his newly acquired lands 
in America. His wife having died in 1691, he married, 452 
on December 10, 1693, Susanna Huis, the widow of one 
Jacobus van der Lijt. 453 

Benjamin Furly died March, 1714, in the seventy-eighth 
year of his age, and was buried, as befitted a man of his 
standing and wealth, in a tomb (No. 175) in the centre 
aisle of the St. L,aurentius or Groote Kerk, formerly the 
cathedral church of Rotterdam.* 54 Four children are known 

452 Benjamin Furly was married both times at the Stadhuis or town hall 
of Rotterdam. The banns for both marriages vtere, however, read in the 
Groote Kirk by permission of the clergy prior to the ceremony. — Church 
Records of the Gemeente, Rotterdam. 

*53 " Archief der Gemeente," Rotterdam. 

454 " Rotterdamsch Jaarboekje," vol. ii, p. 114. 

436 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

to have survived their father, — Benjohan, John, Arent and 
a daughter Dorothy ; all, presumably, issues by the first 

It has been questioned whether Benjamin Furly became 
a Quaker before or after his settlement in Holland. We 

know that he was a 
A BattlG-DoQC man of marked and 

peculiar religious 
views, and that from 
his first arrival in 
Holland he was in 
sympathy with the 
so-called Separatists; 
and from the fact that 
members of his im- 
mediate family in 
England were among 
the earl)' followers 
of George Fox, it is 
probable that he was 
convinced prior to 
his immigration to 

According to a 
Dutch account, it 
would appear, how- 
ever, that he did not 
join the Society of Friends until after his residence in Rot- 
terdam. If this be true, it must have been prior to the 
years 1659-60, as in those years he, together with John 
Stubs, assisted in the compilation of George Fox's 

" Battle-door for Teachers & Professors to learn Singular 
& Plural : You to Many, and Thou to One : Singular One, 
Thou ; Plural Many, You." 



Singular & Plural , 

Tou to Many? and Thou to One : Singular One, Thou 
Jlural Mdny, Y«» 

Wherein is flieWed forth by Grammar, or Scripture Examples, how 
fcveral Nations and People have made a diftinftion between SmgaUt and 
Plant. And firft, Id the former pan of this Book, Called Tie EMgtiJk 
battle Dter, may be leen how fcveral people have fpoken SimgmUr iiw 
Plarai; As the Aphirfatkkj!tr, the Tarpelittf, the Afharfifi, the Arcbt- 
vitet, the BabjlontMAt, .the Suftxchitei, the Dtbswttj, the EUmitu, tht 
Tcmamtci, the N»mh/, the Shuiltt, the Sni.ite,, the Meabitti, the hi- 
■vuut the EdemittSj the Pbiliftina, the 4maleijti/, the S»d»matM, (b* 
Hittutr, the Midianita, &c 

Alfb, In f his Book is fet forth Examples of the Singular and Plural 
abaax. Tftaw, and Ten, in fcveral Languages, divided into diftinA Battlt 
Dam, or Formes, Of Examples 5 Englijb, LmIimc, Itmttmn, Cretk, Htbtrw 
Catdte, fjrtack* Arabic*^ ttrjuc^ Ethtopick., Samaritan, Captit*\, or 
Egjftiek., Armenian, Saxan, WtUb, JUtrtce, c arm Jo, FrentA t Sfantfh, 
Ttrtwgal , High-Dutch, Low-Datrh, Dtrujh , Bihimun t Slavonian 
And how Emperors and, others have ufed the Singular word 10 One, and 
bow the word r<M£calxie firft from the Pope. 

Likewife Tome Examples, in rhe Palantan, Lithuanian, Ir/Jb and e.*{l -Indian t 
together with the Singular and Plural words, than and jaa, in Swttdifk, 
Tmrkjfbt Mafiavtan, and Curlutdtan, tongues. 

the latter pan of this Book are contained fcverall bad unfevoury Words, 
gathered forth of certain School-Books, which have been taught Bojmn 
England, which is a R.od and j Whip to ihe School -Marten in England and 
e lie where who teach Euch Books 

Gtorgt. Fax. Jabn St nil. Ben/amm FnrUj 

LQKDOH, Printed for Aahirtmtfen, and are tobe fold jtJiuShop *t ihf 
Signeof the hUck-Sprtdd-Eagtt an& Wind mil in Martin, It Grm*4.. '•«- 

Fac-simile of the Title Page of George 
Fox's *' Battle-Door." 

" You to Many, and Thou to One." 437 

It was a folio of fifty-seven sheets, printed in thirty lan- 
guages, of which, among others, his grandson says that the 
Chaldee, Syriac, Welsh, and French portions were written 
by Furly. 435 Croese, in his " Historia Quakeriana," distinctly 
states that " Benjamin Furly had this clever and ingenious 
work printed at great expense, and that Fox, although he 
knew of these thirty tongues but a single one, yet poses as 
the author." George Fox, in his journal, mentions that 
this work was finished in 1661, and that Benjamin Furly 
took great pains in compiling it. 

During the next fifteen years Benjamin Furly published 
a number of controversial works in the interest of the 
Quakers, prominent among which may be named the 
following : 

" De Eere des Werelds ontdekt, en om desselfs onnuttig- 
heids ende onprofijtelyksheid wille verworpen, Ende de 
Eere, die van God alleen komt, bevestigt, en un't werk 
gestelt. Ofte Eenige Redenen, waarom het Volk Gods, 
Quakers genaamt, verzaken het gewoonlyke Eerbewys, 
ende de Groetingen des Werelds .... Door een Vriend 
der Waarheid, dewelke geen Aannemer der Persoonen is. 
B. F(urly) Genaams en een Quaker . . . Rotterdam by 
Henricus Goddaeus . . . 1662." 

" Die Sache Christ und seines Volks." (German.) (The 
Cause of Christ and His People Justified.) By W. Ames. 
The large preface is by B. Furly. 4to, 1662. 

"The Light upon the Candlestick." By W. Ames. The 
English translation is by Furly. 4to, 1663. 

" The World's Honor detected &c. By a Friend to Truth 
who is no respecter or regarder of persons, called a Quaker." 
B. F[urly]. 4to, 1663. 

455 " Original Letters," etc. Preface, p. 79. 

438 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

"John Philley's Arraignment of Cristendome." Printed 
and published by B. Furly. 4to, 1664. 

" Eine Beschirmunge d'unschuldigen," etc. (Dutch.) By 
Wm. Caton, with a postscript by Benjamin Furly. 4to, 1664. 

"Copye van eenen Brief: geschreven aen seeckeren 
Vriend, over syn Ghevoel en Oordeel, Dat alle de gene, die 
niet en gebruycken de uytterlycke Instellingen van Doop 
ende Avondmael, Kerck-gang &c. niet en zyn geleyd door 
den Geest Gods, maer door eenen Dwael-geest . . . Door 
B. F(urly) Gedruckt voor den Autheur, in't Jaer 1666." 

" A Recantation by Benjamin Furly. Given in Rotter- 
dam] in 1669." (This is in relation to the hat controversy.) 

" Anthoniette Bourignon ontdeckt, door B. Furly, ende 
haeren Geest geopenbaert uyt haere Druckten," etc. (Dutch) 
4to, 167 1. 466 

" The Universal Free Grace of the Gospel asserted," etc. 
By George Keith. (Part by B. Furly.) 4to, 167 1. 

" A Letter to George Whitehead, about the Hat Contro- 
versy." 8vo, 1673. 

"Forderung der Christenheit fur Gericht, den weder- 
legger wederlegt door B. Furly." 467 n. d. 

" Copye van een Missive uyt London, geschrievan door 
William Perm. Aen Burgermeesteren en Raadt der Stad 
Embden. En haar in de Latynsche en Duytsche Talen 
in Geschrifte toegesonden (in d. 24 Dec. 1674). En nu 
tot Opmerkinge van alle menschen, sonderling de Mach- 
ten der Aarde, en de Predikers, door den Druckgemeen 
gemaakt Ten eynde by haar eens soude mogen werden 
overwogen het schadelyke gevolg van die Gronden diemen 
leyt tot vervolginge van andere menschen, om de saken van 

466 A second edition is noted in the ' ' Bibliotheca Furliana, ' ' p. 84. No. 932. 
457 Title from " Bibliotheca Furliana." 

Appeal to the Burgomasters. 439 

den Gods-dienst, enz Rotterdam, Pieter van Wynbrugge . . . 
1675." « 12 biz. 

" Met een voorrede van den vertaler, Benjamin Furly, 
gedagt Rotterd. 18, Febr. 1675." 

In the Archives of Rotterdam there is preserved a docu- 
ment written in Hollandese, in which Furly, together with 
Symon Jansz Vettekeiicken, makes the following appeal 
to the burgomasters and regents of Rotterdam for the 
protection of the Quakers who were then holding meetings 
in that city. This interesting document, in the handwriting 
of Benjamin Furly, is dated July 8, 1675, and was photo- 
graphed by the writer during the past summer, — 1894. 


"To the Burgomasters and Regents of the City of Rotterdam: 
" The people of God, mockingly called Quakers, who 
have taken up their residence in this City, cannot refrain 
from making known, with christian respect, unto you, as 
Magistrates of this City, that now twice, to wit ; — yesterday, 
within and without their regular meeting place, where they 
come together to wait in silence upon the Lord, 

Psalm 62,2. - - - -. ., . - 

they have been treated and handled with vio- 
lence and annoyance by divers sort of men, not only young 
but also of greater age, which is so publicly known that 
the thrown-in window-panes and the broken doors and 
benches are clear witnesses thereof. All the which they 
make known unto you not so much for anxiety for their 
persons and goods, as they well know that the same God is 
living yet, and shall live unto eternity, who 
hath set limits to the sea and hath said hitherto 
shalt thou come but no further, and who can prevent the 

458 A missive by William Penn. Translation, with a large preface and 
conclusion, by Benjamin Furly. 4to, 1675. 

44-0 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

raging of the people when it pleases him : but 
Psaim 2. i, «. tQ avoid thereby the blame, such things having 

befallen them, of not having made known the same to you, 
for your discretion, and above all for the mani- 

Matt : 6. z, 12. . _ _. , . ■ v • r. 

festation of God in your consciences which 
dictates to every one to do unto others as he would have 
others to do unto him, because with what meas- 
ure he metes, it shall be measured to him again. 
In the name of all signed by us 

"Benjamin FFurly 

" Symon Jansz Vettekeucken 

" At Rotterdam the 8th day 
of the Month which one 
callesjuly, 1675." 

When, two years later, Penn, accompanied by Robert 
Barclay, George Fox, Keith and others 459 made his cele- 
brated tour through Germany and Holland, it was this same 
Benjamin Furly who met them upon their landing. 

George Fox records that the party was becalmed when a 
league from the shore, and that William Penn and Robert 
Barclay, understanding that Benjamin Furly was to come 
from Rotterdam to the Briel to meet them, got two of the 
sailors to lower a small boat and row them ashore; but 
before they could reach it, the gates were closed, and there 
being no house without the gates, they were forced to lie in 
a fisher's boat all night. As soon as the gates were opened 
in the morning they entered and found Benjamin Furly, 
who brought them to Briel, where the Friends received 
them with "great gladness." 460 

469 The party, in addition to the three named, consisted of John Furly, 
a brother of Benjamin Furly, of Rotterdam, G. Watts, William Tailcoat, 
Isabella Yeomans and Elizabeth Keith.— -Journal of William Penn. 

460 Penn in his Journal mentions Aaron Sonneman, S. Johnson and 
[Symon Jansz ?] Vettekeiicken as being among the number, vide " Penna. 
Mag.," vol. ii, p. 249. 

Keith, Barclay and Penn 
left the others at Arnster- 

Penn's Visit to Holland. 441 

The party arrived at Rotterdam on the same day, Satur- 
day, July 28, 1677. The next day — First day (Sunday) — 
two religious meetings were held at the house of Purly, 
who them lived in the Wynstraat, the latter and John Claus 
acting as interpreters. The next fortnight was spent in 
visits to various towns in Holland. On the 7 th of August 

the company divided up CH RISTENR1JK 

into two parties, when T E N 


dam and set out towards gedagVaaf t. 

Germany, where, as Fox ewKtaberoekmKindeutfiteGodsjMnjifedieeeiM 

. ,. . 1 ,. -, die een begeerrehebbenoihXjodtcliennan tnhewiii 

States in tllS journal, ttiey Waarhsyd en Opregughtyd am i< b.dden. van w« 

, , i - - •£<&- of (boil van GaJitctifi dc fclvczoudeff 

traveled many hundred mcgmwefa. 

miles, and had eood ser- ^Mi£«un«Bedi>gtM.die.onte*wr<™*'<£i- 

29 uelijkbeyd.afgelondertzijnvanderieKtbttcie^n. 

vice for the Lord," Benja- «n-«s»rfyt. aewtmen. 

min Furly going with *„.»>•»■, . , .. EN , .. 

J & & t«nMifllvcaanaldiegenc. diegevoelig a?)n van 

them and acting as inter- <Jen dag harer befoekinge 

preter for the party, and -<ft«iid , £n B y«ffw«i»fA.«» a» 

upon that occasion was WILLIAM PENN. 

En daar uyl oveigefer. 

largely instrumental in in- ____ 

fluencine the Germans in 

, . _ T . - Tot ROTTERDAM 

favor of Penn. It is fur- 0*™. ™ot jam pietersz cuotNijcou'T, 

j1 - , Bo«kverkoapir, w«iMdc«*lmSpiay 1676 

tner a matter of record 

Fac-simile of thb Dutch Title-Page 

that Furly remained with OF penn's tracts, original in 


Penn and Keith during Rotterdam. 

their entire stay on the Continent. Towards the close of 
this memorable pilgrimage, four tracts of an exhortative 
character were written by Penn, 461 designed for distribution 
among the Separatists in Germany and Holland. These 
tracts were revised and translated by Benjamin Furly, and 
printed at his expense after Penn's departure. The German 
titles are as follows : 

m " Penn. Mag.," vol. ii, p. 276. 


442 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Porderung der Christenheit fiir Gericlit." (A Call to 
Christendom, etc.) 

" Eine Freundliche heimsuchung in der Liebe Gottes." 
(A Tender Visitation in the Love of God.) 

" An alle diejenigen so unter den Bekennern der Chris- 
tenheit," etc. (To all Professors of Christianity, etc.) 

" An Alle diejenigen welche empfinden," etc. (Tender 
Counsel, etc.) 

The above were also published collectively in Dutch 
under the general title, " Het Christenrijk Ten Oordeel 
Gedagvaart," etc. Rotterdam, 1678. 4to. 

Two of the above tracts — "A Call to Christendom," and 
" Tender Counsel" — were printed separately at the time in 
English. 462 

It was about this time that the friendship between John 

Locke, who had been introduced to Furly by Edward 

* Clarke, of Chipley, 463 ripened into in- 

Jj Ofl/h. pd>cAz timacy, and the correspondence which 
^s ^-' ensued lasted until the death of Locke. 
Algernon Sidney and the Earl of Shaftesbury were also 
frequent visitors at the Furly o homestead, and the former, 
at his death, bequeathed --Sv^to Furly a large silver 
goblet, which is still in /^===s^s^ possession of his de- 
scendants. 464 When ^^ ^r—L—^s f^K the grant to Wil- 
liam Penn was consu S^~--- -~z^7 mmated, and there 

became a likelihood \ „ IIIIHI|) |muii| ,„ / of a large German 

and Dutch immigral *Hntimtniiin»»*' / tion to Pennsyl- 
vania, Penn submit \ / ted to Benjamin 
Furly the drafts of sev ^L_^ / eral instruments 
which he proposed to * Li*S^-^ make the basis for 
the laws and govern Gt %^*$ft££S£ ment of his Prov- 
ince. Furly's com benjam.n furly. ments on these 

papers, in his handwriting, entitled, — 

Furly's Suggestions to Penn. 443 

" For the Security of forreigners who may in- 
cline to purchase Land in Pennsylvania, but may 
dy before they themselves come their to inhabit." 

These papers are among the " Penn Manuscripts" in the 
collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. In 
them he suggests the protection of the interests of the Ger- 
man and foreign settlers who it was expected would immi- 
grate to Pennsylvania, and makes a number of criticisms 
on the laws which Penn proposed, suggesting in some 
instances the usages followed in Holland. 

This interesting document, never before published, is 
reproduced in its entirety at the end of this paper, as origin- 
ally published in the " Pennsylvania Magazine of Biography 
and History," vol. xix, pp. 277-305, and it deserves the 
careful consideration of every student of Pennsylvania- 
German history, 465 for it will be noted that Benjamin Furly 

462 Whiting's " Catalogue of Friend's Books," London, 1708, pp. 119, 120. 

463 Edward Clarke, Esq. , of Chipley, near Taunton, was one of the 
burgesses for that borough in seven Parliaments, from the first of King 
William, which met in 1690, to the third held by Queen Anne, which 
was dissolved in 1710. 

464 A drawing of this cup forms the frontispiece to the second edition of 
" Original Letters of John Locke, Algernon Sidney and Lord Shaftes- 
bury," London, 1847. 

465 Fredk. D. Stone, Litt. D., the learned librarian of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, in commenting upon these suggestions, states : 
"The following paper, in the handwriting of Benjamin Furly, is among 
the " Penn Papers" in possession of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania. It is endorsed " B. F. Abridgm' out of Holland and Germany. 
Laws of Gov 1 Pense." It contains a series of criticisms called forth by a 
comparison of the " Frame of Government Signed by Penn April 25 1682, 
together with The Laws Agreed upon in England May 5, 1682," and a 
paper called "The Fundatnentall Constitutions of Pennsylvania, " a copy 
of which is also among the " Penn Papers. " This last is a form of govern- 
ment that Penn, after considerable deliberation, had decided upon as a 
suitable one for the government of his pro\ ince, but which was abandoned 
for what we know as the " Frame of Government. ' ' This action does not 

444 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

was not alone concerned about the religious and civil liberty 
of the prospective im- 
migrants, but of their 
personal rights as well. 

This is instanced in the 
clause granting immu- 
nity from arrest and 
fine to such persons as 
choose to labor upon the 
First day of the week, 466 
— a suggestion that was 
made in the interest of -^ 
the Sabbatarian move- >~ 
ment which was then [y 


Fac-simile of Anti-Slavery Clause in 
Furly's Suggestions to Penn. 

ment wmcn was men \' *" C? ',. faff 
attracting considerable trnj^ft-h^^yCi ^x&*i~- 

attention in both Eng- ^L^-y^d^ «AJ)« 

land and Holland. 

Then, again, his sug- 
gestions and advice to Penn as to the course to pursue in 
regard to a possible attempt to introduce negro slavery into 
the Province *" is of great interest, as the first public pro- 
appear to have been approved of by Furly, and hence his criticisms. As 
Furly's comments were made upon the "Frame of Government" as 
finally published, it cannot be claimed that Penn was influenced by Furly 
in drafting his " Frame," unless it was through a correspondence of an 
earlier date. There is, however, little doubt that the 21st section of the 
"Frame of Government," included in the act of settlement passed at 
Philadelphia, March 1, 1683, which provides for the protection of the 
estates of aliens, was the result of Furly's suggestion, and a further ex- 
amination of that instrument, with Furly's criticisms, might indicate an 
influence in other sections. The paper is interesting as showing how 
widely and earnestly Penn sought assistance in drafting the fundamental 
laws for his province, and the attention that was given to the subject." 

466 XIX. — The 26 th Law enjoyning all to abstain from Labour on ye first 
day may prove a vile snare to y* conscience of many in this day, who do 
not look upon that day as of any other then human institution, & may 

First Protest against Slavery. 445 

test against negro slavery in America was made at German- 
town in 1688 by some of the German pioneers who came to 
Pennsylvania under his auspices and bounty. 

Subsequent to the grant Benjamin Furly became Penn's 
most active and useful agent on the Continent for the sale 
of his lands. 

Pastorious in his autobiographical memoir in the " Bee- 
hive" m states : " Upon my return to Frankfort in 1682, I 
was glad to enjoy the company of my former acquaintances 
and Christian friends, assembled together in the house called 
the Saalhof, viz. : Dr. Spener, Dr. Schutz, Notarius Fenda, 
Jacobus Van de Walle, Maximilian Lerfner, Eleonora von 
Merlau, Maria Juliana Bauer, etc., who sometimes made 
mention of William Penn of Pennsylvania, and showed me 
letters from Benjamin Furly, also a printed relation con- 
cerning said province," etc. 

How great a factor Furly was in bringing about the ex- 
tended German immigration is a matter of history. 469 It 
was he who negotiated the first land purchase of the Cre- 

be pressed in spirit (whether right or wrong is not the question) some- 
times to work upon that day, to testify agt that superstitious conceit that 
it is of divine institution, & is the Christian sabbath. 

Onely thus far there may a service be in Setting Servants at liberty 
from the oppressions of grinding, covetos masters &c — that it be declared 
that no master shall compell his servant to labor on that day because its 
fit y* y" very body of man & beast should have some rest from their con. 
tinuall labor. 

467 XXIII. — Let no blacks be brought in directly. And if any come out 
of Virginia, Mary Id. -s r elsewhere in families that have formerly bought 
them else where Let them be declared (as in y* west jersey constitutions) 
free at 8 years end. 

468 Francis Daniel Pastorious his Hive, Beestock, Melliotrophium Alvear 
or Rusca Apium. Begun Anno Domini or in the year of Christian Acc't 
1676. M.S. Folio. 

469 "Penna. Mag.," vol. ii, pp. 237-282. 

446 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

felders, 470 and the deeds were dated and delivered by him. 
It was also through his efforts that passage to America on 
the "Concord," Captain Een kort Benchc 

William Jeffries, was pro- jr m J e TnYmtie ofu Land/chap 
cured for the thirteen PENN-SYLVANI A 
pioneer families, consist- genacmt , leggcnde in 

ing of thirty-three German A Tkr "CD T f"* A • 
emigrants, who were met 4* y 1 p* IV T 1 - V fj' 

and welcomed upon their .IT'iVv^, » 

• , u u .t. t, a WILLIAM PENN, &c. 

arrival by both Penn and mitsg~4beh,s 

Pastorius. 471 Vande-Privilegien, wide Machtotn 

To encourage further „ *«« feI V 5 " c <! "^"-V., ■ 

& UjrthetEngelioveTgcKtnadeCopyetot Londeoeedrakt by Btiy 

immicrrntinn flf Hermans ™»d«t. Bockverkoo p crinGsor g eYlrdLom&rdfl«e.,i6Si 

immigration or Germans mmmuetbmt ^ tti)lttifattiir , mftimbv/9Ulttuil 
ana iionanaers ra renn- jntommoni* tan penn-sylvani*, imubbbj* 

, - i-s 1 1. J _ "_ \fiLL£M [>ENN«ui|nErfgermnrt, alo HoltomtrU 

sylvania, i*uriy nau prm- ,«n'<«B> t * m& '>''>> an " a &"<>® m fa am - 
ted in English, soon after 0eCopyevll ,« nBrief ^tiVcnw.p.«rch™™n W 
it appeared, a German and x '^T^^6llS^l^T 

Dutch translation of > 

"Some Account of the Gtjmt.i, i-, E t"» vANWrN E iuGOE.BwM>njktarii>*' 

_ . r „ . teeiiweAtai, in Je Wcirid Vol-Dmk. jtrmlilw 

Province of Pennsylvania 

Fac-simile of the Dutch Title-page. 

in America," published in From the original in carter brown 

' r Library, through courtesy of John 

London, l68l. Nicholas Brown. 

Three years later this was followed by 
" Beschreibung der in America neu-erfunden Provinz 
Pensylvania." 4to, 32 pp. Hamburg, 1684. 

470 Ibid, vol. ii, p. 280. 

4,1 When Francis Daniel Pastorius came to Rotterdam prior to his de- 
departure for Pennsylvania in 1683, he took lodgings at the house of 
Mariecke Vettekeuken, the widow of Symon Jansz, the signer of the pro- 
test on page 439. It is stated that it was at this house where the final 
arrangements were consummated between Pastorius and Furly relative to 
the settlement of the Frankford Company's tract near Philadelphia, vide 
"Penna. Mag.," vol. ii, p. 250. 

Landed Interest in Pennsylvania. 447 

A translation into French was published at the Hague 
in the same year. 472 

A religious work was also published about the same time 
in Dutch and German. It was entitled 

" Die alte Wahrheit erhohet." B. Furly & W. Penn. 
4to. n. d. [Evidently 1684. J 

" De Oude waarheid ontdeckt door Verscheide Vrienden 
der Waarheid. " Rotterdam. 1684. 

The landed interest of Benjamin Furly in Pennsylvania 
originally consisted of five «w 

thousand acres of land, ob- 

tained from William Penn, •«*» ^. 

shortly before his departure PHNNSILVANIA 
for America, under Deeds of A "\K p D 1 {"^ A 

Lease and Release, dated at «m<s. 

Rotterdam, nth and 12th of *********** 

August, 1682. €51©€£23f«0 

From letters and docu- William Pen H, &C. 

ments in the Lawrence co\- & ^^ lsmtmm ^j R ^ / ^ tms! , 
lection of the Historical So- "rSgSfSBS"* 


ciety of Pennsylvania it ap- ^iinhr^^^mf&fttomhttmUwmtma^ 

J J z r. t y^^n (emH.Hiwt%tnl torn (HP fiiMmi tar&in 

pears that in later years *^3t£S3SQSF* 

there was a well-grounded •"BagSg^tfflJBHBaSr* 
cause tor dissatisfaction on <ji,M I fltouitaim*maiis»'»iini«7»3rirsi«M*iMi 


the part of Furly as to Penn's 3l , B ^, n ,^ hi c«.«c mn *.. 
agents in Pennsylvania, not- a " ^,,, •"* "' • 

withstanding Penn's per- facsimile of German title-page- 478 

sonal efforts in his favor. For this reason Furly gave to 
Reynier Jants (Jansen), to whom he had previously sold 
some land, 474 a power of attorney to act for him in Pennsyl- 
vania upon his arrival. 

412 An English version of this rare work was printed in the " Penna. 
Mag.," vol. vi, p. 321. 

448 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

This document was subsequently revoked in favor of a 
similar one granted to the brothers Daniel and Justus 
Falkner, prior to their departure for America in 1700. 

William Penn's personal interest in the protection of 
Benjamin Furly's claims is shown by his letter of instruc- 
tion to James L,ogan prior to his departure from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1701, wherein he commands him to prepare a 
warrant for four thousand acres of land for Benjamin Furly. 
It appears in the record of a session of the Commissioners 
held at Philadelphia the 12th of nth month, 1701. 476 

Subsequent action of the Commissioners appears as 
follows, the 16th of 12th month, 1701 : 

" Signed a Warrant of Resurvey and Survey of 5000 acres to Ben. Furly, 
Ordered 12th Ult." 

Two days later, 18th of 12th month, 1701, it was resolved : 

" Daniel and Justus Falkner' s, attorneys to Benja. Furly, claim the 
Common proportion of Lib'ty Land in Right of his Purchase of 5000 acres, 
Mentioned pa. 59, But that being none of the First hundred purchasers it 
cannot be now granted, Yet they insisting on it as his certain Right, 'tis 
Ordered that they have Liberty to pitch upon Some Convenient Tract of 
a Sufficient Number of acres within the Liberties, which shall be reserved, 
and in Case the said Benjamin, in 18 Months, make good his Claim from 
the Proprietary, it may be granted ; Ordered also in their Request a New 
Warrant for the said Benjamin's Lott already Survey 'd to him." 

473 .< Prefatory note to the German edition.— The translator to the indul- 
gent reader. — How difficult, I will not say almost impossible, it is to ren- 
der the actual meaning and certain expressions which appear in the old 
Laws and usages of a foreign Land, and its language into High German, 
so as to translate them intelligently, has been fully experienced in the 
present instance. 

" Therefore I have here, not to be incommodious, conceived the plan to 
add in several instances the English words, with a short explanation, in 
the hope that the indulgent reader will not chide me, but rather accept 
them in the same spirit as by me intended." 

474 Deed July 17, 1685. Acknowledged before a notary in Holland. 
Minute-Book "H,» "Pennsylvania Archives," Second Series, vol. xix, 
P- 598- 

4,6 " Pennsylvania Archives," Second Series, vol. xix, p. 219. 




Thomas Lawrence. 

ist and 2d 12th, month, 1702,- 


" Ordered a Patent to Benj. Furly on 1000 Acres in Bucks, and Patents 
on 2900 Acres More in Philadelphia County." 

5th and 6th, 2d month, 1703, — 

" Dan'l and Justus Falkner Producing D. Powell's return of a Warrant 
for 50 a's Lib. Land Surveyed to Benj. Furly. Ordered a Patent there- 
upon when examined in the Office together with an High Street Lott of 
132 foot as it fell in the Draught." 

8th month, 22d, 1705, — 

" Dan'l Falkner, by Order of Benjamin Furly, Informs that by the said 
Benjamin's Letter he finds the Prop'ry had Promised him 2 lotts in the 
City Philad'a, for his 2 sons, Jno. and Arent Furly, and gave him an Ex- 
pectation that he had wrote to the Sec'ry about it, y'rfore, by his Petition, 
Requests the said lotts, but the Sec'ry nor any Other Person haveing 
Rec'd any Orders about them 'tis referred till Such Orders arrive." 

nth month, 20th, 1708, — 

" There haveing been a tract of 1000 a's Surv'd To Benj'n Furly in the 
Welch tract, which has been granted since to D. Lloyd, and Is. Norris, in 
behalf of Thomas Lloyd's Estate, Jno. Henry Sproegle, to whom Dan'l 
Falkener, as attorney To said Benjamin, by Virtue of a power, dat. 23d 
Apr., 1700, recorded in Philad'a, Book D., 2, Vol. 5, pa. 17, &c, Granted 
his right to all the said Land, as also grant'd 1000 acres more in Bucks, 
and 50 a's more untaken up, of the whole 5000 a's, by Deed dat. 30, 6 mo. , 
1708, req'ts a warrant to take up the s'd 1000 acres. Granted." 

A number of letters from Furly, addressed to Justus and 
Daniel Falkner, have also been found among the Lawrence 
papers before mentioned ; m the latter was for a time the 
mercantile correspondent of Furly in America, and of the 
sons Benjohan and John after their father's death. 

In some of these letters Furly expresses his unbounded 
confidence in the integrity of the two Falkner brothers, in 
others he characterizes a prominent person in Pennsylvania 

4,6 Thomas Lawrence was elected mayor of the city of Philadelphia by 
the Common Council, October 1, 1728. 


450 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

as a forger and embezzler, and charges him with defrauding 
him out of his lands in Pennsylvania. 

With the exception of a tract of land sold to Jacobus 
Van de Walle, the deed for which is recorded in Deed Book 
E, 2, pp. 80-82, it does not appear that Furly ever derived 
any profit from his lands within the Province, as for some 
reason the claim became a matter of litigation, which ended 
in an almost total loss to him, notwithstanding the strenuous 
efforts made by his attorneys, Daniel and Justus Falkner, to 
maintain his claim, as has been shown in previous pages of 
this work/ 77 

He appears even to have had some trouble with his mer- 
cantile correspondents in Philadelphia, as is shown by the 
letter of attorney, recorded in Deed Book E, 2, p. 277, under 
date of 12th, 5th mo., 1694 : 

" Know all men by these presents, That I, Benjamin Furly of Rotter- 
dam in the province of Holland Merch't, have made Constituted & Ap- 
pointed and by these prs'ts doe make Constitute and app't Thos. Lloyd 
of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania, Gentleman, Samuel 
Carpenter & John Delavall of ye same place Mch't my true & Lawfull 
Attorneys, giving them or either of them jointly or severally full power 
& authority for & in my name to aske & demand of ye heirs Executors 
or Adm'rs of James Claypool late of ye same place Mch't all such debts, 
dues, sum or Sums of Money as were due unto me the S d Benjamin Furly 
at the time of the decease of the S'd James Claypool for any goods or mer- 
chandize by him Sold for My aco't, an acco of Sales to demand the same, 
to examine & debate or approve & acquiece in all goods that may be yet 
unsold to receive & of the same to dispose for my use the moneys received 
for what was sold to receive acquittances in due forme of Law to give for 
all sums of money or goods which they shall receive. And further all 
other Acts Deeds & things to doe w'ch I myself if I were there personally 
ye ... or could doe in the Premisis. Promising by these p'sents to ap- 
prove, ratify & confirm all w'soever my said Attorney or Attorneys shall 
lawfully doe or cause to be done in the premisis. 

' ' In witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand & Seal this 16th 8br 
in Rotterdam Anno Domini 1693. 

" Signed, Sealed & Delivered 
in the p'sence of us 

"Peter Soumans, Benjamin EErou^." 

"Joseph Lacy. 

Correspondence with John Locke. 451 

But little has thus far been written or published of the 
private life and character of Benjamin Furly, who was so 
important a factor in organizing the German immigration 
to Pennsylvania, and in procuring for the immigrants the 
necessary transportation, 478 except that he was an eccentric 
person of peculiar religious views. His correspondence, 
however, with l/ocke, Sidney, Lord Shaftesbury and others, 
whose letters to him were privately printed some fifty years 
ago, 479 shows that Benjamin Furly was a man whose literary 
attainments were of no mean order, and that he was upon 
intimate terms with many of the leading scholars and states- 

*" Among the list of purchasers known as the " Old Rights' ' appear the 
following parcels of land in the name of Benjamin Furly : 

"No. 775, Furley, Benjamin, return, 1900 acres. 

" No. 776, Furlow Benjamin, return, 1000 acres. 

"No. 779, Furly, Benjamin, warrant, 1000 acres, 19th 10 mo., 1684. 

"No. 777, Furly, Benjamin, warrant, 6th 9th mo., 1685. 

"No. 778, Furly, Benjamin, war't resur'y, on all his lands, 16th 12 
mo. 1 701. 

" No. 780, Furly Benjamin, 2 returns, 967 and 501 acres, see 11 Philad'a 
W, 23 December, 1735 and 5th March, 1735-6. 

" No. 781, Furley, Benjamin, warrant, 1000 acres, 19th 10th mo. 1684. 

"No. 782, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 1000 acres, 3d 12th Mon., 1684. 

" No. 783, Furlow, Benjamin, resurvey, 1000 acres. 

" No. 784, Furlow, Benjamin, warrant, city lott, 3d 12 mo., 1684. 

"No. 785, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 1048 acres, 25th 4 mo., 1703. 

"No. 786, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 1900 acres, 18th 12 mo., 1702. 

"No. 858, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 50 acres, L. Land, 22d 1 mo., 1703. 

"No. 859, Furlow, Benjamin, return, Res., 1000 acres, 16th 12 mo., 1703. 

" No. 860, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 1900 acres, 18th 12 mo., 1703. 

" No. 861, Furlow, Benjamin, warrant, 50 acres L. L., 26th 11 mo., 1702. 

" No. 862, Furlow, Benjamin, return, 50 acres L. L., 5th 2 mo., r703." — 
" Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, vol. ii, p. 704, et seq. 

478 A notable instance of his liberality is shown in the case of Kelpius 
and his band of German Pietists, who left Rotterdam in 1693. Vide 
Croese, " Historia Quakeriana, " pp. 539 et seq.; also pp. 44-46, supra. 

479 " Original Letters of John Locke, Algernon Sidney and Lord Shaftes- 
bury," London, 1847. 

452 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

men of the period who labored incessantly to establish civil 
and religious liberty in Europe. 

It further appears that Locke spent much of his time at 
Furly's house, and as he was particularly fond of children, 
one of his chief amusements while there was playing with 
the young folks.* 80 

Although usually classed among the leading Quakers of 
that period on the Continent, and notwithstanding his purse 
and pen were at their disposal and used in their interests, it 
appears that his connection with them was not one of unin- 
terrupted harmony. Croese, 481 states that " Benjamin Furly 
was an English Merchant, first at Amsterdam, then at Rot- 
terdam, who, together with his merchandize, had addicted 
himself to the study of learning, and in his favor of these 
men [Quakers] wrote several little Tracts in Divers Lan- 
guages. But yet refrained himself from exercising the 
office of a Teacher or Minister amongst them, alledging 
this reason for it, that he could safely enough be taught at 
all times, but could scarce be a Teacher himself without 
danger. Altho' as time and age teach Men many things, 
this same man afterwards found fault with and went off 
from many things in the doctrine and Manners of the 
Quakers." Just what these differences between Furly and 
the Quakers were, and when they took place, is unknown 
to the writer. Joseph Smith, in his catalogue, classes him 
among such as were disunited, and returned, but are 
believed to have again left the Society. 

In later years he is credited with being the author of the 
following works : 

" Ene Wonderlike voorsegginge tot Rome," etc. (Dutch.) 
Folio, 1689. 

^ " Original Letters," etc., Preface, p. 74. 
481 English edition, Book III, p. 208. 

Bibliography. 453 

" Copie Van een oude prophetie," etc. (Dutch.) Folio, 

" Anwysinge tot de ware Kirke Gods, met Annotatien 
door." B. Furly (1690). 

" A Prophecy of St. Thomas the Martyr" (from MSS. of 
Algernon Sidney). 1709. 

" Discernement des Tenebres d'avec la Lumiere." 
(French.) 8vo, 17 10. 

"Eclair de Lumiere decendent," etc. (French.) 8vo, 

" The Approaching Judgments of God upon the Roman 
Empire," etc. Translated out of high Dutch by B. Furly. 
8vo, 1711. 

"Spiegel der I,eevaren, om zig te kennen, of zy ware 
Herders der Zielen zyn of niet, uyt het Frans vertaalt 
door." B. Furly 17 13. 8vo. 

" The divine Remedy for all Evils, both Soule and body." 
Written in French by Moses Caron and Englished by B. 
Furly. 4to. 482 

It can matter but little whether or not Benjamin Furly 
lived continuously and died within the fold of the Society of 
Friends, 483 but it cannot be denied that to him more than any 
other person is due the credit of materializing the dream of 
Penn, so far as the German element is concerned, for he not 
only encouraged them with advice and counsel, but with 
more substantial means in the shape of concessions of land, 
transportation and loans of money. 

The only trustworthy personal description of Benjamin 
Furly and his peculiarities that has come down to us is the 
interesting account given in the Memoirs of Zacharias von 

482 "Biblotheca Furliana," p. 524, No. 33. 

483 From the fact of his burial within the walls of the chief orthodox 
church at Rotterdam, it would appear that he had renounced Quakerism 
prior to his death. 

454 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Uffenbach, 484 who visited Rotterdam in the year 1710 ; he 
had been a classmate, at Halle, of Justus Falkner, one of the 
early German Pietists in Pennsylvania, and later was an 
attorney for Furly. 485 He writes : — 

" On the morning of November 21, we went Op-Te Haar- 
ing Vliet, to visit Benjamin Furly, an English Merchant, 
who was the chief of the Quakers in Holland, and posesses 
a curious stock of Books, mainly suspectce fidei. He lives 
in a very fine house, and is a man of about seventy years of 
age, and of peculiar actions. [Sonderbarem wesen.] 

" We were ushered into his comptoir as it was called, but 
this appeared more like a library or Museum than a mer- 
cantile counting house, as the walls were shelved and cov- 
ered with books, to the number of at least four thousand. 
They were mostly on theological subjects, of the suspects 
fidei order, and appear to be well suited to Mr. Benjamin 
Furly's taste, who is a paradoxial and peculiar man, who 
soon gave us to understand that he adhered to no special 

" Unfortunately we were not permitted to examine any of 
his books except the original manuscript of the ' I^ibri In- 
quisitionis Tolonsanse,' 486 edited by Limborch, 487 and this 
work only after earnest and repeated solicitation. 

484 Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach, born at Frankfort, February 22, 
1683. From his youth he was known as a lover and collector of books. 
He first attended the University at Strasburg, later at Halle, where he 
graduated, after which he made a tour through Northern Europe, Holland, 
and England in search of rare imprints and manuscripts. He thus ac- 
cumulated one of the most valuable private libaries in Germany, which 
contained many works on early American history. 

His Memoirs were published at Ulm, in 1753, and contain many 
notices of books and persons not to be found elsewhere. A partial 
printed catalogue of this library may be seen at the Philadelphia 
Library : " Bibliotheca Uffenbachiana," etc. 

485 Vide supra. 

Bibliotheca Furliana. 455 

" It proved to be a Codex membranaceus in folio constans 
foliis 203, and was neatly and plainly written. 

" This was indeed a great curiosity, especially as it was 
found in the possession of a non-Catholic. This was further 
instanced by the actions of the former Bishop of Utrecht, 
who upon that account doubted its authenticity, and sent a 
clerical to compare Iyimborch's edition with this original. 
Mr. Furly would not permit this examination until the 
above clerical assured him that if he found the two works 
to agree, he would so certify to the fact officially over his 
hand and seal, which was done, and it is now pasted on the 
cover of the volume. 

" Mr. Furly complained that Limborch failed to mention 
that he had obtained the original Codex from him. 

486 The Latin title of this work is given in the catalogue of the " Bib- 
liotheca Furliana." Translated it reads as follows : " Book of Maxims ; 
beautifully written on parchment, and bound between two wooden 
leaves ; the autograph itself is written ; and everywhere it is sub- 
scribed in the hand of the clerks of the Inquisition ; beginning only 
with the year of Christ, 1607, [and going] as far as 1622 ; and by un- 
doubted indications it is agreed to be the original manuscript, derived 
from the archives of the Inquisition of Toulouse. The Maxims them- 
selves, as far as can be gathered from the resemblance of the hand- 
writing, are written in the hand of Peter of Clav . . . down to the 
eighth discourse, which begins fol. 97. The remainder of the book, 
down to the end, is in the hand of William Julian ; James Marquette 
has written beneath the Maxims almost throughout ; [it is] the rarest 
book of all rarest ones, and of the highest possible price." 

The original manuscript was bought in by John Furly at the sale of 
his father's library, and afterward sold to Archbishop Seeker, who pre- 
sented it to the British Museum, where it now remains. It was trans- 
lated into English and published by Samuel Chandler, London, 1731. 
A copy of this translation can be seen at the Ridgway branch of the 
Philadelphia Library. 

481 Philippus Limborch was a learned divine, born at Amsterdam, 1633. 
He embraced the tenets of the " Remonstrants," and first appeared as a 
public preacher at Haarlem in 1655. He was an able annotator and an 
esteemed writer, as is shown by the tributes paid him by Locke and Tillot- 
son. He died in 1711. 

456 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" This," continues Uffenbach, " seemed the more strange 
to me as it would have added to the value of Ivimborch's 
edition if he had made mention where the original of this 
curious work could be seen, as the Catholics, in time, would 
throw doubt upon the facts, as it was a thorn in their eyes 
and a bitter conviction of their spiritual tyranny. As we 
began to touch upon this subject, Furly complained that 
the same spiritual tyranny was also still in vogue among 
the Protestant denominations. 

" When I reminded him that in Holland religious liberty 
prevailed, he denied emphatically that this assumption was 
true, and he became quite excited over the procedure of the 
local magistrates against the so-called English New-prophets. 

" He admitted that he not only harbored their tenets and 
had printed their writings with a preface of his own, but 
had defended them as well before the Magistrates, and en- 
deavored to shield and protect them, yet, notwithstanding 
all his efforts, these innocent people had been expelled from 
the country. 

" He related all that had happened to these people, here as 
well as at the Hague. This he did not only in a general 
way, but he read to us, word for word, a long relation of 
the facts, that he had just written to Herr Gronovium. 
This lasted for over two hours. 

" I thought that I should die from impatience, and although 
I repeatedly referred to the subject of his books, and begged 
him to show us some of the rarest and most curious of the 
collection, the man was so excited that he failed to notice 
my request. 

" Thus he continued to complain, over and over again, 
how badly these people were treated, especially Herr Facio, 
whom he characterized not only as a devout man, endowed 
with many gifts of the Spirit, but also as a learned man 
and an excellent mathematician. 



AUGU3T, 1895. 

Personal Appearance. 457 

" He declared that they were pious and innocent persons ; 
against whom no accusations could be truly brought, except 
that their prophecy of a personal return of Christ at a 
specified time had not been fulfilled. 

"He stated that the clericals had used the following 
quotations of Scripture, viz. : Deuteronomy xviii, v, 21, 22, 
against them, and had attempted to convict them as false 
prophets and deceivers. 

" We were astounded that this man, a merchant, should 
be so well versed in Latin, Hebrew, &c, the more so as he 
formerly had no means at his disposal, and had only ac- 
quired them here of late. We complained that on account 
of his extended discourse we had failed to obtain an insight 
to his literary treasures, but even this hint failed and proved 
of no avail. 

" As we were leaving, the honest patriarch led us into a 
kind of a Cabinet, that gave us an unsurpassed view of the 
river Mass. One of the most conspicuous objects on the 
walls of this room was a large framed map of Pennsylvania." 

At the subsequent sale of Furly's effects this map was 
described as follows : 

" Enn seer nette Landkaard van Pensylvania met alle den 
Rivieren, Bayed &c. Konstig met die Pen op Parkement 
getrokken, en fraai ofgesezt, in een Swarte L,yst." 

According to the memorandum by Benjohan Furly it was 
bought at the sale for four florins by Fritsch & Bohm the 
Dutch printers. 

"In his personal appearance," continues Uffenbach, 
" Benjamin Furly is, as we had pictured him to be, an old, 
tall, lean, serious man who, although it was already cold 
and chilly, went about in a thin, threadbare gray coat; 
around his head he wore a band of black velvet, as he stated 
for the purpose of keeping his hairs from coming in his 
face when writing." 


458 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

After the death of Benjamin Furly, his great library was 
catalogued and sold at auction October 22, 1714. The 
following is the title of the catalogue : 

" Bibliotheca Furliana sive Catalogus Librorum, Hon- 
oratiss. & Doctriss. Viri Benjamin Furly, inter quos excel- 
lunt Bibliorum Editiones Mystici, Libri proprii cujuscum- 
que Sectae Christianse, & Manuscriptii Membranei. Auctio 
net die 22 Octobris 17 14, in ^dibus Defuncti in Platea 
Vulgo dicta. Haringvliet. Roterodami, Apud Fritsch et 
Bohm. 8vo, 1714." 488 

Benjamin Furly's two elder sons succeeded their father 
after his death as merchants and shippers at Rotterdam, 
and also for a time pressed claims for lands in Pennsyl- 
vania. 489 Benjohan, the eldest son, married Martha Wright, 490 
a young woman from London, who died in 1713. She was 
buried September 18th ; a few weeks later, October 9th, her 
babe was laid by her side. Twenty-five years afterwards, 
August 7, 1738, Benjohan Furly was buried in the family 
vault in the St. Laurentian Kerk, beside his wife, child and 
parents. Of John Furly nothing is known, except that he 
became a leading merchant of Rotterdam and London, and 
left a family. 

Arent Furly, the youngest son, who was a great favorite 
of L,ocke and L,ord Shaftesbury, entered the military service 
of England, and went with Charles, Earl of Peterborough, 
to the West Indies in 1702-03, and in 1705, as his secretary, 
to Spain, where his patron was General and Commander-in- 
Chief of Her Majesty's forces. Several of the orders dated 

488 Benjohan Furly's priced and named copy of this catalogue is now in 
the British Museum. It is catalogued No. 11901, An. 

189 .< Pennsylvania Archives," Second Series, vol. xix. 

490 From the fact that this marriage was also consummated at the Stadl- 
huis it would appear that Benjohan was also either a Quaker or Separatist. 

Tomb of Furly. 


in the camp before Barcelona in 1705 are countersigned 
by Arent Furly. According to a letter from Lord Shaftes- 
bury to Benjamin Furly, he died during this expedition, 
early in the year 17 12.* 91 He was unmarried. 

Benjamin Furly's daughter Dorothy, born July, 17 10, 
married Thomas Forster, of Walthamstow, England, and 
it was his grandson, Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster, who 
published the volume of letters of Locke, Sidney and 
Shaftesbury so frequently quoted in this sketch. 

There are but few of the hundreds of American tourists 
that annually visit the Groote Kerk in Rotterdam, and 
wander through its broad aisles, who know that in the 
centre aisle in the nave rest the remains of Benjamin 
Furly and his kin, the man who was so instrumental in 
bringing about the first German immigration to America 
and in securing for the immigrants equal rights and 

"Original letters," etc., p. 205 



Jacob Zimmermann, 
whose name figures so 
frequently upon the preceding 
pages, and who was one of the 
chief instigators of the Theo- 
sophical experiment on the Wis- 
sahickon, was a native of the 
Duchy of Wiirtemberg, born in 
the year 1644, in the little ham- 

ARMS OF WURTEMBERG, A.D. I689. , , . TT ., . ., « , 

let of Vaihmgen on the Entz. 
From early childhood he evinced a remarkable talent for 
learning, and at the age of seventeen he was taken into 
the Ducal service. 492 He was subsequently sent to the 
university at Tubingen, where he graduated in 1664 with 
the title of Magister der Philosophie. He was at once 
appointed instructor of mental arithmetic ( Wiederholungs- 

Subsequently he was admitted into the ministry, became 
a Lutheran clergyman and in 167 1 was appointed Diaconus 
of the church at Bietigheim, a town adjacent to his birth- 

492 Fischlein, Memoria Theologorum Wirtenbergensiwm. Ulmae, ijio. 
Supplementa ad Mem. Theol. Wirt. pp. 230. 

Expulsion from Wurtemberg. 461 

place. Here he served until 1684, when he was deposed 
for his outspoken views upon the coming millennium. 

Zimmermann, after leaving Wurtemberg, was called to 
the chair of mathematics at Heidelberg University, which 
he rilled for the next five years. Upon becoming involved 
still deeper in his mystical speculations, he, in 1689, lost 
his professorship and went to Hamburg, where he became 
" corrector" or proof-reader for Brandt, the Hamburg pub- 
lisher, who then printed many of the Mystical and Theo- 
sophical works of that period which were not strictly ortho- 
dox, and known as " Suspecta FideV It was here that 
Zimmermann came into personal contact with such men as 
Horbius, Spener, Furly and others of like convictions, and 
where the plan was perfected for putting to a practical test, 
in the Western World, some of the theoretical speculations 
of the Theosophists. 

Heretofore but little has been known of the history of 
this noted philosopher, except that he was the leader of the 
band of Pietists that started for America, and that he died 
just prior to their embarkation at Rotterdam. 

But he deserves a prominent place in the religious history 
of Pennsylvania, for it was mainly upon his astrological 
deductions and calculations respecting the near approach 
of the millennium that the organization of the emigrants 
was consummated. 

Now, after the lapse of two centuries, it has become 
possible to present a sketch of this eminent philosopher 
and scientist ; a result which has been brought about only 
by a long and persistent search after material extending 
over both continents, a search pursued with great difficulty 
and much expenditure. 

The first direct clue to Zimmermann was found in a 
fragmentary title of one of his books printed at Hamburg 

462 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

shortly before his death. From this the long search was 
kept up through Germany until Bietigheim was reached, 
where on account of missing records little or no information 
was to be had. 

When almost ready to give up further enquiry an active 
co-worker was found in Stuttgart, 493 who introduced the 
writer to Professor D. Th. Schott, the Royal Bibliothekar 
in that capital. This librarian instituted a search for traces 
of Zimmermann, and found, among the musty archives of 
the Royal Free Library, four scientific works of his, the 
titles of which were photographed and placed at the disposal 
of the writer. 

A further search by Professor Schott among long-forgot- 
ten legal proceedings stored within the Royal Archives at 
Stuttgart, brought to light once more the charges under 
which the Magister was tried and convicted. 

From these data it appears that Magister Zimmermann, 
in addition to being an erudite theologian, was one of the 
best astronomers and mathematicians of the day, and that 
he received acknowledgment as such from the Royal Society 
of England. He was also a prolific writer upon theosophical 
as well as astronomical and mathematical subjects, both 
under his own name and the pseudonyms of Ambrossii 
Sehmanni and Johannis Matthaeus. He was also some- 
thing of a poet and hymnologist. 

From the old records in the archives at Stuttgart it 
appears that while Zimmermann was officiating at Bietig- 
heim he was stricken with a dangerous fever. His physi- 
cian was the celebrated L,udwig Brunnquell, who was also 
a great admirer of Jacob Boehme. The acquaintance thus 
commenced between patient and doctor ripened into friend- 

493 Otto Schaettle, Esq. 

Erudition of the Magister. 463 

ship, and ended in the physician convincing his charge of 
the correctness of Boehme's speculations. 

Zimmermann, who during this time actively pursued his 
study of the heavens from his observatory, which tradition 
states was upon the old church tower at Bietigheim, now 
combined Boehme's speculations with his astronomy, and 
in 1684 issued the unique work wherein he prophesies 
amelioration of the times prior to the year 1694. These 
deductions were based upon the appearance of the comet 
of 1680. The title of this book, which was to have so 
peculiar an effect upon social and religious affairs in Penn- 
sylvania was : 

" Mundus Copernizans ; lingua vernacula. Muthmassige 
Zeit-Bestimmung bevorstehende Gerichten Gottes uber das 
Europaeische Babel und hierauf erfolgenden Anfang dess 
Reichs CHRISTI auf Erden. Unter den nahmen AM- 
ROSII Sehmann de Caminicz, Anno 1684. 8vo." 

In this work he desires written information from the 
Consistory upon the four following general questions : 

"(1) The downfall of Babylon in Europe. 

" (2) The millennium of the pious, and universal con- 
version of Jews, Turks and Gentiles. 

" (3) True prophets existing even now. 

" (4) Certain doubts concerning the Augsburg Confession 
and Apology." 

The answer of the Consistorium not being to his liking, 
he publicly denounced the Established Church as a Babel. 
This gave rise to considerable disturbance, which was 
increased still more by another book from Zimmerman, viz., 

"Bey nahe gantz aufgedechter Anti-Christ oder unvor- 
greiffi Redencken uber die frage : Ob die Evangelische 
Kirche mit recht Babel und Anti^Christisch zu schelten von 
welche auszugehen seye ? Nach Grund der Heil. Schrifft 

464 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

aufgesetzt, mit Beantwortung anderer dieser Materia ver- 
wandten Nebenfragen. Anno 1685, #to." 

The Consistorium at once ordered Zimmermann's books 
to be refuted, which was done by Schellenbaur and Haber- 
lein. Zimmermann, nothing daunted, followed with 
another work : 

" Orthodoxia Theosophiae Bohmianae contra Holsbusium 
Defensa, oder Christliche Untersuchungen der Holtzhausis- 
chenAnmerckungenuberundwiederJ. B'dhmens Aurorant." 
Franckfurt und Leipzig, Anno 1691. 

This work was issued under the name of Johannes 
Matthai. In the appendix he sarcastically scores Erasmus 
Franciscus for his " Counter-Ray to the Aurora" and 
" Arrows of Calumny of Ishmael and Simeus Shivered." 

One of the most curious charges brought against Zim- 
mermann was that he sought to elevate Jacob Boehme over 
the Apostles. This was founded upon the fact that he had 
written under Boehme's portrait the following epigram : 

" Waan Petrus Juden fischt, 

Der Weber wirbt die Heyden. 
Beginnt der Schuster jetzt 

Sie beiderseits zu weiden. 
Weil Er die Heil'ge Schrifil 

Mit der Natur verfasst, 
Doch ist Er eine last 

Die Amasias hassti" 

[ If Peter fishes Jews, the weaver enlists Gentiles. Now the cobbler 
commences to feed them both, because he combines Holy Writ with nature, 
and becomes a power which Ananias detests.] 

After Zimmermann had become so thoroughly imbued 
with the teachings of Jacob Boehme, he at various times 
gave utterance, in the pulpit, to expressions defamatory of 
the Established Church of which he was a Presbyter. As 
he professed to be able, by aid of his astronomical observa- 

The Old Church at Bietigheim. 


The old church at Bietigheim, Wurtemberg, from the tower of which 
Magister Zimmermann made his astronomical observations, and which led to 
the establishment of the " Woman in the Wilderness" on the Wissahickon. 


466 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

tions, to foretell the exact time of the millenium, he became 
the leader of that class of mystic philosophers and their 
followers who then believed the great catastrophe to be 

When this period passed without confirming his calcula- 
tions, he still continued in his denunciations of the ecclesi- 
astical establishment. After repeated admonitions he was 
summoned to appear before the Ducal Consistorium ; was 
tried, convicted of heresy, and ordered to leave the Duchy 
within a certain time. 

This the deposed clergyman did with a bad grace, and it 
appears that he indulged in prophesying all sorts of dire 
disasters for his native country and its rulers as a chastise- 
ment for the fancied injustice done him. 

He also issued a brochure in which he charged that he 
was persecuted solely on account of a notice of him written 
by Breckling and published by Gottfried Arnold. The 
Duchy being invaded and devastated by the French about 
this time, Zimmermann boldly claimed that this terrible 
misfortune was nothing more nor less that the fulfillment 
of his predictions of a Divine retribution, and that still 
greater calamities were in store for the land of his birth 
unless he should be reinstated. 

The publication of these pamphlets and the fact of his 
adherents in Wiirtemberg giving them credence, induced 
the authorities to set forth a counter-statement or apology, 
printed partly in Latin and partly in German, with the facts 
of the case from the government standpoint. This curious 
document reads as follows : 

"CARODUS" Wirtenbergische, Unschuld Act : Ulm, 
1/08, po." Page 50, article v. 

" Proceedings of the Ducal Government of Wiirtemberg 
versus Magister Johann Jacob Zimmermann : 

Astrology and Magic. 467 

" (Section 1). — Even as it was the duty of the govern- 
ment of Wiirtemberg to censure and proceed against M. 
Dudwig Brunnquell, so must the same proceedings be en- 
acted against M. Joh. Jac. Zimmermann if the facts are as 
mentioned in Breckling's catalogue, which were embodied 
by Arnold in the preface to his notable work, viz. : 

" ' M. Joh. Jac. Zimmermann, a profoundly learned astro- 
loger, magician, cabbalist and preacher, expelled from the 
Wiirtemberg Domain (shortly before its devastation by the 
French) hath written under the name of Ambrose Sehmann 
of Caminicz, 494 many profound and learned writings of the 
truths of philosophy, astrology and of comets, as well as 
of chronology and the computation of time ; and because 
he, in these deductions, agreed with Jacob Boehme, he 
was discharged from his position at Bietigheim. He after- 
wards boldly defended his position against Hincklemann 
and Holtzhausen. ' 

" (Section 2). — That this Magister Zimmermann has far 
excelled many others in the astrological sciences is willingly 
conceded. But of what service he was to the church is a 
vital question, as he, by virtue of his sacred office, intro- 
duced his theories of astrology, magic and cabbalism into 
his teachings. 

" Then again the charge boldly made and published in 
large type, that his dismissal, in a measure, was one of the 
great national sins which called forth such terrible retribu- 
tion as the subsequent devastation by the French of several 
cities and large tracts of the country, is both blasphemous 
and malicious. 

" The fallacy of his prognostications, too, as to the time 
of divine judgment, published under an assumed name, has 
been publicly proven and established by the late Dr. Haber- 

m Evidently old Comines in Belgium. 

468 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

lin in his published work. The extraordinary zeal with 
which Zimmermann endeavored to elevate Jacob Boehme's 
writings and impart to them divine inspiration is well 
known. With what amount of justice he has sought to 
maintain his position against Hincklemann and Holtz- 
hausen, all who are competent may judge for themselves. 

" (Section 3). — That his removal from the diaconate at 
Bietigheim was due to the Breckling report as quoted by 
Arnold, and wherein he is said to have sanctioned the 
computation of time in accordance with the writings of 
Boehme ; or that any one should charge the forcible 
removal of Zimmermann from office, and his banishment, 
merely to the above allegation, which is in itself meager, 
is entirely erroneous. The true facts of the case are in 
short as follows : 

" M. Zimmermann was a great admirer of L,udwig 
Brunnquell, and was by the latter seduced into all manner 
of superstitution, as is clearly shown from the passage in 
Arnold which states that ' Zimmermann was awakened by 

"Therefore, the Lutheran Church must have been an 
abomination to the man : he regarded her as anti-Christian, 
and used to call her nothing but Babel. He opposed our 
symbolical books, with which he found great fault, although 
when entering upon his ministry, he subscribed to them as 
perfectly consonant with the Word of God. 

" He became greatly interested in the writings of Jacob 
Boehme, sought curious divine mysteries therein, praised 
them highly, both orally and in writing, strove to popu- 
larize them with the people, and circulated the books 
among them. He did not confine to himself these teach- 
ings wherein he deviated from our doctrine, but promul- 
gated them wherever opportunity offered, and courted the 

Accusations of Heresy. 469 

favor of such as gave him an audience. But herein he, 
for the most part, acted covertly, for he feared the light. 

" Therefore he used a pseudonym for his writings ; first 
that of Ambrose Sehmann, and afterwards that of Johannes 
Mattheus m (without knowing, perhaps, that the Haarlem 
Anabaptist prophet, who confused the minds of the people 
about a.d. 1534, bore the same name). He could not con- 
ceal his mystic speculations, and some of his heresy soon 
appeared in his sermons. Hence he was closely watched, 
and several times amicably admonished, and when it was 
ascertained that he was the author of the alleged compu- 
tation of time, by promulgating which he violated in vari- 
ous ways the fundamental laws of this Duchy, he was 
summoned in regular manner, and sufficient time granted 
him to prepare a defence. 

" Whereupon he defended himself, and even ventured to 
vindicate his erroneous views, rejecting what was adduced 
against him from the Word of God, and the doctrine based 
thereon; and persisted in scattering his pernicious seed, 
nor did he desist therefrom in despite of all commands, and 
the pains that were taken to set him aright. All was in 
vain. Therefore, finally, a prominent minister of State, 
who had heretofore been his special patron, now no longer 
interested himself in his behalf, but suffered him to be 
degraded from his position. 

" Though he seemed quite happy after his dismissal, he 
nevertheless acted after the manner of common people, 
complaining greatly of the dire persecution he was forced 
to endure. He maligned the Ducal Consistory, and talked 
much concerning divine judgments which would overtake 
the country upon his account. As an illustration he would 

495 A copy of E. Francisci's answer to Johannes Mattheus is in British 
Museum, No. 3907, As. 

470 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

quote the misfortunes and death of his former Superior. 
His allegations, however, consisted partly in a demonstrable 
falsehood, and partly in the fallacy of a non-cause as a 
cause {fallacia non causae ut causae). Yet he was so auda- 
cious as to maliciously circumvent people in high life, both 
in and out of the country, partly by himself, partly through 
some adherents. 

" (Section 4). — It would therefore have been a fallacy 
not to get rid of such a man : for with what disposition he 
served our church may easily be inferred. He could 
neither serve a congregation of our confession with a good 
conscience, nor could such a communion retain him as 
their teacher, for he held our doctrine and confession des- 
picable and our church as anti-Christ. 

" Should a man who desires to lead the people from the 
Lutheran doctrine still desire to be called a Lutheran 
presbyter ? 

"Should he want to be considered an 'Anti-Christian 
servant of Babel ? ' Moreover, should a Christian congre- 
gation continue a teacher in office among them who is 
unwilling to adhere to their confession, which is founded 
upon the Word of God ? 

"Shall she be united with one who, as a shepherd, 
declareth the Church to be a congregation of Babel ? 

" Let it only be considered what has been written (I will 
not say by our theologians), but in order that Arnold may 
have less chance to take exception to what has been written 
by Herr von Puffendorff, the Christian statesman, and 
endorsed by Seckendorff. 

" It will possibly be better in such cases to judge in con- 
sideration of the above circumstances, briefly touched 
upon, whether M. Zimmermann of Wiirtemberg was 
treated justly or unjustly by being discharged from his 
sacred office. 

Bibliography. 471 

"The following is a partial list of Zimmermann's 
writings : 

" Theoriae Secondorum Mobilium Perfectae^ etc. Tiib- 
ingae, 1664. 4to. 

" Amphitheatrum Orbis Stellarum" Tubingen, 1669. 4to. 

" Differentia Latioudinum," etc. Tubingen, 1669. 4to. 

" Calendaria, in annos complures." Stuttgart, 1675. 4to. 

" Provromus biceps convo-ellipticae^ etc. Stuttgart, 
1679. 4to. 496 

" Substructio Tabularum Theoricarum" etc. Stuttgart, 

1679. 4 to - 497 

" Cometoscopia" etc. Tubingen, 1681. 4to. 

" Cometolgia" etc. Tubingen, 1682. 4-to. 

" Portendens gravia X agiulane future Cometes," etc. 
Stuttgart, 1682. 8vo. 498 

" Mundus Copernizans," etc. Ambrosii Sehman, 1684. 

" Beynahe gantz aufgedeckter Anti-Christ" etc. 1685. 

"Jovis per umbrosa" etc. Norimbergia, 1686. 4to. 

" Philalethae Exercitatio" etc. Hamburg, 1689. 4to. 

" Scriptura Sacra Copernizans " etc. Francof., 1690 ; 
Hamburg, 1704. 4to. 

" Orthodoxia Theosophiae Bohmianae" etc. Frankfurt 
and Leipzig, 1691. 

" Logistica Astronomica Logarithmica^ etc. Hamburg, 
1 69 1. 8vo. 

" Theoria sacra Telluris — Biblische Betrachtung des 
Erdreichs — Von T. Burnett in Latein herausgyeben in 
Hoch-Deutsche ubersitzf (2 ed), 1703. 499 

496 Copy in British Museum, No. 532, f. 31 (2) 

497 Copy in British Museum, No. 532, f. 31, (1) 

498 Copy in British Museum, 532, E 43. 

499 Copy in British Museum, 4374, c. 


Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

" Coniglobium nocturnale Stelligerum^ etc. Tub., 1704; 
Hamb., 1704 ; German, Tub., 1706 and 1729. 8VO. 500 

According to the certified copy of the old church record 
of Beitigheim, the Zimmermann pair had six children : 

(1) A daughter (stillborn) December 14, 1671. 

(2) A son, Johann Jakob, born January 10, 1673. Died, 
February 25, 1697. 

(3) Maria Margaretha, baptized October 10, 1675. 

(4) Phillip Christian, baptized February 18, 1678. 

(5) Matthaus, baptized June 25, 1680. 

(6) Jakob Christoph, baptized May 14, 1683. 

The four living children accompanied the mother to 
Pennsylvania, where shortly after their arrival the daughter 
Maria Margaret married L,udwig Christian Biedermann, a 
candidate of theology, one of the original members of the 

Chapter of Perfection, who was the 
sophical party to break his vows of 
three sons all settled in the vicinity f 
and survived their mother, as is 
shown from the will of the widow 
Zimmermann, probated July 29, 

Ludwig Biedermann left a 
daughter, Hannah L,udwig Bieder- 
mann, who intermarried with one 
John George Knorr and set- ^ 
tied in Bristol Township. 
Decendants of this couple are still living 
in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

first of the Theo- 
celibacy. The 
of Germantown 

1 Copy in British Museum, No. 531, f. 25. 


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IfoV/Mwti wH-jja 







who will always rank as one of the 
most active and devout clergymen 
in the early church history of Penn- 
sylvania and the adjoining prov- 
inces where he preached to the Swedes, 
Dutch, English, German and Welsh, was 
a native of Gevalia, in the province of 
Gestrickland, one of the eastern divisions 
of Sweden. He was born in the year 
1668, and after receiving a liberal educa- 

SlGNATURE AND Seal . ... . . 

ofaxelOxbnstiern. tion was sent to the University of Upsal, 
where he attracted the attention of Prof. Jesper Svedberg, 501 
and became a scholar in the latter's Homiletic Seminary. 

When finally King Charles XI consented to give heed 
to the repeated petitions of the Swedish Lutherans on the 
Delaware, the subject was laid before the Consistorium at 
Upsal by Archbishop Olof Swebilius, February 18, 1696. 
In the discussions that followed, Andreas Rudmann's name 
was the first that was presented, his cause being championed 
by no less a personage than his former tutor, Dr. Svedberg. 
After his selection the young clergyman was summoned 

501 Page 93, ibid. 


474 P ne Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

before that august body, and as the matter was an entire 
surprise to him, he asked for time to consider the proposi- 
tion. After a lapse of several days he again appeared 
before the Consistorium, and stated his willingness to 
accept the call to the western wilderness ; with the proviso 
that the royal promise be extended to him, " that provided 
God spared his life he should be recalled in a few years 
and advanced to some charge of honor and profit in his 
native land." 

This was granted him without hesitation by the King. 
Strange as it may seem, Pastor Rudmann, devout and sin- 
cere as he was, by making this apparently reasonable 
request, unwittingly established a precedent which was 
taken advantage of, and followed by every succeeding 
Swedish missionary who came to America. The effect of 
this was eventually to make the American mission a mere 
stepping-block for clergymen who were ambitious for sub- 
sequent home preferment, and it was just this unfortunate 
circumstance which in the course of time alienated the 
Swedish L,utheran Church in America from the faith, and 
landed both church and congregations within the Protestant 
Episcopal fold. 

However, it is not intended that the above statement of 
facts should in any manner be taken as a reproach to Rud- 
mann, for it is not the intention of the writer to reflect in 
the least upon that devout missionary. The circumstance 
is merely mentioned as a historical fact not generally known 
— one that has thus far escaped most of the writers of 
early church history, whose effect upon the religious situa- 
tion in Pennsylvania during the provincial period was of 
more than ordinary importance, and which has extended 
even down to the present day. 

After Pastor Rudmann had accepted the call, he was 

Gift of the Swedish King. 475 

asked to select two clergymen as his assistants. Upon his 
refusal to do this, Dr. Svedberg proposed Eric Tobias 
Biorck of Westmanland, who was then living with him as 
tutor to his children, while the King named Jonas Auren 
from Wermeland. 

The King thereupon presented Rudmann with 500, and 
the other two with 400 guilders, wherewith to discharge 
their debts and prepare for the voyage. Moreover, the 
King issued an order to send with them, securely packed 
for the use of the congregations in America, the following 
books : 

" 30 folio Bibles, 10 printed by Vankis and 20 by Keiser. 

" 6 books of Homilies (Posiillen) ; 2 Cabinets of Treasure ; 
2 of Moeller's ; 2 of Luther's. 

"150 Manuals. 

" 100 religious treatises of different kinds, among which 
were 12 by Kellingius, and a number of Paradies Gdrtlein." 1 

" 100 Swedish hymn books. 

" Ecclesiastical Acts (Agenden). 

" 2 Church Regulations. 

"100 Catechisms {Swebilius). 

" 300 Smaller Catechisms. 

" 400 A. B. C. books, bound in strong wooden covers. 

" 500 copies of Campanius' Indian Catechism." 

The last, a special contribution from the King, were by 
his orders handsomely bound, and intended for the Indian 
missions of the Lutheran Church in America. 

Before the clergymen started, the King granted them a 
personal audience, and appropriated three thousand guilders 
toward their expenses and passage. In dismissing them, 
he gave them his hand and said : 

" Go now in the name of the Lord to the place whither 
I send you. God be with you, and prosper your under- 

476 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

taking. If any adversity or opposition befall you, return 
home, and I will remember you." 

From Sweden the trio went to England, where they 
remained until the following February (1697), when they 
embarked on the ship "Jeffreys," Captain James Cooper. 
It was not until June 24, that they dropped anchor at the 
Bohemia Landing on the Chesapeake. 

More or less mention has already been made in the course 
of this work of the labors of Dominie Rudmann, setting 
forth some of his labors and trials down to the time of his 
return to the Delaware from New York in 1703. 502 

During his absence in the adjoining province the religious 
situation had changed somewhat in Pennsylvania. Rud- 
mann prior to his departure for New York, had installed 
Sandel as Pastor loci at Wicacoa. Biorck was still at 
Christiana, while Auren was serving the churches in New 

The newly organized Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign parts at London, had in the meantime 
supplied clergymen for most of the embryo parishes in Penn- 
sylvania and the adjoining provinces ; a condition which 
virtually left Rudmann without any charge. 

He, however, by direction of George Keith, began at 
once to minister to the outlying English and Welsh con- 
gregations in connection with the indomitable Evan Evans, 
as well as supplying his place at Christ Church when the 
latter was absent. 503 

602 Page 347, et seq. 

603 " October 5, 1704, Mr. Andrew Rudmann, late Swedish Minister, by 
the direction of Mr. George Keith serves there (Oxford) now in hopes 
of encouragement from the Honorable Society ... At Germantown in 
the same County the people are numerous, they want both Church and 
Minister."— Evan Evans.— M. S. records of the Church General, Archives 
of S. P. G., London. 

Religious Intollerance. 477 

It was mainly on account of these services among the 
Welsh at Radnor and Oxford that the Swedish Lutheran 
clergyman became particularly obnoxious to the Quakers, 
and various were the plans made by the dominant party to 
rid the Province of such an active missionary, who had 
been so signally successful in leading the Welsh residents 
from Quakerism back to the church of their fathers, and 
who was now recognized as in the employ of the Propaga- 
tion Society of London. 

The first open breech occurred when the Quaker author- 
ities again attempted to prevent both pastor and laymen 
from crossing the Schuylkill on Sundays to attend public 
worship. Orders were given to prevent the clergymen from 
being ferried over the river. This led to much dissension 
between the parties, and ended by the Churchmen, who 
knew from their previous experience 504 the uselessness of 
appealing to the Council, obtaining a boat of their own to 
ferry themselves and parishioners across the river as occa- 
sion demanded. 

This action at once caused a protest from the Quakers, 
and culminated in an " Information " being lodged against 
Pastors Rudmann and Sandel. This was presented to the 
Provincial Council, May 4, 1704, 505 by Benjamin Cham- 
bers 506 proprietor of the ferry : 

604 Page 264, supra. 

605 " Minutes of the Provincial Council, Colonial Records," vol. ii, page 


606 Benjamin Chambers was one of the passengers with Penn on the 
"Welcome" and a man of powerful physique. As early as 1683 he was 
appointed to keep order among the public houses in the growing city ; 
after serving a term as High Sheriff, was licensed to operate a ferry below 
that of Philip England before mentioned. Tradition tells us that this 
privilege was granted him with special reference to the trouble with the 
Swedes. The King's road to Darby, etc. , was afterwards laid out so as to 
pass over this ferry, and it is still known by the name of Chambers' suc- 
cessor : " Gray's Ferry." 

478 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

"Benja. Chambers presented an Information to y e Board, upon an 
apprehension of another ferry boat, being intended to be sett up on his 
ferry Landing place, by two swedes ministers, setting forth y' he had been 
at very great charge & Trouble in erecting y e sd ferry for y e Publick Good, 
that by his Diligence & Expenses he had cut through y" Rocks, made 
long Causeys through y e mudd, & for y e accomodation of y e Countrey, at 
whose instance he had first sett it up ; he had made such conveniences 
as y e like had never been known before in these parts, and therefore 
requested that his merits might be considered, & no other persons suffered 
to enter upon his Labours by oppression, to bereave him of that small 
benefit wch thought reasonable should accrue to him, & was far short of 
what those who endeavoured to take part with him imagined." 

In the minutes of Council, held on May 27, 507 following, 
we find : — 

"The case of Andrew Rudman & Andrew Sandel, Clerks, & their 
answers to y e Informations exhibited to this board, by Benjamin Chambers, 
relating to y<= Scuylkill ferry, was read. Ordered thereupon, that notice 
be given to both y e sd parties, to appear at this Board next Council day." 

A month later, June 23, 1704 : 508 

"Andrew Rudman, y e Swedish Minister, & Benja. Chambers, appear- 
ing according to y e Ordr of y" last Council before y e Board, & their several 
applications being again read, B. Chambers, in answer to y e Swedes, 
offer'd a long Paper, wch proving too tedious, & ordered to be changed 
in y Direction. It was referr'd to y e afternoon, & y e Council adjourned 
to four of y Clock." 

In the afternoon session of the Council : 5M 

"The Paper of Benja. Chambers, in answer to the Swedes ministers 
offered in the morning, was read, & both Parties called in & heard, & 
the Consideration of it was deferred, & the Council adjourned to 8 in the 

Here all record of the case stops. What the final dis- 
position of the matter was does not appear, as the minutes 
of the succeeding meetings are silent upon the subject. 

607 Ibid page 147. 
508 Ibid page 149. 
609 Ibid page 150. 

Trials of the Early Missionary. 479 

When Dominie Rudmann, who was physically frail, first 
took charge of the Oxford and Radnor congregations, he 
walked to and from the city, stopping at the houses by the 
wayside, no matter of what nationality the inmates — 
whether English, Welsh, Swedish or German — catechising 
in some, reasoning in others, and often administering con- 
solation in the hour of sorrow ; while in some cases, where 
the occupants were too strongly imbued with Quakerism 
to heed his discourse, he would meet with a rebuff strong 
enough to cause him to obey the scriptural injunction — " To 
shake the dust from off his feet and pass on." 

On these lonely pilgrimages he would frequently, when 
his strength was exhausted, sink down, faint and weary on 
a rock or stump of a tree, pray for both bodily and spiritual 
strength, and after thus refreshing himself again start upon 
his journey, singing a few verses of the good old rhythmi- 
cal prayer of the Fatherland : 

" Liebster Jesu, gnadensonne, 
Meines herzens zuversicht, " 

to cheer him on his way while toiling wearily through the 
forest, over hill and dale, to his distant charges. 

He was frequently overtaken upon these journeys by the 
sudden storms so common in our country, with no protection 
but such as was afforded by the trees of the forest which 
happened to be near the road-side. 

When he realized that his frail constitution would no 
longer sustain such exposure and fatigue, he tried to hire a 
horse in Philadelphia, but soon found that his slender means 
would not bear so great an outlay. Consequently there 
was no other remedy, when the weather permitted, but to 
continue his ministrations on foot. 

It was not until Dominie Rudmann had thus served the 
congregations for three years that he was notified by Mr. 

480 Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Chamberlain that he had been granted a gratuity by the 
Society in L,ondon. This amounted to a total of £62 
sterling, from which he paid Mr. Club 15 pounds Pennsyl- 
vania currency for his services at Radnor, and ^5, 7 shil- 
lings, to remove an old debt for ceiling Oxford church. He 
also bought a horse so that he could supply his distant 
charges with more certainty. 

During Mr. Evans' absence in England, while he was in 
charge of Christ Church, a misunderstanding arose between 
the two ministers in relation to a bill of exchange, which 
induced Pastor Rudmann to resign the care of Oxford to 
Mr. Club, the Welsh schoolmaster at Christ Church. This 
he reported to the Society in a letter dated August 26, 1708, 
which proved his last communication thereto. He suc- 
cumbed to his zeal on September 17, 1708, as foreshadowed 
in his letter : 

" I am a sickly man, and now for seven weeks together 
in consumption, I have buried lately one of my daughters, 
and most that come to see me give me up for a dead man, 
which I do believe also. If I should die this time, what 
a miserable family I should leave behind me — a helpless 
widow, and two poor small children who cannot procure a 
farthing." 510 

On the day following his death, Dominie Rudmann, 
according to an old record, was attended to his last resting 
place in Wicacoa church by a long procession of mourners — 
Swedes, Hollanders, Englishmen and Germans — where his 
colleague and fellow-laborer Biorck tendered him the last 
service and buried him in front of the altar of the church 
which he had built. He delivered a funeral sermon in 
English on the text selected by Rudmann himself; Psalm 
73 ■ H- 

' Pennsylvania Records S. P. G. , London. 

Persecution of Swedish Lutherans. 


All nationalities present followed with blessings the 
faithful laborer who had understood how to give in abund- 
ance to so many. 

Dominie Rudmann had lived in America eleven years, 
and in the world not quite forty years, and left behind him 
his wife, who was one of the Mattson family, and two 
daughters, Gertrude and Anna Catherina Rudmann. His 
tomb bears the following inscription : 

"mors mihi veta in coelo qtjies est. 

"This marble covers the remains of the Rev. Andreas 
Rudmann. Being sent hither from Sweden, he first founded 
and built this church ; was, a constant faithful preacher, 
eleven years, in this country where he advanced true piety 
by sound doctrine and good example. He died 17, Sep- 
tember 1708, aged 40 years." 

Since the year 1840 the stone over his grave, together 
with other tombs within the church and chancel, have been 
hidden from view by the flooring then put into the church. 
The arrangement of the pews was also changed, the wide 
aisle up the centre being replaced by the two side aisles. 
The baptismal font, the two gilt cherubim and the tablet 
in front of the organ-loft are really all that remain at the 
present day of the original church, except the walls. 

Autograph of Gustavus Adolphus. 

483 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. 

Shortly after Pastor Rudmann's death, the old trouble 
between the Quakers and the Swedish Lutherans broke 
out anew, when it appears that forbearance upon the part 
of the Swedish Lutherans ceased to be a virtue. Sandel 
who, it seems, was a muscular Christian, attempted to take 
the law into his own hands, as is shown by the minutes of 
Council, August 11, 1709 : 5U 

" A Petition & Complaint from Benjamin Chambers to the Board, 
was read, setting forth, that pursuant to his Covenants, formerly entered 
into with this Govmt. , at y e first erecting of his ferry over Skuylkill River, 
being employed in Repairing y e long Causey leading to the ferry on this 
side the said River, he was attacked by Andrew Sandal, minister of the 
Swedish Church in the County of Philadia., & by Violence drove from his 
work thereon ; Whereupon, 'Tis Ordered, that the said minister, Andrew 
Sandal, attend this board the 16th Instant, about Eleven in the forenoon, 
to render an acct. of the said act, and the reason of his Interrupting a 
person employed in the Queen's High Way, in the necessary repairs 

At the next meeting of Council, five days later, August 
16, 1709, the accused clergyman appeared in his own 
behalf: 512 

"Andrew Sandal, the Swedish minister, according to order, appeared 
and the Petition and Complaint of B. Chambers being read to him, he 
desired a Copy of it, and that he might have time to answer it, being now 
new to him, for that he had not notice to appear at the board till last 

" Ordered, that he have time till the first Council day next week." 

In obedience to this order Pastor Sandel again appeared 
before Council, August 23, 1709, 513 with the following 
result : 

"Pursuant to an Order of the 16th Instant, the Swedish minister, 
A. Sandel, appeared by an address to this Board in writing, gave his 
answer to the Petition & Complaint exhibited against him by B. Chambers, 

511 "Colonial Records," vol. ii, pp. 477-8. 

612 Ibid page 478. 

613 Ibid page 484-5. 

Persecution of Swedish Lutherans. 


which being read, it appeared that the said minister, claimed a right to 
erect a fferry there on this side of Schuylkill, because the road & Cause- 
way leading to the ferry is laid out thro' his land ; & further Charged 
B. Chambers with a violation of his contract, with making spoil of the 
timber on the Land which he had taken of the owners thereof on this 
side of the River, with Divers other allegations in his own defence. 

"But the Govr. and Council taking into Consideration, that Roads 
when once laid out for the Publick Service according to Law, are no 
longer the property of any particular person, but belong wholly to the 
Publick, & the Road leading from Philadia. to the said ferry, being gen- 
erally called the Queen's Road, is therefore wholly under the Cognizance 
of this Board ; and further, considering that all ferries upon such Publick 
Roads are a Privilege of the Proprietor, only by Virtue of the Royal 
Grant to him & his heirs. It is therefore unanimously y e opinion of the 
Govr. and Council, that neither the said minister, Andrew Sandel, nor 
any other person claiming a Right or Interest in the Land through which 
the said Road is laid out, has any better right to y e Road or y e adjoyning 
ferry than any other of the Queen's Subjects has or can claim to the 
same, and that no person under any pretence whatsoever ; shall be 
allowed to erect a Publick ferry over the River Skuylkill, or any other 
water in such Roads as aforesaid, but by special Grant of the Proprietor 
& this Board. Adjourned." 

Thus end the official records of this controversy, which 
stands out in such bold contrast to the " Great Law" pro- 
mulgated by William Penn at Chester on the 7 th day of 
10th Month, called December, 1682, and which was in- 
tended to assure religious liberty to every resident of the 


Abo University, 141. 
Acrelius, 69 ; quoted, 126. 
Advice for all Professors (Koster), 

278 ; extracts from, 279. 
Aerial apparition, 152. 
Aegidian Kirche, 297. 
Agonius, Brother (Michael Wohl- 

farth), 198. 
Alchemy, 148. 
Allen, William, sailing instructions, 

19, 20, 21 ; autograph, 21. 
Alliance, Evangelical, 200. 
Almanac (D. Leeds), no. 
Alpha and Omega, 43. 
Amazone, Baron de, 291. 
American darkness, the second, 

American Philosophical Society, 

113, 115, 118. 
Amsterdam, Consistory of, 69. 
Amulets, astrological, 120. 
An armed escort, 22. 
Ancient lamp, 99. 
Anchorite cell (Kelpius), 212. 
Andrews, Simon (recorder), 175. 
Anglican faith, the, 233. 
Anhangsel, 120, 
Anti-Pietists, 135. 
Anti-slavery clause, 444. 
Apocalypse, Broadside of, 82 ; 

quoted, 112. 
Apparatus, astronomical, 194; phil- 
osophical, 194. 
Appelmann, John Peter, 322. 
Arcanum explodes, 247. 

Arndt's "Wahres Christenthum," 
3 ; note on, 3 ; " Paradies Gart- 
lein," 3. 

Ari van Guinea, 322, 325. 

Ari van Guinea, Jr., 323. 

Arnold, Gottfried, 51, 54 ; quoted, 
289, 315, 466. 

Arrowsmith, I., 286. 

Artabel, a charm, 122. 

Asseburg, Rosamunda von, 61, 304. 

Auf ihr Christen, 344 ; fac-simile, 


Augsburg Confession, 66. 

Augustus (Old Trappe) Church, 57. 

Auren, Rev. Jonas, 94 ; sketch of, 
126, 127 ; missionary among the 
Indians, 128 ; married, 129, 142, 

144, 349. 475- 
Austin's dictionary quoted, 138. 


Baal, Priests of, 185. 
Babelonish coasts, 46. 
Backus, quoted, 136. 
Baldt, John, 340. 
Ball, John, 318. 
Baus, Christopher, 6. 
Baptist Congregation, 30. 
Baptism, public, by Koster, 274. 
Baptists' services, 140. 
Barbadoes Plague in 1699, 138. 
Barclay, Robert, 440. 
Barber-chirurgeon, 117. 
Baron Kelpio, 224. 
Bartram, John, 407. 
Basel Bible, 42. 



Baster, Roger, 137. 

Baumgartner, Paul, 223. 

Baur, Maria J., 445. 

Bechtel, John, school, 395 ; bury- 
ing-ground, 421. 

Beekmann, Samuel, 364. 

Beerens, Catherine, a pious virgin, 

Behmen's Aurora, 73. 

Behmists, 47. 

Beissel, Conrad, 5, 198, 201, 391. 

Behagel, Daniel, 168 ; heirs of, 169. 

Bell Lane Church, 136. 

Benezet MSS., 179. 

Bericht an alle Bekenner, 87. 

Berkenmeyer, Rev. W. C, 326; 
appeal to, 329; diary, 329, 331, 332, 
334 ; autograph letter, 333, 385. 

Besprechen, 122. 

Bethlehem, Moravians at, 5. 

Bibles, scarcity of, 68 ; bought by 
Koster, 261. 

Bibliotheca Furliana, 438, 453, 455, 

Bibliotheque raisonnee, quoted 294 

Biedermann, Ludwig, 39 ; marries, 
85, 156. 258, 472- 

Bietigheim, old church, 465. 

Biorck, Rev. Eric Tobias, 32, 226 ; 
greeting to, 227 ; fac-simile of 
letter, 228, 94, 95 (Dissertatio, 
128), 128, 129, 142, 144, 158 ; title 
Disertatio Gradualis, 343, 372, 
349, 353. 355 1 autograph, 360, 
372, 373. 475, 480. 

Birger, Johann, 385. 

Bitter Sweet Night Ode (hymn), 

Black Alice, 288. 

Blue Anchor Tavern, 28. 

Blumen, V. Schwalenberg, 254. 

Blutige Schauplatz, 93. 

Board of Property, 312. 

Boehme, Jacob, writings of, 15 ; 
sketch of, 48, 464. 

Bohm, Johann, printer, 31, 

Bohnisch, George, lands, 6, 198, 

Bohemia Landing, Kelpius lands at, 
27; "Sara Maria" drops anchor 
at, 12. 

Bohemia Manor, 4, 312. 

Bone, Andreas, 197. 

Books, legend of, 195. 

Books, mystical, 194 ; titles of, 195, 

Boone, George, 320. 

Boskerk, Andreas von, 364. 

Boskerk, Cornelius von, 376. 

Boskerk, Laur von, 364. 

Botanical garden in America, first, 

Bowles, J., 432. 

Bowman, Rt. Rev. Bp., 426. 

Bownas, Samuel, 162, 163. 

Bowyer, Thomas, 267. 

Bradford, Wm., 75, 88 ; press, men- 
tion of, 105, 108 ; prints book for 
Biorck, 128; prints "Protesta- 
tion," 272 ; imprint, 278. 

Brandenburg, Arms of, 251. 

Bray, Rev. Thomas, 285. 

Breitenhaupt, Rev. Dr., 54, 55. 

Breitenhaupt Institution, 297. 

Brethern in America, 87, 96. 

Brick-kiln claimed by Falkner, 168. 

Bridegroom, Celestial, 71. 

Bringhurst, John, 424. 

Brinton, Dr. Daniel G., 40. 

Brotherhood, Mystic, 205. 

Brunnquell, M. Ludwig, 223, 468. 

Burlington Meeting, picture of, 269. 

Burlington, Yearly Meeting at, 267. 

Burgstaller, an Alchymist, 57. 

Burroughs, Ed., quoted, 268. 

Bush-hill, 34. 



Cabbala, doctrines of, 92 : mention 

of, 112. 
Calov, Rev., 231, 232. 
Calovians, 232. 
Calvinists, 67. 

Cammerhoff, Bishop, 398, 9. 
Camp of the Solitary, 392. 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, 285. 
Carpenter, Joshua, buys ground for 

church purposes, 262, 263, 284. 
Carpenter, Samuel, 450. 
Cassel, A. H., 234. 
Casselberg, Frederick, 147. 
Catechism, Keith's title of, 75. 
Cathari, 37 ; sect, 38. 
Cattle stamped with Magic Seal, 

Celestial phenomena, lookout for, 

Celestial Eve, 80. 
Chamberlain, Secretary, 479. 
Chapter of Perfection, organized, 

299. 39°- 

Charles XI, 93, 473. 

Chambers, Benjamin, 477 ; inform- 
ation against Swedish Lutherans, 
478 ; renews trouble, 481. 

Chester County, Furly claims, 174, 

Chew, Col. Benjamin, 210, 212. 

Chiliasm, 131, 132. 

Chiliasts, 37. 

Christi blut und gerechkeit, 399. 

Christ Church, Philadelphia, 30, 140, 
202, library, 194; founding of, 261; 
ground secured for, 262 ; size of 
lot, 262 ; indenture for ground, 
262-3, 277 ; building erected, 285 ; 
dedication of, 287 ; vestry organ- 
ized, 287 ; description of, 288 ; 
named, 288 ; bi-centennial, 298. 

Chronicon Ephratense, translation 
of, 5 ; quoted, 197, 391, 3, 400, 402. 

Church dedication in New Jersey, 

Church of England, 96. 
Church services, established by 

Koster, 253. 
Churchtown, Penna., 318. 
City lots claimed by Falkner, 168, 

Civitatis Erffurtensis, quoted, 55, 

Clarke, Rev. Dr., 136, 163. 
Clark, Thomas, 314, 5, 18. 

" Edw., 434, 442, 443. 
Claus, John, 441. 
Claymore, Robert, slave of Dr. 

Witt, 413 ; attends his master, 

413 ; carries lantern, 414 ; acts as 

agent, constructs clocks, 414 ; 

performs last offices for Dr. Witt, 

415 ; manumitted and receives 

legacy, 417. 
Clayton, Rev. Thomas, arrives in 

Philadelphia, 96 ; appointed, 285, 

rector of Christ Church, 287 ; 

death of, 289. 
Claypool, James, 450. 
Clocks and tools, 417, 418. 
Club, Rev. John, 480. 
Colloquim of the Soul (hymn), 239. 
Collegia Pietatis, 49, 57, 59; in 

Erfurth, 21, 223, 303. 
Comet Stern, neuer, by Zimmer- 

mann, 118. 
Cometo-Scopio, 119. 
Comet of 1743, 412. 
Community, new formed, 87. 
Compendium Anti-Calvinianum, 


Compton, Dr. Henry, Bishop of 
London, 285 ; portrait, 286. 

Conestoga, missionary to, 142. 

Conjuration of burns, 122; trans- 
mission of, 123. 



Conrad, Rev. T. K., 426. 

Cooper, Capt. James, 476. 

Corwin, Rev. E. T., 324. 

Cotweis, John Conrad, Recorder, 

Crandall, Joseph, 163 ; visits Penn- 
sylvania, 163. 

Creed, Pietistical, by Hochenau, 54. 

Crefeld (Germany), 35. 

Crisheim, 70. 

Croese, Gerard, 43, 44, 54-67. 

Croese Quakeriana, quoted, 38, 43 ; 
sketch of, 44, 61. 

Croese, titles, 433, 434, 437- 

Cummings, Rev. A., 194. 

Curieuse Nachricht von Pennsyl- 
vania, 98 ; eolation, 99. 

Curious burial custom, 415. 


Dankers, Jasper, 4. 

Davidsche Psalterspiel, 344; kleine, 

346 ; Sauer's, 347. 
Davis, William, 86, 159 ; trouble 

about, 163 ; letter of, 164 ; book 

by, 164 ; title of, 165 ; sketch of, 

166, 263, 267, 270, 277. 
Decretum Senatus against Pietists, 


Deichmann, Henry Jacob, secre- 
tary, 16, 178, 226. 

Deli, Michael, 221, 223. 

Denndorf, 221. 

De Quaaker's Vergadering, 432. 

Dern, Mollie (Falkner), 323. 

Dern, William, 323. 

De Resurrectione Imperii, 88 ; eo- 
lation, 99 ; fac-simile, 90. 

De Rudder, Nicholas, Spanish Ad- 
miral, 22. 

Descartes, Ren£, 255. 

Devotional exercises, 177. 

De Watteville, mention of, 22. 

Disconsolate Soul, the (hymn), 241. 

Divination, practice of, 413. 

Divining Rod, 112, 113, 109. 

Doane, Rt. Rev., 426. 

Dock Creek, 28. 

Documentary History of New York 

Doop Register, 374. 
Dotterer, H. S., quoted, 319. 
Downs (roadstead), 18 ; letter sent 

from, 18. 
Drost, Herman, 197. 
Dunkers, mention of, 4, 197. 
Dutch Lutherans, 69. 


Early printing in Philadelphia, 108. 

Ebeling, quoted, 32. 

Ebner von Eschenbach, 223. 

Eckerling family, 198 ; Israel, 201, 
392 ; Michael, widow of, 391. 

Ecstatic women, 304. 

Edicts, Royal, against Pietists, 54, 

Education neglected, 70. 

Educational movements, 83. 

Edwards, Humphry, 174. 

Edwards, Rev. Morgan, 277. 

Egyptian burdens, 189. 

Einsiedler-hiitte, 212. 

Elect, prerogatives of, 187. 

Elixir Dulcis, large sale of, in, 112. 

Elixir of Life, in, 112. 

Elrichs, Magdalena, 304. 

Emblem, Hermetic, 91. 

Emigration to Pennsylvania, 198. 

Endt, Theobaldt, synod at, 200. 

Engestromska-Samlung, 156. 

England, Phillip, prevents Luth- 
erans from attending church, 265, 

Enthusiasts, Theosophical, 37. 

Epitome, Rosicrucian, 63 ; explana- 
tion of, 64. 



Episcopal services at Philadelphia, 

Ephrata Community, a mystical 
sect, 5 ; mention of, 7 ; relics, 7 ; 
MSS., 70, 73, 79, 80; symbol of, 
77 ; MSS., 115 ; MSS., 126 ; MSS., 
151 ; cloister, books at, 195 ; 
hymn books, 198 ; MSS., 203 ; 
MSS. quoted, 248; MSS., 339; 
camp at, 392. 

Erfurth, seal of, 49 ; Collegium at, 
258 ; Prophetess, 303. 

Eschenbach, Andrew, 6. 

Esopus, church at, 317. 

Essenes, symbol of. 37, 38 ; de- 
scribed, 38. 

Essenism, 62. 

Essentia dulcis, 57. 

Eucharist administered by Koster, 

Evans, Rev. Evan, 160 ; arrival of, 
289 ; Churchtown, 318, 319; estab- 
lishes church at, 476, 480. 

Evans, Gov. John, proclamation by, 
107, 108. 

Exorcism of the Devil and the 
Quaker Spirit, 276. 

Fabricius, Dr. J. J., 51 ; Magister, 
178, 222, 226 ; letter to, 229. 

Fabritius, Jacobus, 30-69; pastor 
on the Delaware (note), 252. 

Facio, Herr, 456. 

Fahnestock, MSS., 70. 

Fairhill, 35. 

Fairman, Thomas, 70, 205, 206. 

Fairmount, 34. 

Fairmount Park, 202, 206, 215. 

Faiths, allegorical representations 
of, 182. 

Falkner, Anna Catherina, 384. 
" Benedictus, 384, 385. 

Falkner, Benedictus (2), 385. 
" Rev. Christian, 302. 

Falkner, Daniel, Sendschreiben 
13 ; fac-simile of title, 15 ; efficacy 
of prayer, 17 ; excommunication 
by Koster, 27 ; invocation by, 27; 
Sendschreiben, 35 ; mention of, 
39 ; describes services, 68, 74 ; 
Gajus, 79, 85, 87, 88 ; sent to 
Europe, 97 ; Curieuse Nachricht, 
title, 98 ; visits Holland, 99 ; 
publishes book, 99 ; returns to 
America, 139, 145, 146, 147, 157, 
194, 214, 215 ; chosen bailiff, 169; 
attorney, 173 ; burgess, 175 ; com- 
mitted, 175 ; marriage, 176, 177, 
207, 258 ; impressions of, 299 ; 
Keithian schism, 300; defamed 
by Pastorius, 300 ; character of 
Falkner, 301 ; parentage and birth 
of, 302 ; attends University at 
Erfurth, 303 ; communicates with 
Spener, 304; the ecstatic maidens, 
304 ; explanation of his excom- 
munication by Koster, 304 ; 
Francke and the Erfurth pro- 
phetess, 305; receives a deed of 
gift from Catherina Schutz, 306 ; 
autograph, 307 ; return to Penn- 
sylvania, 307; demands an ac- 
counting from Pastorius, 308; 
Furly to Falkner, 309 ; Pastorius' 
accusation, 310; tries to settle 
affairs of Frankfort Company, 
311; acts as attorney, 312; Jo- 
hann Jawert, 313; the Sprogel 
conspiracy, 315; Capt. Vining's 
report, 317 : Falkner Swamp, 319; 
Andreas Sandel, 320 ; the first 
German Lutheran Church in 
America, 321 ; called as pastor 
to New Jersey, 322 ; first German 
Lutheran baptisms in Jersey, 322 ; 




Ari van Guinea, 323 ; pastor at 
Millstone, 324 ; Hanover Church, 
325 ; Rev. W. C. Berkenmeyer, 
326 ; fac-simile of subscription 
list, 327; dedicates Lutheran 
Church in New York City, 328 ; 
Casper Stover asks ordination, 
329 ; refused by Falkner, 329 ; 
visit by Berkenmeyer, 330 ; a 
church dedication, 331 ; supplies 
Kocherthal's congregations, 331 ; 
Rev. John A. Wolff, 332 ; old age 
and retirement, 334, 448, 449. 
Falkner, Justus, arrival in America, 
145 ; burgess of Germantown, 
146, 158, 169, 173, 174, 177, 178 ; 
birth of, 302-307 ; agent for Furly, 
309, 321, 322, 323, 325 ; earliest 
record of, 341 ; as student at Halle, 
543 ; portrait, 342 ; Biorck's note 
on, 343 ; as hymnologists, 344 ; 
Aufihr Christen, 345; general use 
of his hymns, 346 ; O Herr der 
Herrlichkeit, 347 ; attorney for 
Furly, 348, 449 ; claims land, 348 ; 
ministry in Penna., 349; ordination 
at Wicacoa, 350 ; call to New 
York, 353 ; a solemn service, 354 ; 
arrival in New York, 361 ; the old 
Kercken-Boeck, 361 ; the Latin 
votum, 362 ; official signature, 
363 : the vestry, 364 ; church 
meeting, 365 ; an appeal for aid, 
365; publishes first Lutheran text 
book in America, 367 ; title page, 
368 ; Falkner's orthodoxy, 369 ; 
fac-simile of first original hymn 
printed in America, 370 ; extent 
of missionary field, 371 ; Biorck's 
account, 372 ; the old Church 
Register, 373 ; interesting entries, 
376; Doop Register, 377 ; prayers, 
378 ; baptises a negro, 379 ; an 

Indian baptism, 381 ; marriage, 
383 ; children, 384 ; corresponds 
with Swedish ministers, 384 ; last 
entry, 385 ; notice of death, 385, 
386, 448 ; correspondence, 449. 

Falkner, Paul Christian, 302. 
" Sara Justa, 384. 

Falkner's Swamp, 177, 349 ; bound- 
ries of, 319. 

Fatherland, parting from, n. 

Farmer, Edw., 318. 

Faustus, Dr., sees Macrocosm, 133. 

Fight at Sea, 23. 

Finland, 142. 

First Century of German Printing, 

Fletcher, Governor Benjamin, 30, 
31, 32, 265. 

Flower, Enoch, 74. 

Flowertown, ore-bed at, 113. 

Flushing, L. I., 179. 

Foraging parties seize books, 195. 

Forster, Thos. Ig., 459. 

Forster, Thomas, 459. 

Four boasting disputers, 278 ; title, 

Fox Hill (Fuchsenberg), 325. 

Fox, George, mentions of, 262, 435, 

436, 437. 440, 441- 

Frame of Goverment, Penn's, 443. 

Frail ey, Dr., 124. 

Franciscus, Erasmus, 464. 

Franck, Count Valentine, 221, 223. 

Francke, Rev. A. H., 51 ; diaconus, 
54 ; excommunicated, 54 ; expel- 
led, 55 ; composes a hymn, 55 ; 
biographical sketch of, 55 ; pastor 
at Glaucha, 59 ; Stephanus, 79 ; 
97, 103, in, 302, 304, 5 ; Begeis- 
terden M'agden, 306, 344. 

Frankfort Land Company, 60, 145, 

173. 3°6, 307, 3ii, 319. 334, 348. 
Franckfort a. O. University, 255. 


49 1 

Franklin, Benjamin, prints Arndt's 

works, 3, 115. 
Frelich, Leonard, 417. 
Fresenius, quoted, 200. 
FreyYmghausen'sGesanjrBucA, 344. 
Friedsam, Gottrecht, 5 (see Biessel) 
Friends, English, 147 ; library at 

Philadelphia, 105 ; meetings of, 


Friends of God {Gottesfreunde), a 
sect, 52. 

Friends' printing press, 337 ; yearly 
meeting, 105. 

Frommen Lotterie, der, 102. 

Fundamental constitutions, 443. 

Furly, Arent 436, 458, 459. 

Furly, Benjamin, 47, 106, 145, 167, 
X 7J| !73 > claims land in Chester 
County, 174, 177 ; 258, 259, 306, 
8, 10, 314; autograph, 309, 312, 
347, 348, 432; sketch of, 433; 
marries, 434 ; leader of Quakers, 
438 ; death of, 435 ; publishes 
Fox's Battle-door, 436 ; contro- 
versial works, 437 ; translates 
Penn's missive, 438 ; appeals to 
Burgomasters, 439; receives Penn 
and Fox, 440 ; accompanies Penn 
through Germany, 441; translates 
Penn's tracts, 442 ; makes sug- 
gestions to Penn, 443 ; anti- 
slavery clause, 444 ; becomes 
Penn's agent, 445 ; promotes 
German emigration, 446 ; trans- 
lates Penn's account, 446 ; ap- 
points Jansen attorney, 447 ; 
revokes in favor of Falkner, 448; 
letters, 449 ; trouble with cor- 
respondents, 450 ; correspon- 
dence with Locke, 451 ; status as 
Quaker, 452 ; bibliography, 453 ; 
personal description, 453 ; library, 
454: sale of library, 458; tomb, 459. 

Furly, Benjohan, 434, 458. 
Dorothy, 436. 
" John, 436, 458. 

Gronovium, Herr, 456. 

Garrett, Mary, marries Able Noble, 

Geiger, Valentine, 321. 

Geissler, Daniel, buys land, 108, 
115; chosen crier of the court, 
170; crier, 172, 196; autograph 
of, 246 ; mention of, 246 ; famu- 
lus to Kelpius, 247, 339, 404, 405, 
420, 427. 

Geistreiches Gesang Buck, 344, 

General Assembly at Philadelphia, 

Gerber, Elizabeth, 226 ; letter to, 

Gerichtsbuch, Germantown, 146. 

German Baptists, mention of, 4. 

German students, 30. 

German, Seventh Day Baptists, 

German Society, seal of, 249. 

Germantown (Germanople), 35 ; 
township, history of, 146; battle 
of, 422. 

Ghostly legends, 421. 

Gichtelians, 47. 

Giostason, Hans, 129. 

Glaucha, sketch of, 59. 

Glaubens Gespr'ache mitt God, 61. 

Gloria Dei, 31 ; in 1700, 138 ; in 
1895, 143 ; consecrated, 144 ; loca- 
tion of, 140 ; ordination at, 353. 

Gnostic Heresies, 62. 

God Loving Soul, the Contented of , 
the, 81. 

Gole, J., 432. 

Gookin, Gov. Chas., 316. 

Gottesfreunde, 52. 



Graef, Abraham, op. de., 172. 
Graigne, Dorothe, 434. 
Greening, Rev. James, 399. 
Grondlycke Onderricht, 367 ; title, 

368 ; fac-simile of hymn, 370. 
Growden, Joseph, 316. 
Gruber, John, 340. 
Gud's Ahra's Huus, 144. 
Gustavus Adolphus, 69; autograph, 



Hackensack, baptism at, 376 ; fac- 
simile of entry, 377. 

Halberstadt, rally at, 258. 

Halle Orphanage, 55, 57. 
" University, jubilee of, 97. 

Hallische Nachrichten, quoted, 5, 

Halwegen, 220, 221. 

Hammond, Rev. J. P., 426. 

Hanover (Germany), orphanage at, 
296 ; arms of, 296. 

Hanover, N. J., Church, 324, 325. 

Hardick, Gerritge, 383. 

Hark, Rev. J. Max, mention of, 5. 

Hartmann, Dr. Frantz, quoted, 37. 

Hartmann, Magister-buch, 223. 

Hartwig, Rev. J. A. Christoph, 
mention of, 3. 

Herbs, medicinal cultivated, 75. 

Helmstadt, 150. 

Hendrick, Gerhardt, 149. 

Hendrick, Jan, 364. 

Henkel, Gerhard, 321. 

Hentz, Pieter, 385. 

Hermit Lane, 203, 206, 215. 

Hemskirck, Egbert, 432. 

Hermitage, the, 205, 210, 211, 215. 

Hermit Spring, 203, 212, 297. 

Hermit Run, 214. 

Hermetic arts, 109, nr. 

Hessian camp, 213 ; soldiers, 423. 

Hesselius, Rev. Samuel, 321. 
Hexenmeister, 121, 413, 414. 
Hexenstab, 113. 
Hildeburn, Chas. R., mention of, 

Hiscox, William, 137, 163. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

13 ; mentioned, 95. 
Historia Civitatis Erffurtensis, 

quoted, 21. 
Hochenau, Hochmann von, 51, 54. 
Hoes, Rev. Roswell Randall, 317. 
Hoesan, Niclas von, 384. 
Holgate, Matthew, 340, 206. 
Holy Lamp, gr. 
Holt, Adam, 417. 
Holt, James, 263. 
Hoppin, Anna E., 321. 
Horbius, J. H., 51, 60, 258. 
Horologium Achaz, 1 14, 194. 
Horoscope, an old, 155, 109, 112; 

cast for SwedisH Church, 116 ; 

practiced by Dr. Witt, 413. 
Horremann, Hugo, 112. 
Houlgate, Mathew, 206. 
House of Peace, 87. 
Hubbard, Samuel, 137. 
Huebner, Ludwig, 397. 
Huis, Susanna, 435. 
Hutchison, George, 268. 
Hymnal, manuscript, Zionitic, 346. 
Hymn book, Kelpius, 234. 
Hymns, Falkner's, 347. 

Indians, conversion of, 83; converts, 

Ulumanati, 37. 

Im Gebirge, church at, 324, 25, 31. 
Innocents' Day, 174. 
Inguisito, an Ethicus, etc., 222. 
Irenia, 87. 
Isaacs, Jacob, 66; (see VanBebber). 



Jaarboekje, Rotterdatnsch, 433, 435. 

Jabetz, Prior (Rev. Peter Miller), 5 ; 
248, 396. 

Jawert, Balthasar, 169. 

Jawert, Johann, 145, 146; chosen 
recorder, 170; attorney, 173, 171; 
recorder, 172, 307, 312 ; auto- 
graph letter, 313. 

Jansenites, 105. 

Jansen, Tiberius, Joseph, Imitry 
and Alice, 108. 

Jansen, Cornelius, 105. 

Jansen, press at Amsterdam, 106. 

Jansen (Johnson), Tiberius, in. 

Jansen, Reynier, 100, 102, 105, 108, 
162, 164, 308, 9, 337, 404, 447. 

Jeffries, Capt. William, 446. 

Jennett, John, 206, 207. 

Jennings, Samuel, 280. 

Jerger, George, 321. 

Jewel caskets of moral verses, 100. 

John of Saxony, 67. 

Johnson, Richard, 415. 

Jonas, organist at Wicacoa, 354. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 30, 77. 

Jones, Griffith, 262. 

Julian Hymnology, 346. 


Kabbala, quoted, 62. 

Kabbalistic Philosophy, account of, 

Kabbala Denudata, 235. 

Kalverak, church at, 326. 

Kasner, Johannes, 323. 

Kasner, Peter, 331. 

Keen, Malz, 350. 

Keith, George, 67, 75 ; catechism, 
75, 85, 86, 159, 164, 260 ; sketch 
of, 273 ; directs Rudmann to as- 
sume charge, 476. 

Keithians, 67, 68. 

Keithian controversy, 85 ; congre- 
gation under Koster, 126 ; meet- 
ings decline, 164 ; Quakers, 277. 

Kelp, Pfarrer George, 220, 221. 

Kelp, George, 221 224 ; sketch of, 

Kelp, Johannes, 221. 

Kelp, Martin, 221, 223, 224. 

Kelp von Sternberg, 219, 224. 

Kelpius, Johannes, mention of, 4, 6; 
returns thanks, 12; reports to 
Royal Commissioners of Mary- 
land, 12 ; diary of, 13 ; fac-simile 
of first page, 14 ; corresponds 
with Deichmann, 16 ; has an 
inward prompting, 17 ; holds 
thanksgiving services, 18 ; sends 
letter to Germany, 18 ; sails from 
Deal, 19; writes to Licentat 
Schmaltz, and friends in Ger- 
many, 21 ; asked to abandon his 
project, 21 ; refuses advice, 22 ; 
writes life, on shipboard, 22 ; 
diary quoted, 24, 25, 27 ; lands 
at Bohemia landing, 27 ; mention 
of, 39, 54, 66, 69 ; "Woman in the 
Wilderness," 78; attempts to 
bring about an evangelical union, 
78 ; Philologus, 79 ; educational 
movements, 83 ; peacemaker, 84 ; 
disagrees with Koster, 87, 88, 95, 
101, 102; letter to Mumford, 129; 
Journal quoted, 129, 136, 138 ; 
educational labors, 140, 142 ; 
estrangement with Penn, 150, 153; 
deceived, 157, 158 ; now deceased 
192, 200; cave of, 207, 211, 212, 
213, 214 ; autograph, 219 ; arms, 
219 ; antecedents of, 221 ; enters 
school, 221 ; Thesis, 221 ; Magis- 
ter, 221 ; Scylla Theologica, 222 ; 
Inquisito, an Ethicus, 222 ; meet 
Zimmermann, 223 ; Baron, 224 ; 



Journal, 225 ; Diarium, 226 ; 
Biorck letter, 228; Fabricus 
letter, 229 ; illness of, 245 : Muh- 
lenberg's account of death, 246 ; 
curious legend, 247 ; burial of, 
247 ; eulogy of, 249 ; refuses to 
act, 170 ; renunciation, 171 ; re- 
fuses honors, 177 ; piety of, 166, 
178 ; writes hymns, 179 ; taken 
to Warmer's house, 179; descrip- 
tion of, 243 ; affection of eyelid, 
243; refused to enter controversy, 
301, 308, 336 ; Wicacoa, 354, 392, 

399. 43°- 

Kelpius' Cave, description of, 244. 

Kemler, Johannes, 169. 

KercketirBoeck of N. Y. church, 
361 ; first entry in, 362 ; Falkner 
autograph, 363, 374; title, 375; 
first communicants, 379 ; marri- 
age of Falkner, fac-simile, 383. 

Keurlis, Peter, 172. 

Keyser, Andrew, 417. 

Keyser, Jacob, 424. 

Keyser, Peter, 175. 

Keyser, Pieter, 404. 

Kintika, an Indian feast, 150, 230. 

Kirchen-buch, Lutheran, 346. 

Kirchen & Ketzer Historia, 315. 

Kirchweih, at Wicacoa, 144, 145. 

Klever, Peter, 108. 

Klinken, Aret, Bailiff, 172, 175. 

Knoll, Rev., 385. 

Knorr, John George, 414, 472. 

Knorr von Rosenroth, 235. 

Know thyself, motto, 249. 

Kocherthal, Rev. Josua, 325, 331, 
37i, 373, 382 ; Sybilla Charlotta, 
382 ; Louisa Abigail, 382. 

Konig, Simon, 198. 

Koster, Henrich Bernhard, excom- 
municates Falkner, 27 ; mention 
of, 39 ; Croese, 45, 46 ; holds 

Lutheran services, 16 ; copy of 
Augsburg Confession, 66 ; trans- 
fers English services to Philadel- 
phia, 68 ; sends for Bibles, 68, 69; 
frequent services, 79 : extends, his 
ministrations, 85, 86 ; disagrees 
with Kelpius, 87 ; brethern in 
America, 87 ; Irenia, 87 ; adheres 
to Lutheran doctrine. 87 ; De 
Resurrectione Imperii, 88 ; title, 
90 ; quotation from, 92 ; departs 
for Europe, 143, 159 ; biographi- 
cal sketch of, 251 ; mention of, 
164 ; parentage, 254 ; education, 
255 ; as a pedagogue, 255 ; en- 
gages with Baron Schwerin, 255 ; 
studies Walton's Polyglot, 256 ; 
translates the Old Testament, 257; 
joins Collegia Pietatis, 258; rallies 
at Magdeburg, 258 ; erudition, 
259 ; orthodoxy of, 259 ; remark- 
able memory of, 260 ; spiritual 
director of pilgrims, 260 ; foun- 
ding of Christ Church, 261 ; sends 
to England for Bibles, 261 ; "the 
brethern in America," 266; "true 
Church in Philadelphia," 266; 
prints the first German book in 
America, 266, 279 ; the Yearly 
Meeting at Burlington, 267 ; Ros- 
ter's account, 267 ; arraignment 
of the Quakers, 269, 270 ; exhor- 
tation, 271 ; leaves the meetings 
271 ; publishes his History of 
the Protestation, 272 ; baptizes 
the Keithians, 275 ; exorcism of 
the Quaker Spirit, 276 ; adminis- 
ters the Eucharists, 277 ; de- 
nounces Pastorius, 278 ; chal- 
lenges the Quakers, 279 : com- 
poses Latin thesis, 284 ; organizes 
Christ Church congregation, 286; 
Society for the Propagation of 



the Gospel, 286; preaches in 
English and German, 288; ad- 
vises and coaches Clayton, 287 ; 
returns to Europe, 289 ; arrives 
at London, 290; publishes a 
book against the Quakers, 290 ; 
upholds Oliver Pauli, 291 ; publish- 
es his Latin thesis in Lemgo, 291 ; 
his travels through Europe, 291-2; 
Berleburg, 292 ; publishes his 
greatest work, 293 ; fac-simile of 
title, 293 ; the Alpha and Omega, 
294 ; poetical powers, 294 ; the 
mystery of the Triad, 295 ; enters 
the Orphanage at Hanover, 296 ; 
solves the problem of human life, 
296 ; retires to Nordheim, 297 ; 
death of and burial, 297 ; fac- 
simile of hymn, 298 ; controversy 
with Quakers, 301, 304, 430. 
Kretchmann, Rev. E. T., quoted, 

Kiister family, the, 254. 

" Johann, 254. 

Ludolph, 254, 259, 435- 
Kunders, Dennis, 172. 
Kundert Tennis, 65. 
Kurtze anleitung zum Gebet, 102. 

Labadists, a sect, 4. 

Ladiver, Elias, 224. 

Lagrangie, Hannes, 329. 

La Grangie, Hanns, 364. 

Lamenting Voice, the, 236. 

Lapis Philosophorum, in. 

Laurea, 153, 244. 

Lauterbach, Tob. Ad., letter to, 18, 

Lawrence, Thomas, 449. 
Leade, Jane, 15, 304. 
Le Brun, Joh., 169. 
Leclerc, 434. 

Leeds, Almanac for 1700, 127. 

Legend, a curious, 151 ; an inter- 
esting, 195. 

Leibert, Wm, 234. 

Leibert family, 424. 

Leibnitz, 61. 

Lerfner, Maximilian, 445. 

Lesher's Inn, 65. 

Levering family, 106. 

Levering Wigert, 338. 

Levering, William, 338, 339, 340. 

Leverington Cemetery, 338. 

Liberty lands claimed, 173. 

Library, Royal Wiirtemberg, no. 

Lidenius, Rev. Abraham, 129. 

Liedersegen, Unverf'alschter, 346. 

Limborch, Phillipus, 434, 454, 455. 

Lippard, George, note of, 71. 

Lloyd, David, 174, 314, 315, 316, 
318, 348, 349. 

Lloyd, Governor, 32. 

Locke, John, 442, 451, 452. 

Lock, Rev., 69, 252. 

Longfellow quoted, 116. 

Loonenburg, 371 ; baptism at, 381. 

Lovelace, Gov. Francis, 252. 

Loving Moan (hymn), 241. 

Lowther, George, 312. 

Liitke, Daniel, 39. 

Luther, Martin, 67. 

Luther's hymns, 369. 

Lutheran congregation at Falkner 
Swamp, 177 ; oldest in America, 

Lutheran ritual, 68 ; records, New 
Jersey, 323 ; services held, 66 ; 
Swedish, 252 ; Quaker opposi- 
tion to, 263 ; as bad as heathens, 


Madai, Prof., 112. 
Mack, Alexander, 399. 
Mack, Martin, 396. 



Mac Namara, Thomas, 315. 

Macrocosm, 132 ; appears to Dr. 
Faustus, 133. 

Magdeburg, rally at, 258 ; arms ofi 

Mahomed, 187. 

Manuscripts, Pastorius, 157. 

Manatawany tract located, 177, 317; 
settlement of, 348, 349. 

Manayunk bridge, 207. 

Mann, Rev. J. W., mention of, 5. 

Markham, Gov. Wm., 30, 31, 32, 94. 

Martin, Frederick, 6. 

Maryland, report to Royal Com- 
missioners, 12. 

Mastricht, Gerhard von, 169. 

Matrix, universal, 86. 

Matthai, Conrad, 112, 147, 196, 197, 
199, 200, 201, 214, 234, 336, 339 ; 
a conspicuous figure, 388 ; Magis- 
ter, 388 ; portrait, 389 ; anchorite 
hut of, 390 ; counsels Biessel and 
widow Eckerling, 391 ; visits to 
Ephrata, 392 ; estrangement with 
Beissel, 392 ; reconciliation, 392 ; 
practices white magic, 393 ; com- 
munication, with spirits, 393 ; 
trance and claravoyance, 394 ; 
visits Moravian School, 395 ; In- 
dian converts, 396 ; solemn inter- 
view, 396 ; visited by Moravian 
evangelists, 397 ; ditto Mystics 
from Ephrata, 397 ; wos macht 
ein Kreutz luft Vogelein, 398 ; 
death, 399 ; burial at feet Kelpius, 
399 ; Christopher Sauer, 400 ; a 
Moravian tribute, 401, 430. 

Matthai, George Henrich, 390. 

Matthaeus, Johannes, 462. 

Maul-Christen, 150. 

Maxon, Bro., 164. 

Mazdeism, 62. 

Meels, Hans Gerry, 175. 

Meetings, silent, 65. 
Meerkamp, mention of, 22. 
Mehls, Johann Henry, 172, 173 ; 

justice, 175. 
Meine Hoffnung stehet veste, 344. 
Melan, Matthis, 404. 
Melanchton, Rev. Phillip, 67. 
Memorial, Moravian Sesqui-Cen- 

tennial, 6. 
Menonite services, 65, 197, 200. 
Menno, Simon, 140. 
Mennonites first in Pennsylvania, 4. 
Menstrum universale, 11 1. 
Merlau, Johanna von, 51, 60, 61, 

3°4, 445- 
Mess-hemd, 356. 
Metemptosis, 233. 
Meyer, William, 91. 
Mid-Summer day, 156. 
Millennium, 233. 
Miller, Heinrich, 105. 
Miller, Rev. Peter, 5 ; (see Prior 

Jaebetz), 396. 
Millstone, 324. 
Ministering Friends, action of, 280 ; 

extract, 281. 
Minute Book " G," 145. 
Miracles and signs, 185, 188. 
Mithraic symbol, 83. 
Molinos, Miguel de, 131, 52. 
Momford, Stephen, letter to, 129, 

136, 137, 138. 
Monad, description of, 39. 
Monastic names, 79. 
Monastery on Wissahickon, 71, 201, 

213, 392- 
Moravians, come to Pennsylvania, 

5; missions of, 6; visits from, 396; 

evangelist, 397 ; diary extract 

from, 400-1 ; first evangelist, 6 ; 

church, 7 ; early in Pennsylvania, 

117 ; records, 201. 
Morris, Elizabeth C, 425-6. 



Morris family, 425. 

Moore, John, 263. 

Moses in the Wilderness, 185. 

Mount Misery, 423, 427. 

Miihlstein, church at, 324. 

Miiller, George, of Duisberg, 307. 

Muhlenberg, Rev. Henry Melchior, 
57; mention Seelig, 75, 148; men- 
tion of, 194 ; account of Kelpius' 
death, 246, 322, 337. 

Mumford, Step., 226. 

Murphy, Rev. J. K., 425, 8. 

Musical Services, 71. 

Mystical theology, Molinos', 131. 

Mystics, 37. 

Mystic fires, 152 ; numbers, theory 
of, 39- 

Mystics on the Wissahickon, 127. 

Mystic Seal, the, 121. 

Mysterious casket, the, 247. 


Natales Saxonum, 224. 

Nativities, casting of, 113. 

Neile, Hugh, 414. 

Neisser, Geo., 6, 338; portrait, 401. 

New Castle, Del., arrival at, 12. 

Neu-geborene, a sect, 5. 

New Hanover, 319. 

Newport, R. I., church, 136, 137. 

New Prophets (Adventists), 456. 

Nickolai, hymn, 283. 

Nicholson, Gov. Francis, 127, 284. 

Nitschmann, 338; portrait, 401. 

Nitschmann, Bishop David, 6. 

Noah's Dove, 127. 

Noah's Dove, a counter pamphlet, 

Noble, Able, sketch of, 126. 
Noble, William, Richard, Able, 125. 
Nordheim, 297. 
Norris, Issac, 174, 348, 349. 
Nothing (no-thing), 64. 


Oath of Allegiance taken, 31. 

Obituary, Dr. Wilt, 416. 

Occult ceremonies, 120 ; rites, 7. 

Old Shrunk, 124. 

"Old St. David's," 160. 

Old Swedes Records, Wilmington, 

31. 32- 
Organ in Gloria Dei, 354; Dr. 

Witt's, 418; organist "Jones," 

Orphanage at Hanover, 259. 
Orthodox Friends, 85, 86. 
Oxford, 164; church, 277. 


Pallmer, Hesther, 191 ; epistle to, 

179, 226. 
Palmer, Joseph, 179. 
Pannebecker, Henry, 320. 
Paradiesische Nadits Tropfen, 346. 
Paradox and Seldom Contentment 

(hymn), 239. 
Parasang (a measure), 227, 
Paschal Lamb, mention of, 6. 
Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 35, 60, 
69 ; sketch of, 88, 96 ; old papers, 
145 ; manuscripts, 157 ; deposed, 
168 ; corporation clerk, 172 ; 
quoted, 266, 267 ; denounced, 
278 ; answers Koster, 280 ; Re- 
buke printed, 282 ; petition to, 
283 ; counsels forbearance, 283, 
307 ; autograph, 308 ; fac-simile, 
310, 315 ; report against, 317, 328 ; 
Bee Hive, 445, 446. 
Patents, for land claimed, 174. 
Payne, Capt, Mathew, 125. 
Payne, Jasper, 397. 
Pemberton, John, 105. 
Pemberton, MSS., 44. 
Pemberton, Phineas, 260 ; account 
of controversy, 272. 




Pennepack, Baptist congregation, 
30 ; Sabbatarians at, 164. 

Pennypacker, Hon. S. W., quoted, 
4, 13, 66, 79 ; mention of, 108 ; 
map, 208 ; quoted, 308, 315. 

Pennsylvania Magazine of History, 
quoted, 4, 35, 74. 

Pennsylvania Gazette, 416. 

Pennsylvania Hospital,- 417. 

Pennsylvania Pilgrim, poem, 250. 

Pennsylvanische Berichte, 400. 

Penn Manuscripts, 443. 

Penn, William, 28, 32, 47, 145, 146, 
147, 176, 171, 206, 230, 407, 435, 
439. 44i, 445 I visit in 1701, 150, 
151 ; preaches in Germantown, 
149 ; mention of, 262 ; portrait, 

Penns-neck, 142. 

Penny-Pot House Landing, 275. 

Perfect number, the, 40. 

Perfection, Chapter of, 37, 38, 60. 

Perry's Historical Collections, 
quoted, 287. 

Peterborough, Earl of, 458. 

Peterson, Elias, 79. 

Petersen, Joh. Wil., 51, 60, 146, 169; 
hymn, 347. 

Petschaft, magic, 123. 

Philadelphianism, 131, 132. 

Philadelphic Society, 97. 

Philadelphiac love, 232. 

Philadelphiac word, 264. 

Philadelphists in England, 15. 

Philosophers, stoic, quoted, 248. 

Philosophical Society, London, 230. 

Phipps, William, 138. 

Phlelotomy, 116. 

Physick, Dr., 429. 

Pickel, John Balthazer, 331. 

Pietists, 37 ; Chapter of, 43 ; 
described, 47; movement spreads, 
58 ; crusade against, 95 ; labors 

of, 96, 131, 132, 148 ; arrive from 

Halle, 141. 
Pieter, Christian, baptized, 381. 
Pilgrims, bands of, 11. 
Plymouth, Eng., 142. 
Polyglot, Walton's, 256, 259. 
Potts, John, 321. 
Potts, Jones, sheriff, 172. 
Power of attorney to Falkner, 145 ; 

to Kelpius, Falkner and Jawert, 

Presbyterian services, 140. 
Price, Jeremiah, 263. 
Prima Materia, defined, 37 ; sym- 
bol, 84. 
Process of Love (hymn), 237. 
Proclamation against immorality, 

Propagation Society, documents, 

quoted, 315, 317. 
Prowattain, Evan, 205, 210. 
Providence, a vessel, 22 ; joins in 

pursuit, 23. 
Provincial Council, 30. 
Puritans, 37, 38. 
Pusey, Caleb, 106. 


Quaker's meeting, the, 432. 
Quakers, in Holland, 43 ; Christian, 

Quarry, Col. Robert, 284. 
Quietists, 52. 
Quietism, 131, 132. 


Rabbis Kabbalistic, 40. 
Racheway (Rockaway), 324, 25, 30. 
Racoon church in N. J., 127, 128, 129 
Radnor congregation, 477. 
Radnor, Welsh tract, 160; church 

at, 160. 
Rambo, Peter, 350. 
Raritan church, 324. 



Rathelf, Rev. Ernst Ludwig, quoted 
68, 87, 259, 260, 273, 286, 287, 277, 

Ratkungs Hook, 129. 

Rauch, Christian Henry, 6. 

Records, Moravian, 215. 

Records, Sabbatarian, quoted, 105. 

Reformed services, 66 ; German, 67. 

Reinecke, Katherine, 304. 

Religious services, 67 ; English and 
German, 67 ; English transferred 
to Philadelphia, 68 ; earliest in 
Pennsylvania, 69 ; described, 78 ; 
frequent, 79. 

Remmersbach, church at, 324. 

Reproduction, photographic, 212. 

Restitution of All Things, doctrine 
of, 231- 

Richards, John F., 321. 

Richardson, John, journal of, 150. 

Ridge, 70 ; house built on, 70. 

Righter, (Richter) Daniel, 210. 

Righter Ferry, 207. 

Righter (Richter), Michael, 206, 207. 

Righter (Richter), Peter, 207, 210. 

Righter (Richter), Phoebe, 210, 390. 

Rock House, the, 149. 

Rocksborrow, 191. 

Rocksbury, 200. 

Rodgerines, 161. 

Rodgers, John, visit of, 162, 163. 

Rosicrucians in Philadelphia, 4 ; 
philosophy, 7 ; secret symbols, 
7, 37 ; community, 38 ; true, 62 ; 
epitome, 63 ; fraternity, 71 ; sym- 
bolism, 71 ; symbol, 71 ; theos- 
ophy, 76, 77 ; MSS., 83. 

Rosicrucian speculations, 252. 

Ross, Rev. George, 155. 

Rotterdam, arms of, 258 ; shipping 
lists, 193. 

Royal Public Lib'y, Stuttgart, 223. 

Royal Society of London, 118. 

Roxborough, 337. 

Rudmann, Rev. Andreas, 94 ; first 
service, 94 ; visits Germantown, 
95, 126, 127, 144 ; testimonial to, 
155. 156, 158, 226, 343, 349, 350 ; 
autograph letter, 352 ; ordains 
Justus Falkner, 353 ; autograph, 
360 ; as Suffragan, 355 ; appealed 
to, 365, 473 ; birth, 473 ; selected 
by the Consistorium for the 
American missions, 474; accept- 
ance, 475 ; presents and well 
wishes from the King, 476 ; 
arrival at Wicacoa, 476 ; serves 
Christ Church, 476 ; Radnor and 
Oxford, 477 ; intolerance of au- 
thorities, 477 ; proceedings before 
council, 478 ; trials and sufferings, 
479 ; last letter to England, 480 ; 
death and burial, 481. 

Rudmann, Gertrude, 481. 

Rudmann, Anna Catherina, 481. 

Rutter, Thomas (Pastor), 126, 159, 
267, 277, 278. 


Sabbath kept, 83. 

Sabbatarian doctrine, 126 ; move- 
ment, 125 ; New England records, 
105 ; tendencies, 129 ; in Rhode 
Island and Connecticut, 129 ; 
visits of, 161, 163. 

Sabbatarians in Pennsylvania, 415. 

Sabbath keepers, 159. 

Sacraments Verachter, 148. 

Sacred numbers, origin of, 39. 

Saltonstall, Gov., 162. 

Sandel, Rev. Andreas, 129 ; diary 
of, 129, 153, 158, 319 ; autograph 
of, 320, 343, 349, 350 ; Sabbatarian 
doctrine, 350, 351, 353, 355, 356 ; 
autograph, 360, 384, 476, 7, 478, 
481, 182. 



Sara Maria, ship, 1 1 ; enters Chesa- 
peake bay, 12, 25, 30 ; Capt. Tan- 
ner, 16 ; runs on a sand bank, 17 ; 
floats, 17 ; mention of, 179, 259, 

Satan's Harbinger Encountered, 

Sauer, Christopher, prints Paradis 

G'artlein, 3 ; pietistical creed, 54, 

79. 105, 130 ; almanac, 130. 
Schadeus, John L., 54. 
Schaffer, Peter, 141 ; schoolmaster 

at Wicacoa, 142. 
Schatz kastlein, 100 ; fac-similes of, 

101, 102. 
Scharfenstein, Matthais, 325. 
Schertzer, Rev., 231. 
Schissler, Christophus, 115. 
Schley dorn, Henry, 329, 30. 
Schmaltz, Joh. Gort., licentat (not 

Lieut) of Erfurth, 21 ; death and 

burial, 21; 303, 304. 
Schmidt, F. W., 220. 
Schnitzler, M., 224. 
School, early, 74. 
School-room, 71. 
Schotte, Dr., 79. 

Schott, Prof. Dr. Th., no, 119, 462. 
Schrifftmassige Anweisung, 103. 
Schuckart, Anna Maria, excommu- 
nicated, 27, 303, 304. 
Schumacher House, 149. 
Schumacher, Peter, burgess, 172 ; 

judge, 175. 
Schultz (in), Cath. Eliz., 146, 169, 

173, 174, 3°6- 
Schutz, Johann Jacob, 146. 
Schutz, Dr., 445. 

Schuylkill Ferry, trouble about, 478. 
Schwartzenauer Dunkers, 197. 
Schwenkfelders, a sect, 5 ; exiled, 

6, 200. 
Schwerin, Baron Orten von, 255,259. 

Sciopii, Gaspar, 195. 

Scriptura S. Copernisans, no. 

Scylla Theologica, 222. 

Sealy, John, " Hermit," 339. 

Secret Love (hymn), 237. 

Sect People of Pennsylvania, 1, 2. 

Sects, religious, in Pennsylvania, 
Mennonites, 4 ; Labadists, 4 ; 
Rosicrusians, 4; Pietists, 4; Dun- 
kers, 4 ; German Baptists, 5 ; 
' ' Neu-geborenen, " 5 ; " Stillen 
im Lande," 5 ; Ephrata Commu- 
nity, 5 ; Schwenkfelders, 5 ; Uni- 
tas Fratrum, or Moravians, 5. 

Sehmanni, Ambrossii, 462, 467. 

Seidensticker, Dr. Oswald, transla- 
tion by, 15, 66, 102. 

Selig, Johann, visits Deal, 18. 

Seelig, Johann, 39, 75 ; Pudens, 79, 
87, 158, 106 ; (Johann Gottfried), 
171; Magister, 196, 199, 214 ; post- 
script, 226, 234 ; becomes Magis- 
ter, 248 ; birth of, 335 ; refuses all 
honors, 336 ; declines in favor of 
Conrad Matthai, 336 ; works at 
bookbinding, 337 ; instructs the 
youth, 337 ; austerity, 337 ; retires 
to cabin on Levering farm, 338 ; 
visited by Moravian Evangelist, 
338 ; death and burial, 339 ; last 
testament, 340, 430. 

Sendschreiben, by Daniel Falkner, 
13 ; title, 15 ; quoted, 35, 68, 74. 

Separatists, 161, 197, 199, 344. 

Septuagint translation, new, 257. 

Services, public, 67. 

Settlers, renew their fealty, 253. 

Seventh anniversary, 151. 

Seventh Day Baptist Church, in 
America, 137 ; memorial Phila- 
delphia, 140 ; atSquan, N. J., 166. 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 451, 458. 

Sharpe, Rev. John, 382. 



Shippen, Edward, 141 ; Rebecca, 

Shipping lists, old, 193. 

Shoemaker, Isaac, 149. 

Shoemaker, T. H., 65. 

Sidney, Algernon, 443, 451. 

Sievert, Nachrichten, 220. 

Slate-roof House, 151. 

Sluyter, Petrus, 4. 

Smith, Mathew, vs. Falkner, 174. 

Smith, Rev., 155. 

Solomon, seal of, 125. 

Sommerhausen, 70. 

Sonnen-rad, a symbol, 72. 

Sonnenwend feuer, 34, 120. 

Song, Comfortable and Encour- 
aging, 191. 

Sophar, 89. 

Spangenberg, Rev. Joseph, 6, 199, 

Spener, Rev. P. J., 49, 60, 61, 303, 

3°5, 445- 
Spook Hill, 422, 430. 
Springer, Charles Christopher, 264; 

holds services, 265. 
Sprogel, Pastor, 304. 
Sprogel, John Henry, 145, 171, 194, 

314 ; sells land to Evan Evans, 

318, 320, 328, 341 ; autograph, 

Sprogel, J. H. Jr., 321. 
Sprogel, Johanna Christiana, 321. 
Sprogel, Ludovic Christian, 194 ; 

sells organ, 354. 
Square and triad, 152. 
Standerwick, Samuel, at Deal, 18. 
Sternberg family, 224. 
Sternwarte on Wissahickon, 71 ; 

vigils in, no; abandoned, 177. 
Stiefel, Johann George, 198. 
Stillen im Lande, a sect, 5. 
St. John's Day, 35 ; natal days, 36. 
St. John's eve, services upon, 34 ; 

ceremonies on, 120 ; the seventh, 

St. Matthew's Church, New York, 

366, 373. 
St. Michael's Church, Philadelphia, 

57 ; remedies sold at, 57. 
St. Michael's P. E. Church, Ger- 

mantown, 427, 430. 
St. Thomas, petition to, 365. 
Stone, Fdk. D., Litt. D., com- 
ments, 443. 
Stoltze, Prof., 112. 
Storch, Arnold, 145, 173, 174, 341, 

3°6, 307. 
Story, Thomas, Journal of, 151. 
Stos, Pfarrer, 255. 
Stover, Casper, 329. 
Strepers, William, Burgess, 172. 
Streit, Christian, 382 ; Maria Mag- 

dalena, 382. 
Stubs. John, 436. 
Stuntz, Jacob, 198. 
Stuntz, Johann, 391. 
Sturm, David, 385. 
Subscription list, fac-simile of, 

Suggestions to Penn, 443. 
Sunday legislation, pernicious, 8. 
Superstitions, local, 120 ; English, 

Svedberg, Rev. Jesper, 93. 
Swebilius, Archbishop Olof, 473. 
Swedes and Finns, 142. 
Swedish Lutherans, persecution of, 

Swedish pastors, 155. 
Swert, Cornelius, Bailiff, 172. 
Symbol, Ephrata, 93. 
Symbol, Esoteric, 86 ; Rosicrucian, 

Symbolism, Esoteric, 71. 
Synod, first Pennsylvania, 199. 
Synod, Germantown, 396. 




Tabernacle, services at, 78 ; conse- 
cration of, 85 ; visitors at, 126 : 
school at, 140, 151 ; celebration 
at, 155, 213; picture of, 204; loca- 
tion of, 205. 

Talbot, Rev. John, 160. 

Tailcoat, William, 440. 

Tanner, Captain of "Sara Maria," 
16, 17. 

Tauler, Johannes, 51; sketch of, 52. 

Taylor, Jacob, almanac, in. 

Tays, Johann Phillip, 382 ; Chris- 
tine, Eliz., 382. 
Tetragrammaton, 40. 

Teufels-bursche, 414. 

Teutonists, 47. 

Thanksgiving, a Pietistical, 95. 

Theosophical light, 77. 
Theologies Naturalis, 221. 

Theosophical Sophia, 148. 

Third State, the, 189. 

Thomas, an Indian slave, 380; bap- 
tized, 381. 

Thomas, Gabriel, 288. 

Thomas, Schoolmaster, 350. 

Thomasius, P. R., 343. 

Three-fold Wilderness State, 226. 

Tolstadius, 156. 

Timotheus, Brother, 399. 

Transylvania, 220. 

Trappe, Montgomery Co., Pa., 57 ; 
church, 97. 

Trewalla, James, 263. 

Triad, explanation of, 40. 

Trinity Church, Wilmington, cor- 
ner-stone laid, 128. 

Trinity Church, Oxford, 159. 

Trinity (N. Y.) Church Records, 334. 

Tritheim zettel, 122. 

True Church of Philadelphia, 87, 88. 

Tucher, Joh. C, 223. 

Tubingen, school at, 221. 


Uffenbach, Zacharias von, 115 ; me- 
moirs of, 224, 259, 435, 453. 456, 

Ulhegius, 141. 

Ulstadius, 141. 

Unschuld Act, Wiirtemberg, 466. 

Unitas Fratrum, 5, 200, 398. 

University at Erfurth, 303. 

University at Halle, 59 ; sketch of, 

59, 343- 
Utley, Richard Rev., 397. 
Uylekil, church at, 324. 


Valley of the Hudson, 155. 

Van Bebber, Jacob Isaac, 35 ; Luth- 
eran services, 66 ; Jacob Isaacs, 
66, 198, 252, 402. 

Van der Looft, Gottlieb, 147. 

Van de Walle, Jacobus, 445, 450. 

Van Diren controversy, 328. 

Veins, described, 117. 

Veller, Prof., quoted, 130. 

Vesey, Rev. William, marries Falk- 
ner, 383. 

Vettekeiicken, Symon Jansz, 439, 
440 ; Mariecke, 446. 

Vicaris, Richard, 206. 

Vicaris, Robert, 206. 

Vicaris, Thos. B., 206. 

Viet, Joh. , 364. 

Vinegar Hill, 425. 

Vinning, Capt., 323. 

Vining, Captain, report to Gover- 
nor, 317. 

Virginal, Dr. Witt's, 418. 

Vital religion promoted, 70. 

Vogelsang, Pastor, 254. 

Voice of Hidden Love, (hymn), 

Votum in New York Register, 




Wade, Rev. John, 397. 
Wagner, Michael, 315. 
Waldenfield, Samuel, 18. 
Walle, Jacob van de, 168 ; widow 

of, 169, 306. 
Walle, Maria van de, 169. 
Walton, Brian, sketch of, 256. 
Walton's Polyglot, 256, 259. 
Warmer, Christian, 1 178, 403, 404, 

will, 404, 419 ; family, 244 ; auto- 
graph of, 245. 
Warmer, Christian, 2 406, 414, 424, 

Warmer, Christian, 3 415, 418. 
Warmer, Christiana, 403, 404. 
Warmer, Elizabeth, 403, 424. 
Warmer, George, 403. 
Warmer, Lydia (Powell), 424. 
Warmer, Christopher, 424. 
Warmer, Jonathan, 424, 428. 
Warner, vide Warmer, 419. 
Water baptism, 183. 
Watson, J. F., quoted, 65, 102. 
Webster, Geo. S., map of, 209. 
Wees, William de, Sheriff, 175. 
Weib in der Wiiste, (Woman in the 

Wilderness), 81. 
Welser von Neunhoff, 223. 
Welsh tract, 174. 
Welsh services, 261 ; prevented 

from attending church services 

Westerly Church, R. I., 163; records 

of, 163 ; conference, 164. 
Whitpain House, 34. 
Whitpain, Robert, 32. 
Whitefield, Rev. George, 6. 
Whitehead, George, 438. 
Whittier, quoted, 250. 
Wicacoa, Swedish block-house at, 

30 ; church, 69 ; meaning of, 94 ; 

foundation stone laid, 116, 140, 

157; schoolmaster at, 142 ; church 
at, 178 ; church, 202. 

Widow, a devout, 75. 

Widow, two lonesome, 191. 

Wierd tales, 7. 

Wiegner, Christopher, 6. 

Wright, Martha, 458. 

Wilderness State, the Threefold, 
180; Barren State, 180, 183; Fruit- 
ful State, 181, 183; Everblessed 
State, 184. 

Wilderness of the elect of God, 184. 

Wilderness time, 191. 

William and Mary, 32. 

Wingohocking, 70. 

Wissahickon, meaning of, 70, 72, 
74 ; Swedish Pastors visit, 95 ; 
community on, 157. 

Wister, Chas.J., 234. 

Witchcraft in Germantown, 724. 

Witherholtz, Charles, 414. 

Witt, Dr. Christopher, 102, 115, 124, 
147. 196, 339. 399, 4°2; autograph, 
403 ; retires to Germantown, 403 ; 
purchases land, 404 ; deeds it 
to Christian Warmer, 404 ; exe- 
cutor of Widow Zimmermann, 
405 ; death of Geissler, 406 ; 
bequest of C. Warmer, (2), 406; 
established first botanical garden 
in America, 406 ; intimacy with 
John Bartram, 407 ; Peter Collin- 
son, 409 ; correspondence, 409, 
410, 4ri ; builds first stone house, 
411 ; botanizes, 411 ; constructs 
ingenious clocks, 412 ; owns large 
organ, 412 ; Virginal, 412 ; as- 
tronomical research, 412 ; ob- 
serves Comet of 1743, 413 ; prac- 
tices horoscophy, 413 ; buys a 
slave, 413 ; accumulates property, 
414 ; becomes blind, 414 ; signa- 
ture, 415 ; death and burial, 415 ; 



obituary, 416 ; last will, 417 ; 
bequest to Wm. Yates, 417 ; be- 
quests to Pennsylvania hospital, 
417 ; inventory, 418 ; tradition of, 
419, 420; visits graveyard, 422, 
424, 427. 

Wolff, Rev. John August, 332. 

Woglom, Pieter von, 364, 380. 

Wohlfarth, Michael, (Welfare), 198. 

Woman in the wilderness, the, 78, 
80, 81, 84 ; explained, 130. 

Wiirtemberg, arms of, 44. 

Wiister, Johannes, 234, 393, 5, 399. 

Wulff, Paul, 172. 

Wunder-doctor, 422. 

Wunder-sigel, 122. 

Yates, William, 416. 
Yearly Meeting, extracts from min- 
utes, 105. 
Yeomans, Isabella, 440. 
York, Duke of, 125. 

Zabanius, Johann, 221, 223. 
Zenger, J. Peter, 355. 
Zimmermann, Johann Jacob, 44, 45, 
46, 47, 60 ; death of, 61 ; MSS. of, 

109, no, 119, 223, 258, 259, 472; 
Magister, 354; biography, 460; 
prophecies millenium, 467 ; de- 
nounces Christian Church as Ba- 
bel, 468 ; accused of heresy, 469 ; 
malignes Consistory, 469; charges 
and counter charges, 470; bibli- 
ography, 471 ; decendents, 472. 

Zimmerman, 2 John Jacob, 472. 

Zimmermann, Maria Margaretha, 
marries, 85, 472. 

Zimmermann, Mary Margaret, wid- 
ow, 62; Mary Margaret, daughter, 
62 : Mathew, 62 ; Jacob Christo- 
pher, 62, 472. 

Zimmermann, Phillip Christian, 62, 

Zimmermann, Maria Margaretha, 

Zimmerman, Mathias, 404. 

Zimmermann, Matthaus, 472. 

Zimmermann, Widow, 307, 405. 

Zinzendorf, Count Ludwig, 6, 199, 
200, 201, 338. 

Zionitic Brotherhood, 397, 398, 

Zionitischer WeyrauchsHugelj^S; 
fac-simile page, 345 ; title, 346, 

Zoroastrian doctrine, 62; cultus, 62.